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Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Agrária - Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias
ISSN (on line) 1981-0997
v.9, n.2, p.295-300, 2014
Recife, PE, UFRPE. www.agraria.ufrpe.br
DOI:10.5039/agraria.v9i2a3876
Protocolo 3876 - 05/09/2013 • Aprovado em 06/03/2014
Phytase and amino acids for broilers from 36 to 42 days of age
Elisangela M. Gomide
1
, Paulo B. Rodrigues
1
, Luciana de P. Naves
1
, Verônica M. P. Bernardino
1
,
Antônio G. Bertechini
1
, Edison J. Fassani
1
& Rilke T. F. de Freitas
1
ABSTRACT
The effects of the nutritional reduction of diets supplemented with phytase and amino acids provided to broilers from 36 to 42 days
of age were evaluated. Five diets were evaluated in six replicates, totaling 750 and 90 birds in the assays of performance and
metabolism, respectively. Control diet, without phytase, contained 18% of crude protein (CP), 0.386% of available phosphorus (aP)
and 0.764% of calcium (Ca). The remaining diets (0.236% of aP and 0.464% of Ca) were supplemented with phytase and amino
acids, with the CP reduced from 18 to 15%. The performance, yield and nutrient retention by the birds, besides of the energetic value
(AMEn) and metabolizability of the diets were evaluated. There was no difference in the performance, yields of carcass and cuts, and
in the AMEn. 16 and 15% of CP in the diet increased their metabolizability. The protein reduction improved N retention, but increased
abdominal fat. Phytase increased the use of P. With the phytase and amino acids supplementation, the levels of CP, aP and Ca can
be reduced to 15, 0.236 and 0.464%, respectively, without compromising on performance, yields of carcass and cuts and AMEn,
besides improve the diet metabolizability and utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Key words:
carcass yield, electrolyte balance, ideal protein, metabolism, performance
Fitase e aminoácidos para frangos de corte de 36 a 42 dias de idade
RESUMO
Objetivou-se estudar os efeitos da redução nutricional de rações suplementadas com Ftase e aminoácidos, fornecidas a frangos
de corte de 36 a 42 dias de idade. Cinco dietas foram avaliadas em seis repetições, totalizando 750 e 90 aves nos ensaios de
desempenho e metabolismo, respectivamente. A dieta controle, sem Ftase, possuía 18% de proteína bruta (PB); 0,386% de fósforo
disponível (Pdisp) e 0,764% de cálcio (Ca). As dietas restantes (0,236% de Pdisp e 0,464% de Ca) foram suplementadas com
Ftase e aminoácidos sendo a PB reduzida de 18 até 15%. Avaliaram-se desempenho, rendimento e retenção de nutrientes pelas
aves, além do valor energético (EMAn) e metabolizabilidade das rações. Não houve diferença no desempenho, no rendimentos
de carcaça nem cortes e na EMAn. 16 e 15% de PB na ração aumentaram sua metabolizabilidade. A redução proteica melhorou
a retenção de N mas aumentou a gordura abdominal. A Ftase elevou o aproveitamento do P. Com a suplementação de Ftase e
aminoácidos, os teores de PB, Pdisp e Ca podem ser reduzidos para 15; 0,236 e 0,464%, respectivamente, sem comprometer o
desempenho, rendimentos de carcaça e cortes e a EMAn, além de melhorar a metabolizabilidade da ração e o aproveitamento
do nitrogênio e fósforo.
Palavras-chave:
rendimento de carcaça, balanço eletrolítico, proteína ideal, metabolismo, desempenho
1
Universidade ±ederal de Lavras, Departamento de Zootecnia, Campus Universitário, Centro, CEP 37200-000, Lavras-MG, Brasil. Caixa Postal 37. E-mail: elis.zoo@hotmail.com;
pborges@dzo.u²a.br; luciana.naves@hotmail.com; veronicampb@gmail.com; bertechini@dzo.u²a.br; fassani@dzo.u²a.br; rilke@dzo.u²a.br
Phytase and amino acids for broilers from 36 to 42 days of age
Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Agrár. Recife, v.9, n.2, p.295-300, 2014
296
Introduction
The broiler production generates a great volume of excretas
which are normally used as fertilizers. Excretas are rich in
phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), therefore, their excessive
use may compromise the retention ability of P and N by the
soil, plants and edaphic microorganisms, unleashing the
contamination of the hydric resources by the lixiviation of
these nutrients (Fukayama et al., 2008). Thus, there is great
interest in the optimization of the poultry production with
environmental responsibility, by means of alternatives which
may minimize the environmental impact of this activity
(Bertechini, 2012).
An efFcient alternative is based on the diets formulation
with a higher precision in order to provide only what is
required by the broilers and also on the improvement of the
nutrient utilization by these animal, which results in a lower
quantity of P and N excreted (Baker, 2009). Besides the
environmental issue, the reduction of P and N rates in the
broilers feed decreases the diet cost, improving the proFtability
of the production (Selle et al., 2009).
The reduction of the excreted P is possible by decreasing the
inclusion of supplemental P source in the feed and also favoring
the exploitation of the phytate P present in the ingredients of
the diet. According to Rostagno et al. (2005), approximately
two thirds of the P in the seeds and grains are in the form of
phytate and its use requires the activity of the phytase enzyme
which is not effectively produced by the monogastric animals
(Han et al., 2009). Thus, microbial phytases are added to the
broilers diet and studies (Silva et al., 2008; Gomide et al.,
2011; Naves et al., 2014) demonstrate the beneFts of its use.
Similarly, an effective way to decrease the N excretion is
to reduce the crude protein (CP) rate from the diet and use
synthetic amino acids to meet the nutritional requirements of
the broilers (Oliveira et al., 2012). However, the CP minimum
level necessary to allow good results with broiler chickens
from 36 to 42 days old is not well established yet. Moreover,
Namroud et al. (2008) reported that there may be harm in the
performance of broiler fed diet containing low rate of CP even
when all essential amino acids are supplemented, which may be
correlated to the insufFcient provision of N for the synthesis of
non-essential amino acids, to the alteration of the ionic balance
of the diet caused by the reduction in the level of potassium or,
even, to the unbalance between the amino acids.
Therefore, the present study was conducted aiming to
evaluate the effects of diets with reduced levels of CP, available
phosphorus and calcium (supplemented with phytase, essential
amino acids and glycine and with the standardized electrolyte
balance) over the performance, carcass yield and retention
of N and P of broilers from 36 to 42 days old, besides of the
determination of the metabolizability and energetic value of
the diets.
Material and Methods
A performance assay and another of metabolism were
simultaneously conducted at the Poultry Farming Sector of the
Animal Science Department of Federal University of Lavras
with the objective of evaluate the use of phytase and amino
acids in the diet of Cobb-500
®
male broilers, in the period
from 36 to 42 days old. All experimental procedures employed
were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use of this
University.
In both assays, Fve diets based on corn and soybean meal
were evaluated, being that one of them was denominated of
control diet and was formulated without phytase according
to the nutritional recommendations of Rostagno et al. (2005).
The remaining four diets were supplemented with 80 g of
phytase/ton of diet and formulated with reduction of available
phosphorus (aP) and calcium (Ca) corresponding to 0.15
and 0.30 percentual points, in relation to the control diet, to
maintain the ratio Ca:aP at 2:1. One of the four diets containing
phytase provided the same rate of crude protein (CP) as the
control diet (18% of CP) and for the three remaining diets, one
percentual point of the CP associated to the use of synthetic
amino acids was gradually reduced according to the nutritional
requirements of the broilers (Rostagno et al., 2005) (Table 1).
The experimental diets were isoenergetic and formulated
based on digestible amino acids, maintaining the ideal ratio of
the amino acids with lysine. The proteic values of the amino
acids were not considered in the formulation. The electrolyte
balance of the diets was calculated by the equation described
by Mongin (1981) and it was kept constant between the diets
by use of potassium carbonate when necessary.
In the performance assay, a total of 750 one day old
broiler chicks were raised up to 36 days old with diet based
on corn and soybean meal, formulated to meet their nutritional
requirements (Rostagno et al., 2005). At 36 days old, the birds
were individually weighed, transferred to a masonry poultry
house containing boxes of 3 m
2
each, and were distributed in
a completely randomized experimental design, where there
were six replications of 25 birds for each treatment. The
initial average weight of the broilers was similar (2,170 ± 3 g)
between the experimental units (or box).
Each box had the ±oor covered with wood shavings and
contained a 100 watt incandescent lamp, one feeder and one
drinker. The feed and water were provided for birds
ad libitum
.
The illumination was constant (24 hours of light, between
natural and artiFcial) and the temperatures of maximum and
minimum recorded during the experimental period were
of 25.8 °C (30 °C at the highest ) and 14.2 °C (12 °C at the
lowest), respectively. The feed intake, weight gain and feed
conversion of the birds in the period from 36 to 42 days old
were evaluated. Moreover, at 42 days old, two broilers per box
were slaughtered by cervical dislocation for the record of the
carcass, breast, thigh and drumstick, and abdominal fat yields.
The metabolism assay was conducted in a completely
randomized experimental design, with six replications of three
birds. Therefore, 90 broilers at 36 days old were allocated
in metabolic cages provided with a drinker, a feeder and a
collection tray for excretas. The experimental period had
duration of 7 days, where 4 days were of adaptation to the
experimental diets and facilities, and 3 days of total excreta
collection. The excretas were collected daily in the morning,
packaged in plastic bags and stored in freezer until the end of
the collection period.
E. M. Gomide et al.
Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Agrár. Recife, v.9, n.2, p.295-300, 2014
297
The analyses of variance of the data was conducted using
the statistics software SISVAR developed by Ferreira (2010)
and, when signifcant, the averages oF the treatments were
compared by the Scott-Knott test, at 5% of probability.
Results and Discussion
The feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG) and feed
conversion (FC) of the broilers were not affected (p>0.05) by
the evaluated diets (Table 2). Therefore, the birds fed diets
containing reduced levels of crude protein (CP), calcium (Ca)
and available phosphorus (aP), supplemented with phytase and
amino acids, presented performance similar to the broilers fed
the control diet.
These results indicate that the phytase contributed to the
maintenance of the broiler performance when the aP and
Ca levels of the diet were reduced to 0.236% and 0.464%,
respectively. This can be explained by the phytase action
over the phytate substrate present in the vegetable ingredients
allowing that the phytate P, resulting from the enzymatic
hydrolysis, could be used by the birds. Moreover, the phytase
can improves the utilization of nutrients of the diet because
the lower the degree of phytate phosphorilation, the smaller
its ability to complex and render unavailable nutrients such as
the Ca (Selle et al., 2009). ±ukayama et al. (2008) also verifed
the benefcial eFFect oF the phytase, because the nutritional
reduction of the diet for to 2,940 kcal kg
-1
; 21.2% CP; 0.27%
aP and 0.90% Ca worsened the FI, WG, and FC of broilers.
However, when the feed was supplemented with phytase, the
broiler performance was improved.
In a similar research using the concept of ideal protein in
the diet Formulation, Oliveira et al. (2010) verifed that the CP
can be reduced from 21.6 down to 17.6% without reducing
the broiler performance in the period from 22 to 42 days
old, even when raised in an environment stressful by heat.
However, Vasconcellos et al. (2010) observed worsening
in the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 days old
when CP level was reduced from 21 down to 15%, even
supplementing the feed with essential amino acids in order to
meet the nutritional requirements of the birds. Still according to
Vasconcellos et al. (2010), it is probable that the requirements
proteinous are altered or the ratios between the amino acids are
modifed when the CP levels are reduced.
In addition, an additional explanation for the fall in the
performance may be due to the lack of supplementation of
glycine, because according to Baker (2009), when the CP level
in a diet based on corn and soybean meal is reduced from 23
to 16%, this amino acid becomes limiting for broilers. In the
present study, the glycine was supplemented, which may seem
to be important to avoid damages in the performance even in
the ration with only 15% of CP.
Moreover, the perFormance may also be in²uenced by
the electrolytic balance in the diet (Bertechini, 2012) and is
important to highlight that the CP reduction, in general, is
done decreasing the inclusion of soybean meal which is rich
in potassium. Thus, the worsening of the broiler performance
observed by Vasconcellos et al. (2010), may also be associated
to the lack of correction of the electrolyte balance of the diets
Ingredients (%)
Control
2
Crude Protein Level
1
18%
17%
16%
15%
Corn
66.453
68.609
71.297
73.566
75.897
Soybean meal
26.773
26.374
23.705
21.113
18.511
Soybean oil
3.404
2.677
2.329
2.121
1.892
Dicalcium phosphate
1.540
0.690
0.700
0.720
0.740
Calcitic limestone
0.620
0.430
0.450
0.450
0.460
Salt
0.450
0.450
0.450
0.450
0.450
L-lysine HCl 78%
0.230
0.235
0.315
0.395
0.475
DL-methyonine
0.210
0.210
0.230
0.246
0.267
L-arginine
0.000
0.000
0.035
0.110
0.187
L-threonine
0.050
0.050
0.090
0.118
0.154
L-glycine + serine
0.000
0.000
0.020
0.114
0.210
L-valine
0.020
0.020
0.060
0.105
0.148
L-isoleucine
0.000
0.000
0.030
0.071
0.116
L-tryptophan
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.009
0.022
L-phenylalanine
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.003
Vitamin premix
3
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
Mineral premix
4
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
Choline chloride 60%
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
Salinomicin 12%
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
Phytase - Ronozyme
Ò
NP (M)
0.000
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
Potassium carbonate
0.000
0.000
0.075
0.148
0.220
Calculated nutritional composition
Crude protein (%)
18.0
18.0
17.0
16.0
15.0
Metabolizable energy (kcal/kg)
3150
3150
3150
3150
3150
Available phosphorus (%)
0.386
0.236
0.236
0.236
0.236
Calcium (%)
0.764
0.464
0.464
0.464
0.464
Lysin (%)
1.019
1.017
1.017
1.017
1.017
Methionine + cystine (%)
0.736
0.739
0.738
0.732
0.732
Arginine (%)
1.116
1.111
1.069
1.067
1.068
Threonine (%)
0.664
0.664
0.668
0.661
0.661
Glycine + serine (%)
1.644
1.643
1.569
1.568
1.569
Valine (%)
0.784
0.784
0.781
0.783
0.783
Isoleucine (%)
0.701
0.700
0.684
0.681
0.681
Tryptophan
0.192
0.191
0.178
0.173
0.173
Phenylalanine (%)
0.831
0.830
0.783
0.736
0.688
Leucine (%)
1.540
1.549
1.488
1.426
1.364
Histidine (%)
0.469
0.470
0.446
0.422
0.399
Phenilalanine + tyrosine (%)
1.406
1.406
1.326
1.247
1.170
Sodium (%)
0.197
0.198
0.198
0.198
0.198
Potassium (%)
0.676
0.675
0.676
0.676
0.676
Chlorine (%)
0.315
0.316
0.316
0.316
0.315
Electrolyte balance (mEq/kg)
5
170
170
170
170
170
Table 1.
Percentual and nutricional composition of the experimental diets for
broilers from 36 to 42 days of age
1
Diets supplemented with phytase and formulated with reduced levels of crude protein, available
phosphorus, and calcium compared to the control diet.
2
Diet without phytase and formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers (36 to 42 days
of age), according to the recommendations of Rostagno et al. (2005).
3
Vitamin supplementation/kg of diet: vit.A: 12,500 UI; vit.D
3
: 5,760 UI; vit.E: 150 mg; vit. K
3
: 4 mg;
vit. B
1
: 3 mg; vit. B
2
: 9 mg; vit. B
6
: 6 mg; vit. B
12
: 40 µg; biotine: 0,3 mg; folic acid: 2 mg; nicotinic
acid: 80 mg; pantotenic acid: 18 mg.
4
Mineral supplementation/kg of feed: Mn: 80 mg; Fe: 50 mg; Zn: 50 mg; Cu: 10 mg; Co: 1 mg; I:
1 mg; Se: 0.3 mg.
5
Electrolyte balance calculated using the equation proposed by Mongin (1981), which relates the
calculated concentrations of sodium, potassium, and chlorine ions.
After, the excretas were unfrozen, weighed, homogenized
and dried in circulating air ovens at 60 °C for 72 hours. The
dried samples (rations and excretas) were ground and used
for the determination of dry matter, crude energy, nitrogen,
and phosphorus according to methodologies of the AOAC
(2005). The corrected metabolizable energy for the nitrogen
balance (AMEn) of the diets was calculated according to
Matterson et al. (1965). The metabolizability coeFfcient
(MC) of the experimental feeds and the apparent retention
coeFfcients (RC) oF nitrogen and phosphorus were calculated
based on the dry matter, using the following equation: MC or
RC = [(g of intake nutrient–g of excreted nutrient)/g of intake
nutrient]x100.
Phytase and amino acids for broilers from 36 to 42 days of age
Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Agrár. Recife, v.9, n.2, p.295-300, 2014
298
and it is probable that the standardization of this factor in our
study (170 mEq/kg) has positively infuenced For a similar
performance in all evaluated protein levels.
The broilers fed diets with reduced nutritional levels,
supplemented with phytase and amino acids, presented
carcass, breast, thigh and drumstick yields similar (p>0.05)
to those that received the control diet (Table 2). On the other
hand, a lower abdominal fat (p<0.05) was observed when the
diet contained 18% of CP, independent of the level of aP and
Ca, and higher deposition of fat when reducing the protein
rate down to three percentual points which may be justi±ed
by the high caloric increment of the proteins (Nelson & Cox,
2011).
That means that when decreasing the CP level of the
diet, less energy is required for the absorption, digestion and
metabolism of the ingested proteins and, consequently, there
will be greater amount of energy stored as body fat. In general,
the protein reduction of the diet has showed increase in the rate
of abdominal fat in broilers (Namroud et al., 2008; Gomide et
al., 2012; Silva et al., 2012) which may damage its acceptability
by the consumer. However, in general the reduction of the CP
in the diet seems to present more positive points than negative,
signaling the need to conduct new studies aiming to minimize
the energy deviated to the synthesis of adipose tissue, either by
the formulation of the diet more and more precise (close to the
real requirement of the animal) and/or by the use of additives
able to reduce the deposition of abdominal fat, for example, the
chitooligosaccharides (Zhou et al., 2009).
The composition did not alter (p>0.05) the apparent
metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance
(AMEn) of the diets (Table 3), which disagrees with Silva et
al. (2008) who veri±ed an improvement oF 162 kcal oF AMEn/
kg of feed when the protein rate of the diet was reduced from
19 to 15%.
The dry matter metabolizability coeF±cient (DMMC)
was higher (p<0.05; Table 3) in the diets with 16 and 15%
of CP, probably due to the higher supplementation of amino
acids readily available and due to the lower rate of non starch
polysaccharides (NSPs) in these diets due to the lower inclusion
of soybean meal, because according to Abudabos (2010), the
percentual increase of soybean meal in the diets reduces the
digestibility of the dry matter and increases the viscosity of the
intestinal digesta due to the presence of the NSPs in this feed.
The intake, excretion and retention coeF±cient oF the
nitrogen (N) and phosphorus were infuenced (p<0.05) by
the diet (Table 3). The birds fed diet containing 18% of CP
presented higher intake and excretion of N and worse retention
of this nutrient. The reduction of two or three percentual points
in the CP, in relation to the diets with 18%, decreased the intake
of N in 683 mg bird
-1
day
-1
. With 15% of CP in the diet, the N
excretion was reduced in 520 mg bird
-1
day
-1
.
There was an improvement in the N utilization by the
broilers due to the protein reduction in the diet. However, the
diets with 15, 16, and 17% of CP presented similar retention
coeF±cients. The phytase did not improve the N use in the diets
with 18% oF CP and it is probable that it did not infuence
Table 2.
Performance and yields of carcass, cuts and abdominal fat of broilers fed diets with reduced nutrient levels, supplemented with phytase and amino
acids
Experimental diets
Performance (36 to 42 days old)
Yields (%)(at 42 days of age)
FI
(g/bird)
WG
(g/bird)
FC
(g/g)
Carcass
Breast
Thigh +
drumstick
Abdominal
fat
18% CP without phytase
1
1,297
664
1.96
73.3
37.2
29.2
1.57 a
18% CP with phytase
2
1,300
686
1.90
72.4
37.0
29.5
1.68 a
17% CP with phytase+AA
2
1,308
652
2.01
73.2
37.4
29.7
1.92 b
16% CP with phytase+AA
2
1,296
676
1.92
72.5
37.9
29.8
2.12 b
15% CP with phytase+AA
2
1,296
650
2.00
73.2
38.0
29.2
1.94 b
Mean
1,299
666
1.96
72.9
37.5
29.5
P value
p>0,05
p>0,05
p>0,05
p>0,05
p>0,05
p>0,05
p<0,05
Coefficient of variation (%)
2.89
4.77
3.50
1.58
2.82
2.75
14.90
Means followed by different letters in the column differ by Scott-Knott test (p<0.05).
FI = feed intake; WG = weight gain; FC = feed conversion; CP = crude protein; AA = amino acids.
1
Control diet. Levels of available phosphorus and calcium = 0.386% e 0.764%, respectively.
2
Diets supplemented with amino acids and 80 g of phytase/ton of feed. Levels of available phosphorus and
calcium = 0.236% and 0.464%, respectively.
Means followed by different letters in the column differ by Scott-Knott test (p<0.05).
CP = crude protein; AA = amino acids; AMEn = apparent metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance; DMMC = dry matter metabolizability coef±cient; N = nitrogen; P = phosphorus.
1
Control diet. Levels of available phosphorus and calcium = 0.386% e 0.764%, respectively.
2
Diets supplemented with amino acids and 80 g of phytase/ton of feed. Levels of available phosphorus and
calcium = 0.236% and 0.464%, respectively.
Experimental diets
AMEn
(kcal/kg)
DMMC
(%)
Nutrient intake
Excreted nutrient
Coefficient
of retention (%)
(mg bird
-1
day
-1
)
NPNPNP
18% CP without phytase
1
3,252
78.08 b
5,696 a
1,276 a
1,899 a
710 a
66.63 b
44.24 b
18% CP with phytase
2
3,251
77.45 b
5,617 a
867 b
1,827 a
439 b
67.46 b
49.31 a
17% CP with phytase +AA
2
3,230
76.14 b
5,364 b
896 b
1,628 b
444 b
69.61 a
50.27 a
16% CP with phytase +AA
2
3,292
79.50 a
5,077 c
880 b
1,553 b
424 b
69.48 a
51.68 a
15% CP with phytase +AA
2
3,367
80.93 a
4,871 c
833 b
1,343 c
400 b
72.26 a
51.83 a
Mean
3,278
------
P value
p>0,05
p<0,05
p<0,05
p<0,05
p<0,05
p<0,05
p<0,05
p<0,05
Coefficient of variation (%)
2.76
3.00
4.34
6.47
8.04
9.80
3.63
9.83
Table 3.
Energetic value and metabolizability coef±cient of feeds, and balance/retention of nitrogen and phosphorus of broilers fed diets with reduced nutrient
levels, supplemented with phytase and amino acids (from 36 to 42 days of age)
E. M. Gomide et al.
Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Agrár. Recife, v.9, n.2, p.295-300, 2014
299
this parameter in the remaining evaluated diets. Although the
phytase effect in increasing the P utilization of the diet is quite
reported in the literature (Selle et al., 2009; Gomide et al.,
2011; Santos 2011a,b), its effect on the amino acids, proteins
and others nitrogenized compounds is not well established yet,
where more works are necessary in this research area.
Independent of the CP level, the aP reduction of 0.386%
(control diet) to 0.236% and the addition of phytase resulted
in lower (p<0.05) intake and excretion of P, besides improving
(p<0.05) its utilization by the broilers in up to 7.59 percentual
points. The phytase contribution for the increase of the P use
is due to the action of this enzyme in the release of phosphate
groups present in the molecule of phytate enabling the phytate
P to be exploited by the birds, reducing consequently, its
excretion. This was demonstrated by Naves et al. (2014), who
quantifed the concentration oF phytate phosphorus in both the
feed and the excreta from broilers and estimated a retention
coeFfcient oF phytate phosphorus up to 87.85% when the diet
contained 1,950 FTU/kg of diet. The knowledge of the positive
effect of the phytase in to reduce the P excretion into the
environment and increase of phytate P utilization constitutes
an important alternative for the poultry production, reducing
the environmental impact of this activity and the costs with
feeding (Bertechini, 2012).
Conclusions
The supplementation of the diet with amino acids (essential
and glycine) and phytase associated to the correction of the
electrolyte balance for 170 mEq kg
-1
allows the reduction of
crude protein, available phosphorus and calcium to 15, 0.236,
and 0.464%, respectively, without worsening the performance
and yield of carcass, and cuts of broiler chickens, in the period
from 36 to 42 days old.
Moreover, there are an improvement in the dry matter
metabolizability coeFfcient and in the utilization oF the
nitrogen and phosphorus by the birds. However, the abdominal
fat is increased in 23.6%.
Acknowledgement
The authors acknowledge the fnancial support From
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais
(FAPEMIG), and from Instituto Nacional de Ciência e
Tecnologia em Ciência Animal (INCT-CA).
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