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Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
360° Competency assessment model
(teaching-learning)
Modelo 360° para la evaluación por competencias
(enseñanza–aprendizaje)
Modèle 360 degrés pour l’evaluation des compétences
(d’enseignement-apprentissage)
Abstract
In the beginning of the twenty-first century a bleak outlook for the evaluation of teach-
ing-learning is described because only the student, the results, knowledge and observable
behaviors are evaluated, what is “learned” is measured quantitatively by establishing stereo-
types and using inadequate tools (Santos, 1998). This has two obvious consequences: the
majority of teachers believe that the most important function of the assessment is passing
it, and what’s worse, it is considered a separate activity in the teaching process. This article
begins with a brief exploration of traditional conceptions of the evaluation of the teaching-
learning process, to get to propose an evaluation model that is consistent with competency-
based education of the current educational approach.
Keywords
360° performance
assessment, competency-
based education,
educational research,
situated learning,
quality, higher education
institutions.
Yasmín Ivette Jiménez Galán
Marko Alfonso González Ramírez
Josefina Hernández Jaime
Resumen
A principios del siglo XXI se describe un panorama poco alentador para la evaluación
de la enseñanza-aprendizaje porque se evalúa solamente al alumno, los resultados, los
conocimientos y las conductas observables; se mide cuantitativamente lo “aprendido”,
estableciendo estereotipos y utilizando instrumentos inadecuados (Santos, 1998). Esto
tiene dos consecuencias obvias: la mayoría de los docentes creen que la función más
importante de la evaluación es la de acreditación y, lo que es más grave aún, se le
considera una actividad independiente al proceso de enseñanza. Este artículo parte de
una breve exploración sobre las concepciones tradicionales de la evaluación del proceso
de enseñanza-aprendizaje, para llegar a proponer un modelo de evaluación que sea
acorde con la educación basada en competencias del actual enfoque educativo.
Palabras clave
Evaluación 360° del
desempeño, educación
basada en competencias,
investigación educativa,
aprendizaje situado,
calidad, instituciones de
educación superior.
Résumé
Au début du XXI
ème
siècle on décrit un tour d’horizon peu encourageant pour l’évaluation
du procès d’enseignement-apprentissage; on contrôle seulement les connaissances de
l’élève, les résultats, les comportements que l’on peut observer. On mesure en quantité
ce qui est appris, on établit des stéréotypes à l’aide d’instruments inappropriés (1998,
Santos). Évidement il y a des conséquences: la plus part des enseignants pensent que
la fonction la plus importante d’évaluer, c’est l’accréditation et le plus grave c’est de la
considérer une activité indépendante du procès d’enseignement. Cet article part d’une
petite recherche faite sur les idées traditionnelles de l’évaluation du procès d’enseigne-
ment-apprentissage pour proposer un modèle évaluatif qui soit d’accord avec la mise au
point éducative actuelle basée sur des compétences.
Mots clefs
Évaluation de l’exercice
à 360° degrés,
enseignement fondé
sur de compétences,
recherche éducative,
apprentissage situé,
qualité, institution
d’études professionnels.
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R. / J
OSEFINA
H
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J.
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applied in the practice of a profession
(Trillo, 2005, p. 6),
and it is applied as follows:
The knowledge related to know-have knowledge, that
is, to a certain domain related to the understanding
and comprehension of the knowledge of a field, scien-
tifically validated and historically accumulated.
The skills related to the know-how, refer to a certain
domain in terms of implementation and development
of specific cognitive and motor skills that allow, to the
ones using them, to decide what is needed at a given
time and how it has to be carried out.
The attitudes related to the know how to be-exist, are
connected to a domain associated with interpersonal
relations, social integration according to certain ethi-
cal principles, not to mention emotional balance.
Therefore, if the competencies are expressed in a know-
how based on a know-have knowledge, the evaluation must
consider not only what the person knows but also what he
does with such knowledge in different contexts. Moreover,
to evaluate his acting in such contexts in the light of knowl-
edge, different possibilities of assessment should be designed
in order to reflect the diversity of possible situations in which
the performance may occur. This is, precisely, what is known
as
performance evaluation
.
Evaluation of the performance, also known as
alternative
,
includes a variety of techniques that allow the measurement
not only of knowledge but also of the skills and attitudes
to, this way, evaluate the performance or presentation of
individuals. Zabalza emphasizes that evaluation technique
means any instrument, situation, resource or procedure
used to obtain information on the progress of the process
of the evaluated one
(Zabala, 1991, p. 246).
It is important to point out that, according to Tobon
(2006), competencies, just focus on some specific aspects
of teaching, learning and evaluation, such as:
1. The integration of knowledge, cognitive processes,
skills, abilities, values and attitudes in the performance
dealing with activities and problems.
2. The construction of the training programs in accor-
dance with the disciplinary, research, professional,
social, environmental and labor requirements of the
context.
3. The orientation of education through standards and in-
dicators of quality in all its processes.
So, competency-based evaluation should be based on
three considerations (Cano 2008):
1. Guides the
curriculum
and can generate a real change
in the teaching-learning processes.
2. Should establish a learning opportunity and be used
not to guess or select the one who possesses certain
competencies, but to promote those competencies.
Evaluation can be done by teachers, peers or the stu-
dent himself, or by all of them in an evaluation model
of 360º, and must also provide information on the
Quality and educational evaluation
Educational quality
Educational quality is an issue that has aroused much
debate because it is associated with the increase of
economic competitiveness, improvement of the qualitative
indicators of the quality of life of citizens, and the creation
of broader employment conditions to give public faith of
the proper exercise of the educational budget (Villegas,
2001). From this position, it is obvious that the concept
of
quality
applied to education must be analyzed in depth
to try to reach a conceptualization that allows clarify-
ing the meaning from a more holistic approach, includ-
ing attributes such as “public good” that, however, does
not mean loss of quality due to overcrowding, equity,
relevance and importance, which were established in the
World Conference on Higher Education
of the Organization
of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) in 1998.
At that Conference the link between quality and relevance
was established. The latter is related to the way knowledge
is produced and disseminated, placing particular emphasis
on the relationship between school-industry-labor market
with the participation of the educational institution, through
its actors in the social, economic and cultural life of the so-
ciety in which it is inserted, without losing sight of uni-
versality (Bautista, 1997). The association between quality
and relevance rejects links with business ideas or business
logic, since it corresponds to the conception of education
as a public service for the construction of democratic and
fair societies, in favor of the foundation of national identity
(Águila, 2005).
In this regard, UNESCO established that the concept of
quality has as reference the set of dimensions that constitute
the phenomenon of education such as teaching, academic
programs, research, scholarships, staff, students, facilities,
equipment and community service, among others.
Educational evaluation
Educational evaluation is intended to raise awareness
among all those agents involved in the teaching-learning
process of which their competency level is, what points
should be encouraged and which ones must be corrected
to deal with future situations. This article focuses specifi-
cally on the developing of an integrated assessment model
of the teaching-learning process.
The Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), is facing a
change of educational approach: competency-based edu-
cation, this is why it is extremely important that teachers
understand the innovations and profound changes this im-
plies in the different educational levels and that, by following
this approach, it is necessary to commit to quality teach-
ing to ensure the learning of the competencies to be devel-
oped by students.
Within this approach, competency is conceptualized as
the confluence of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are
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ASSESSMENT
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b.
Hetero-evaluation. It occurs when a person, group or
institution evaluates another person, group, institu-
tion or their products. That is, when the evaluation is
always done from one person to another about their
work, presentation or performance. It is the evalua-
tion that is usually carried out by the teacher with stu-
dents, it is an important process in teaching, valuable
because of its data and the possibilities it offers, but
complicated by the difficulties implied when assessing
the performance of others. However, it is very impor-
tant to emphasize that, currently, the hetero-evalu-
ation should also involve the students’ evaluation of
their teacher.
c.
Peer assessment. It occurs when two or more individ-
uals, groups or institutions evaluate each other or their
respective products, in other words, it is the evaluation
done to provide additional feedback about a product or
performance. Topping (1998, p. 35). defines peer as-
sessment as
an arrangement in which individuals con-
sider the amount, level, value, effort, quality or success
of the products or outcomes of peer learning in a simi-
lar status.
Peer assessment allows to contrast self-eval-
uation promoting through it cooperation, collaboration,
sharing ideas, constructive criticism of the positions of
others and the social construction of knowledge.
After laying the foundations of the characteristics of eval-
uation, the implications of the evaluation of teaching and
learning, will be delved into.
progress in the development of the competency and
suggest ways for improvement.
3. Must be
consistent
with the other elements of the
training design and be integrated into it, so the ex-
periences have activities associated to them that are
very relevant for the competency-based evaluation.
Evaluation of the teaching-learning process
The evaluation referred to the teaching-learning process
has been conceptualized as
: A systematic and rigorous data
collection process, incorporated into the educational process
from its beginning, so it is possible to have continuous and
meaningful information to understand the situation, make
judgments of value with respect to it and make the right
decisions to continue gradually improving the educational
activity
(Casanova, 1998, p. 105).
Thus, evaluation in education, must meet certain characteristics
that give meaning and significance to the evaluated part. These par-
ticularities should be according to Frola (2008, p. 15):
Functionality
. Because it is done to achieve specific
purposes, it is evaluated to have relevant information,
process it and make informed decisions.
Systematicity
. Since it requires organization, control,
regulation and justification of the methodological steps
required to perform it.
Continuity
. Because it is an activity intended to be
done at different times, not only at the end of a school
year or thematic unity, and for different purposes.
Completeness
. Since it requires considering not only
the cognitive but also the affective and psychomotor
aspects.
Cooperativity
. Because it should be a socialized pro-
cess from its conception, stages and procedures.
It is important to note that there are various performance
evaluation ratings. Casanova (1998), establishes categories
by its functionality, type, scheduling and by the agent that
develops it, however, this article focuses only on the last
type mentioned by considering it key point for the develop-
ment and purpose of this paper.
According to this classification, the agents or evaluating
subjects are those people, groups or institutions performing
the evaluating function. There are three types of evaluation
known as: self, hetero and peer assessment:
a.
Self-evaluation. It occurs when a person, group or in-
stitution evaluates themselves or their products. Ac-
cording to the current learning theory, students are
able to assess their own work and the satisfaction it
produces. Thus, they should be educated to do such
job and should be given guidelines to do so seriously
and correctly, not in a self-indulgent fashion or as a
game. It is important that teachers provide students
detailed information about the issues to self-assess
so they can watch themselves, their attitude and hard
work, and to reflect on themselves and draw rigorous
conclusions at the end of the process.
Evaluation of teaching
High or low student performance can not come exclusively
from his best or worst job, but it is the result of adequate or
inadequate organizational and pedagogical approach of the
education system and school. One of the key components for
the proper functioning of the system is the organization and
development of the teaching processes as an integral part of
the learning processes. Thus, teaching and learning become,
in practice, two sides of the same coin.
Both advancing or retreating in unison, they are strongly
correlated, because the style of teaching practice influences
and decides the entire educational event that takes place
in the classroom and, therefore, on the learning of the stu-
dents (Casanova, 1998).
Based on the aforementioned, it becomes particularly rel-
evant to evaluate the teaching processes because a failure
in these has a direct impact on the learning processes by
means of two ways:
1.
Through the evaluation of the teaching units, under-
standing their development and implementation in the
classroom, and the learning that students achieve in
each of these, since a teaching unit has the following
elements:
Objectives
What to teach something for?
Contents
What to teach?
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relationships, with the motivation and leadership of
the teacher.
7.
Mentoring or leading the process of comprehensive
training of students, ability that allows accompany-
ing them throughout their school life.
8.
Evaluate ability that allows the assessment of the
progress of the teaching-learning process.
9.
Reflect and research on teaching, ability that the
teacher displays to raise educational quality and in-
novation.
10. Identify with the institution and work as a team, cross-
curricular competency taken as the axis of the other
competencies, since they are all affected by the inte-
gration of teachers in the organization and the willing-
ness (attitude) and capability (technique) to work in
coordination with colleagues.
Based on these competencies Sarramona (2004), offers a
self-evaluation of the professional of education. This author
revisits the 10 competencies and groups them into three
categories (figure 1).
The three categories of teaching competencies and their
subcomponents determined by Sarramona are:
a.
Curricular competencies: knowledge of the subject
and
curriculum
management.
b.
Management competencies: tutorials and classroom
management.
c.
Collaborative competencies: relationships with families
and relationship with the environment.
Activities
How will pupils learn?
Methodology
How do you teach?
Teaching Resources
What to teach with?
Assessment
How to improve teaching and
learning? Are the proposed
objectives reached?
2.
Through a personal reflection on the relevant indicators
which show —individually or collectively— to what ex-
tent what the teacher does corresponds to what is con-
sidered appropriate to do.
This sense, the teaching competencies to be evaluated
are defined as the knowledge of the teacher in the context
of the educational institution where he develops his work,
teaching properties that emerge from the development of
all activities and tasks through which he interacts with his
students so that they achieve meaningful learning and they
are trained as competent people in the different areas of
work each one chooses.
Frade, after an interesting analysis of educational intelli-
gence where he establishes that all teachers have to develop
it, defines teaching competencies as:
specific knowledge in
solving the problems that emerge in education as a social
function inherent in every individual, family and society, on
the understanding that it is through such education that
people acquire culture, knowledge, skills, attitudes, values,
beliefs, customs and traditions that will allow them to live
in the future world
(Frade, 2008, p. 172).
From the aforementioned it can be said that competent
teachers have a set of features that enables them to perform
their professional role and the consequent responsibility
with the highest quality and efficiency. Within this context,
the professional development of teachers is one of the con-
sequences of the processes of the evaluation of teaching.
Also, Perrenoud (2002), identifies 10 competencies or
skills that teachers of this century must manage for the ef-
fective exercise of their profession. Such competencies are:
1.
Plan the teaching-learning process that involves de-
signing and developing the course syllabus.
2.
Select and prepare the disciplinary content, design and
structure in a logical way the subjects to be taught.
3.
Provide understandable and well organized informa-
tion and explanations, ability that allows appropriate
use of language for effective exchange of informa-
tion and knowledge.
4.
Use of new technologies, ability to mediate and guide
the importance and relevance of the information avail-
able to students, as well as the ability to manage such
media in the incorporation of information and com-
munication technologies (ICT), for the development
of the classes to be taught.
5.
Design the methodology and organize activities to
integrate the various decisions made by teachers to
manage the development of educational activities.
6.
Communicating and interacting with students, skill
that relates to the ability to establish interpersonal
Learning evaluation
According to Moran (1987), cited in Lopez and Hinojosa
(2001, p. 13),
people learn when they pose questions, for-
mulate hypotheses, back down to certain obstacles, draw
partial conclusions, are afraid of the unknown, manipulate
objects, verify in practice their conclusions, etcetera.
Based on these perspectives and purpose of the assess-
ment of learning, education plans should be focused to
actively explore different general theme possibilities from
students’ personal interests and the needs of the society in
which they will perform.
Therefore, teachers have the responsibility to achieve their
students’ higher education including knowledge, skills, atti-
tudes and values. The challenge, then, is to convene students
and spark their interest, promote creativity, stir them in the
search for social alternatives and systematic research, among
other aspects. Baird (1997, p. 4), grouped into five categories,
the purposes of the assessment of student learning:
1.
Improve instructional materials. Through assessment
teachers can identify whether the procedures used,
the activities and resources meet the learning needs
of students.
2.
Improve student learning. Evaluation provides feed-
back on what the student learned or did not learn, so
the teacher is able to support them to achieve their
learning objectives.
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Conceptual contents are the set of facts, data and con-
cepts whose teaching has become more complex and di-
verse in order to avoid just their memorization. According
to Pozo, facts and data are rote learned, whereas the
ac-
quisition of concepts is based on meaningful learning, which
requires a more active attitude towards learning
(cited in
López and Hinojosa, 2001, p. 21).
Some facts or data that do not need to be understood
and, therefore, are memorized are: phone numbers, names
of the states of Mexico, the periodic table, the value of
pi
,
lists of historical facts. What is achieved with this type of
learning is just memorization and reproduction of what
was learned.
In contrast, a concept is acquired when it is paraphrased,
i.e., the understanding of concepts allows having a personal
representation of reality, as the concept of loyalty or con-
densation. Even in the age of knowledge, teachers should
not stop evaluating concepts because the data and facts
acquire meaning when the student precisely has available
concepts that allow him to interpret them, in other words,
transform them into knowledge.
Now, talking about procedure involves the learning of a
know-how
with a clearly defined purpose. Procedural con-
tents are the habits, skills, strategies, algorithms, meth-
ods and techniques that all students should learn according
to the knowledge area of their choice. The know-how cor-
responds to a more complex content, making it difficult to
have a single classification of the procedures. For this work,
Blanco (1990), was taken as reference, author who classi-
fies procedural content in:
a.
Skills: they correspond to handicraft or intellectual
abilities that the student has in order to perform a
3.
Determine the mastery of content. The assessment
provides information on whether students have as-
similated the contents and to what extent they have
a good command of them.
4.
Establish criteria and development standards for the
courses. The assessment will show whether the ma-
terial can be learned in the available time for the dif-
ferent students in a class.
5.
Improve teaching. With the evaluation it can be
known whether the educational activities are properly
planned, organized and implemented.
Thus, and consistent with the competency-based educa-
tion, teachers must develop and evaluate different kinds of
knowledge: know-have knowledge, know-how, know-how
to be and know-how to exist. However, during the evalu-
ation process multiple circumstances are manifested from
which data must be taken for interpretation and judgment
of the above mentioned knowledge of students.
To assess student learning, firstly issues within the com-
petency
curriculum
level must be considered —such as se-
mantic and procedural knowledge —known as
know-have
knowledge
; secondly, the fundamental thinking skills must
be understood to treat the knowledge related to the con-
tents of the different areas of the
curriculum
—such as syn-
thesis ability, level of logical reasoning, ability to have an
opinion, ability to observe or relate, reading comprehension
skills, among others— known as
know-how
, thirdly, it is very
important to remember that there are factors that affect the
school context developed through the so-called hidden
cur-
riculum
, this refers specifically to the attitudes and values
with which they would be impacting on the
know-how to be
and
know-how to exist
.
Figure 1
Teaching competencies.
Source: Own elaboration.
Knowledge
of the
subject
Management
Tutorial
action
Classroom
management
Curricular
Collaborative
Relationship
with the
families
Relationship
with the
environment
Competencies
Curriculum
management
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skills, attitudes and values in certain situations, for their
assessment it is necessary to integrate interdisciplinary
knowledge about contents, competencies, mental skills
and certain attitudes essential to the efficient achieve-
ment of goals.
procedure, solve everyday and new problems, inno-
vate methods, use different logical reasoning (induc-
tion, abduction, deduction).
b.
Techniques: they correspond to orderly and system-
atic actions aimed at achieving specific goals. Such
techniques are considered learned when applied to
different situations, such as study, negotiation and
communication techniques.
c.
Strategies: they correspond to intellectual abilities to
establish, arrange and manage knowledge in order
to reach certain goals. With this ability, general ways
of action are determined which are useful to be the
guidelines for professional performance.
During most of the twentieth century, attitudes and val-
ues that were developed in the students were rarely taken
into account for their evaluation, although, consciously or
unconsciously, they have always been present in the class-
room. It is with the competency-based education when they
become relevant and these know-how to be and know- how
to exist are incorporated in the school
curriculum
and, there-
fore, in the assessment of learning.
Thus, most educational projects —to be relevant to the
requirements of the society in which educational institu-
tions are embedded— care about teaching, promoting and
strengthening the values that are related to the common
good, with the harmonious and full development of stu-
dents, and with supportive coexistence based on principles
of fairness, equity and democracy.
Based on the foregoing, the performance evaluation
is a method that requires the students to build a re-
sponse or a product that demonstrates their knowledge,
Source: Verderber and Verderber (2005, p. 164).
Proposal of the 360° assessment model
The term
360° assessment
comes from covering all degrees
of a circle that, symbolically, represents all the relevant links
of a person with their working environment. Transferred
to the educational environment, specifically the teaching-
learning process, the aim is to develop a model that covers
all relevant aspects of the assessment of such process,
and is applied in the academic units to serve as a basis for
feedback, raise quality and continuous improvement of one
of the most important aspects of educational evaluation:
evaluation of the teachers’ and students’ performance, that
is teaching and learning.
Principles that support the 360° assessment
The significance of this method requires opening the evalu-
ation process with a focus on interrelation and not just
based on the unidirectional opinion of an individual. It is
considered that, when reaching a consensus people are
gotten to visualize an individual growth process and not just
the achieving of goals.
The principles underlying the 360° assessment can be ex-
plained by the Johari “window”, a tool that is used to ana-
lyze the degree of confidence and feedback which are used
in interpersonal relationships (figure 2).
Figure 2
Johari window.
Known to other
Known to self
Open
Hidden
Blind
Unknown
Not known to self
Not known to other
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of how they perceive his performance, getting to triangu-
late the information for a comprehensive assessment of his
behavior and work competency.
As noted, there are four panels or quadrants, of which the
first one is called “open” because in this one personal infor-
mation is handled which both the individual and his colleagues
know, i.e. what the individual and others know about him; in
the second quadrant called “hidden” there is personal infor-
mation that only the individual knows of his performance but
that others ignore, the third quadrant is called “blind” because
it contains information that others know about the individual,
but he is not consciously aware of such information, that is, it
shows what the subject ignores of his performance but which
is perceived by others; the fourth quadrant is the “unknown”
and it is filled with information about the individual that he and
others do not know, it is known that there is unknown infor-
mation because it is periodically discovered by the individual
(Verderber and Verderber, 2005).
The relevant aspect of this view in relation to the 360°
assessment is that it facilitates the fact that the person vi-
sualizes in an objective and unbiased fashion the perfor-
mance level he has in the organization, because he and his
colleagues and managers as well provide a particular vision
360° assessment model for the teaching-learning
process
Based on the described and analyzed information, it is
considered that currently the 360° assessment is relevant
in educational institutions that seek to evaluate all their
processes, activities and products. However, since the
objective of this paper focuses on the teaching-learning
process, an evaluation model, of the performance of both
teacher and student, is developed specifically for it.
In this regard, so that the teaching-learning process is
effective and comprehensive different sources of informa-
tion on the evaluation of the agents involved in the process
must be combined —teacher-student-school-head of acad-
emy-colleagues— to create a complete system of evalua-
tion that allows feedback (figure 3).
Y
ASMíN
I
VETTE
J
IMéNEZ
G. / M
ARKO
A
LFONSO
G
ONZáLEZ
R. / J
OSEFINA
H
ERNáNDEZ
J.
| 360° C
OMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
MODEL
(
TEACHING
-
LEARNING
)
104
Revista Innovación Educativa,
ISSN: 1665-2673
2 Management skills that assess tutorial action —re-
quirement of the institutional educational model—
classroom management with indicators such as
planning, and effectiveness of the design and opera-
tionalization of the teaching-learning process strate-
gies, among others.
3. Collaborative competencies —another requirement
of the institutional educational model— which mainly
assess his relationship with the environment through
indicators such as participation in projects, meetings,
conferences, and many more.
With this model it is intended to evaluate both the perfor-
mance and the competency level of teachers and students
since they are the two most important agents of such process.
Figure 3
360° assessment model for the teaching-learning process.
Source: Own elaboration.
Peer assessment of teacher’s performance: head of
academy
In this continuous process, the head of the academy is
proposed to be the one who assess the teachers’ perfor-
mance because he is the agent who best knows their work.
To evaluate the performance of teachers it is proposed
that performance indicators are:
1. Punctuality and attendance at department and
academy meetings.
2. Participation in research and dissemination activities.
3. Efficiency performance indicators of each of their
groups.
4. Involvement in educational updating activities.
5. Indicators that allow measuring the attitudes of
teachers towards their profession.
Self-assessment of teaching performance
To develop the instrument that will allow the evaluation
of teaching performance through self-assessment, the indi-
cators of teacher performance quality as proposed by Sar-
ramona (2004), should be revisited:
1. Curricular competencies that assess the mastery of the
subject, the institutional
curriculum
framework and
curriculum
management.
Hetero-evaluation of the teacher
To develop the instrument to evaluate teachers’ perfor-
mance through hetero-evaluation, the following indicators
of the quality of performance are suggested:
1. Punctuality in class attendance, delivery of work,
grades, and feedback on the evidences of learning.
2. Knowledge of the subject taught where the student
assesses the mastery of the teacher about the con-
tents.
3. Teaching skills that assess the diversity of the teach-
ing-learning activities, use of support materials and
the promoting of the students’ participation in the
classroom.
4. Monitoring the
curriculum
. This item asks the student
to assess the management of the
curriculum
by the
teacher, setting targets and compliance, and the or-
ganization of thematic content.
Beginning
End
Peer assessment
Peer assessment
Self-assessment
360 ° assessment
model
Self-assessment
Hetero-evaluation
Academic
Members
Team
work
Teaching
Staff
Student
360° C
OMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
MODEL
(
TEACHING
-
LEARNING
) |
Y
ASMíN
I
VETTE
J
IMéNEZ
G. / M
ARKO
A
LFONSO
G
ONZáLEZ
R. / J
OSEFINA
H
ERNáNDEZ
J.
105
Revista Innovación Educativa,
ISSN: 1665-2673
Advantages of the 360° model teaching-learning
process
5. Evaluation criteria where students, from their perspec-
tive, can give feedback to teachers on their evaluative
competency.
6. Attitude of the teacher. In this category indicators
such as respect, responsibility and service attitude
perceived by students are incorporated.
Student
performance self-assessment
To develop the tool that allows students to assess their
academic performance the following indicators are consi-
dered relevant:
1. Tasks and functions in which questions are determined,
questions about the reflection of the role of the student
taking responsibility to deliver tasks and activities, par-
ticipate actively in class and have an attitude of colla-
boration in the development of the latter.
2. Work processes that allow students to analyze the
quality of their input and the way they are given feed-
back of their learning by the teachers and their peers.
3. Working environment where one is asked to reflect on
the process of interpersonal communication within and
outside the classroom with teachers and peers.
4. Conflict resolution which goes into an objective level
of analysis, where questions are asked such as the de-
gree of compliance with agreed arrangements, empa-
thy and tolerance.
There are many advantages why the aforementioned
assessment model is useful in evaluating the performance
of people, including:
It allows to evaluate both the performance and the
competencies level teachers and students have.
It makes possible a systematic and comprehensive as-
sessment of performance through feedback from various
sources and perspectives, so it is more objective.
Relevant information is obtained that allows identifying
strengths and areas of opportunity to improve perfor-
mance.
It contributes to define the training and teacher devel-
opment programs based on individual and group re-
sults.
It promotes individual and group development through
self-reflection of the agents involved in the teaching-
learning process.
It provides meaningful information about key aspects
of performance that are difficult to measure with
other instruments such as: leadership, communica-
tion, teamwork, time management, problem solving,
among others.
Due to the benefits it provides, this method of assess-
ment can be applied without any problem to educational
evaluation, in the academic area. In this sense, it is possible
to combine several sources of information on the evaluation
of the agents involved in the educational process (students-
teachers) to create a system of comprehensive evaluation
and feedback not only in the way that the objectives to be
fulfilled are assessed, but also evaluating the methods, pro-
cedures, strategies, relationships, contents and all those
who are involved in the process. That is, the teacher should
evaluate and be evaluated, the student is evaluated by the
teacher and the students are assessed among them.
Finally, the 360° assessment model should be applied
systematically so that the feedback obtained in a school
term can be used as feedstock for the continuous improve-
ment of the teaching-learning process.
Student performance hetero-evaluation
This item will be reviewed by the teacher, who has relevant
information about student performance. This assessment is
very special because it depends on the activities, contents,
objectives and development of each learning unit. It is im-
portant to remember that checklists and rubrics are very
effective tools to assess students comprehensively.
Student peer assessment
The last stage of the 360° assessment model of the
teaching-learning process corresponds to the peer assess-
ment, which should be made by students to evaluate the
progress of teamwork —another requirement of the insti-
tutional educational model. The instrument consists of an
evaluating matrix that includes aspects like:
1. Cooperation to perform the task to be evaluated.
2. Availability for collaborative and cooperative work.
3. Time devoted to the development of the task to be
evaluated.
4. Proactive attitude.
5. Tolerance and empathy, among others.
Conclusions
A shift in the paradigm from the traditional educational model
focused on the teacher and the teaching to a student- learning
centered model requires a reconception in the construction of
the meaning of educational evaluation of teachers.
In this sense, prominent authors in educational research
like Díaz Barriga (1999), Sacristán (2003), and Grundy
(2004), agree that the relevance and validity of an educa-
Y
ASMíN
I
VETTE
J
IMéNEZ
G. / M
ARKO
A
LFONSO
G
ONZáLEZ
R. / J
OSEFINA
H
ERNáNDEZ
J.
| 360° C
OMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
MODEL
(
TEACHING
-
LEARNING
)
106
Revista Innovación Educativa,
ISSN: 1665-2673
Based on the foregoing, a 360° degree assessment model
—for the teaching-learning process— was proposed which is
comprehensive, effective and efficient with the aim to pro-
vide information in due time and proper course to the agents
involved in such process.
The proposed assessment model emphasizes how impor-
tant it is that evaluation is done by all the parties that are
involved in order to triangulate information, improve and
guide the self-perception of performance, and promote the
continuous process improvement as well.
Only then we would be talking about teacher performance
(teaching) assessment by evaluating the teacher himself, his
students and members of the school to which he belongs.
Regarding the assessment of the students’ performance, this
model allows their evaluation from self-assessment, peer
assessment and hetero-evaluation, with which the process
would stop being one-way and the results, processes and
developments achieved over the school term would be eva-
luated.
It is believed that with this paper the reappraisal of the
concept of evaluation as an integral concept of a process
is achieved, so the 360° degree assessment model of the
teaching-learning process is feasible and viable to be used
by IPN teachers because it incorporates the requirements
imposed on the institutional educational model. Therefore,
this model is expected to guide the Institute’s teaching
staff regarding quantitative and qualitative evaluation of
the teaching-learning process, and be the support of the
redesign of the professional competency-based
curriculum
process which is currently being developed in several aca-
demic units.
Received June 2010
Accepted November 2010
tional model and
curriculum
redesign —towards competency
based education— depends heavily on teachers understand-
ing and using new models for evaluation because if they keep
on evaluating in a one-way fashion —just knowledge, only
the results, only observable behaviors, only through objec-
tive tests— relevant information to assess performance of
students or teachers is not provided. Therefore, competen-
cies would not be evaluated, which is the new educational
approach everybody is trying to implement, and learning
would continue to be measured and the behavioral theory
of learning would still continue to be followed, theory that
has lost its meaning in the XXI century.
Within this context, a change in the educational model
has no meaning in itself if there is no infrastructure to
support such transformation. If teachers do not know and
apply new evaluative alternatives, any change will be des-
tined to failure.
To evaluate the teaching process it is necessary to ana-
lyze the change in the role of the teacher —to establish the
competencies he is required to perform in the transforma-
tion of the educational model— and how his performance is
assessed, since evaluation models also have been changed
throughout history and vary depending on the objectives
of education.
However, to evaluate learning it must be conceptualized
what is meant by this and establish how to get a student
to learn, and at the same time bear in mind that both con-
ceptual or semantic and procedural and ethical/moral
con-
tent must be assessed. Another key point is to identify the
requirements that the assessment process must meet such
as: functionality, systematicity, continuity, integrity and co-
operativity.
It is also necessary to understand that within the new ed-
ucational approach that ponders the development of com-
petencies there are techniques to develop them and tools
to evaluate them that use qualitative and quantitative cri-
teria, in addition, the command of certain competencies is
determined by performance range.
107
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ISSN: 1665-2673
M
ODELO
360°
PARA
LA
EVALUACIóN
POR
COMPETENCIAS
(E
NSEñANZA
–A
PRENDIZAJE
) |
Y
ASMíN
I
VETTE
J
IMéNEZ
G. • M
ARKO
A
LFONSO
G
ONZáLEZ
R. • J
OSEFINA
H
ERNáNDEZ
J.
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About the authors
Yasmín Ivette Jiménez Galán
. Master of science in business administration from the
Escuela Superior de Comercio y Administración
(ESCA, IPN). Currently she teaches
full time at the
Escuela Superior de Cómputo
(ESCOM, IPN), Mexico.
E-mail: yasmin.ivette @ gmail.com
Marko Alfonso González Ramírez
. Degree in computer systems by the
Centro
Cultural Universitario Justo Sierra
. He is currently a full time professor in the
Escuela
Superior de Cómputo
(ESCOM, IPN), Mexico. E-mail: markoalfonso32@hotmail.com
Josefina Jaime Hernández
. Master in management for the
Unidad Profesional
Interdisciplinaria de Ingeniería y Ciencias Sociales y Administrativas
(UPIICSA, IPN).
Currently she teaches full time at the
Escuela Superior de Cómputo
(ESCOM, IPN),
Mexico. E-mail: josefinahernandezjaime@prodigy.net.mx
logo_pie_uaemex.mx