Artículo en PDF
How to cite
Complete issue
More information about this article
Journal's homepage in redalyc.org
Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
EXPLORING TWITTER USAGE ON MOBILE DEVICES IN BRAZIL
Gabriela Zago
1
Raquel Camargo
2
Maurício Dias
3
Abstract
The main goal of this paper is to trace some considerations about Twitter usage on cell
phones by Brazilian users of this microblogging service. For that purpose, we conducted a
survey with a high number of Twitter users (802) about how they use Twitter on their
mobile devices. Research results revealed that this technology is preferentially chosen by
new and young Twitter users not necessarily with 3G technology on their cell phones.
Keywords
Internet, cyberculture, mobility, cell phones, Twitter
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
Introduction
Created on 2006, the initial proposal of Twitter was to be updated by users‟ cell phones
through Short Message Service (SMS) messages. Back until 2007, Twitter even had a
single international number to be used to send and receive updates by SMS. But costs were
a bit high for people outside United States. The service was then discontinued for
international users, and other forms for updating Twitter appeared, such as by web,
applications, IM, and others.
Some years later, after successive changes, how are users updating information on Twitter?
Do they use cell phones to send and receive information from Twitter? These questions are
extremely relevant to the future of microblogging usage and this work, based on Twitter
users‟ information collected via survey, attempts to address to them.
Mobile communication technologies are modifying communication patterns, which can
lead to creative and unanticipated uses (Katz & Aakhus, 2002). In this sense, the aim of this
research work is to investigate specifically how mobility in general, especially cell phones,
are appropriated by Twitter users.
This paper is organized as follows: section 1 presents some discussions about general
aspects related to microblogs and Twitter. In section 2, some information is presented about
Internet accesses from cell phones, especially in Brazil, where we ran the survey, followed
by
considerations
about
mobility
and
cyberculture
on
section
3.
Cyberculture
and
appropriation are discussed in section 4. After theoretical aspects, method used in this work
is presented on section 5. Results and discussion are presented on section 6.
Microblogs and Twitter
Microblogs can be considered as “simplified blogs”. The main difference between usual
blogs and Twitter is that updates are limited in size (at Twitter, for example, each update
can‟t exceed 140 characters). These short updates allow more portability for information.
Due to this format versatility, microblogs can be updated through many different devices
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
such as cell phones, instant messengers and OS or mobile applications, and web. Besides
having same basic features of a blog – such as reverse chronological display of updates, or
content syndicated by Really Simple Syndication (RSS) –, microblogs have also two other
characteristics:
open
architecture
and
mobility.
Twitter‟s
Application
Programming
Interface
(API) is
partially
liberated,
which
allows
developers
to
create
derivative
applications using data from Twitter (as in the creation of mashups, for example). Mobility
is translated by the fact that Twitter can be updated and accessed from mobile devices,
which allows usage for instant news and notifications. Recent research of Pew Research
(December 2008) with North-American users of Twitter shows that these users tend to
choose cell phones to: send more text messages, use more mobile Internet or read more
news compared to ordinary people (Lenhart and Fox, 2009). One direct consequence is that
these users are more susceptible to access Twitter from their cell phones.
About four years ago, microblogging tools have emerged on web and started to allow
instant
communication
as
well
as
a
fast
way
for
information
diffusion.
Different
appropriations
have
been
reported
for
tools
like
Twitter
(http://twitter.com),
Jaiku
(http://jaiku.com) and Plurk (http://plurk.com) as the number of users increases, such as for
conversations (Honeycutt & Herring, 2009; boyd et al
.
, 2010), social networks (Huberman
et al
.
, 2009), political activism (Burns, 2009), and even for news distribution (Java et al.,
2007; F. Silva, 2009). Although the main goal of microblogging services seems to be
showing personal information (for instance, at Plurk, users are faced to an inspiring
welcome sentence: “Tired of your existing Social Networks? Share your life easily with
friends, family and fans”), in the course of time this type of tool has being increasingly used
for other purposes (Mischaud, 2007). In fact, Twitter has changed the main question from
“What are you doing?” to “What‟s going on?” in 2009. Consequentially its usage have been
modified throughout the years to the point that it now may be considered more a news
media rather than a social network (Kwak et al
.
, 2010). Thus, just like blogs (Amaral et al
.
,
2009; Bruns, 2005), microblogs can also be appropriated for the most diverse purposes
(Java et al., 2007; Mischaud, 2007).
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
Twitter development is directly connected to its usage on cell phones. The choice for 140
characters as the limit for message publications (also called tweets) wasn‟t random. This
number is related to the limit of digits for a SMS
message on cell phones, which is of 160
characters. There‟s a safety margin of 20 characters for insertions as usernames, for
example.
Even before Twitter popularization we could notice many situations regarding cell phone
and Twitter usage that got media attention all over the world. One of these cases took place
on April 2008, when a young man was released from jail with the aid of the microblogging
service. Cairo‟s police in Egypt arrested him after shooting a photo of a political protest.
After that, he posted through his cell phone, before having it apprehended, a message on
Twitter consisted of only one word: “Arrested”. It was enough for his friends to see the
message, hire a lawyer, and manage to release him from jail (Simon, 2008).
Another example of mobile Twitter usage happened when Janis Krums was on his way to
help the passengers from the plane that crashed on Hudson River on 15 January 2009, in
New York. Before arriving at the scene, he took a picture of it using his cell phone and sent
it straight to Twitter by posting it at TwitPic (http://twitpic.com). It was the first report on
the subject, and soon his picture on Twitter received media attention (Terdiman, 2009).
Twitter is largely being used to send and receive updates through mobile devices such as
cell phones. This allows appropriations such as for mobile citizen journalism, since it is
possible to report from an event directly from where it is taking place (F. Silva, 2008).
The possibility of publishing a message on Twitter from cell phones offers the power of
immediacy and pulverization to users. These users can tweet recent information on a
website where lots of people are connected.
Next sections will discuss this technology and
its impacts on how people use it.
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
Internet on mobile phones
Even decades ago, messages could already be sent from a distant point to another (Katz and
Aakhus, 2002). Telegraph, phone, mobile phone and even radiotelephony already allowed
this procedure. The cellular phone has been invented in 1947, by Bell Labs in the United
States, but only in 1984 the system that allows its utilization began to be implemented in
America (Pirotti and Zuccolotto, 2009). In constant evolution, cell phones in Brazil are an
extremely popular consuming product. Recent research performed by Cetic (Cetic, 2009)
identified that: 78 percent of Brazilian residences have, at least, one cell phone and that 54
percent of them have a computer.
Internet usage on mobile phones is a widely known procedure and is becoming a very
common fact between people that have them. With the appearance of third generation
networks (3G) and increasing popularization of smartphones, new motivations and goals
related to Internet usage also appeared.
Some technologies are available in order to access Internet form cell phones. Wi-Fi, or
Wireless Fidelity, is a term used by the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance to
describe wireless networking technology which access is provided from a connection to a
router. Not all cell phones provide Internet access using this technology. 3G is a technology
that allows Internet access from the third generation of mobile services. It allows a
connection with speeds of up to 2Mbps, and is provided by the cell phone operator.
Coverage tends to be more limited than EDGE. This technology is usually present in
smartphones. EDGE, or Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, is a technology that
allows Internet access on cell phones with GSM technology. It allows speeds of up to
385Kbps, and its coverage tends to be larger than 3G.
SMS, or Short Message Service, for
instance, is a technology present in almost all GSM cell phones which allows data
exchange between cell phones by text messages with up to 160 characters. Although SMS
is not a way to access Internet itself, it may be possible to be used to exchange messages
between a cell phone and a computer.
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
In spite of many Brazilians owning cell phones, its usage for Internet is still derisive.
Nevertheless,
accessing
Internet
from
cell
phones
is
a
widely
diffused
practice
proportionally to user‟s purchasing power. According to Cetic (Cetic, 2009), only two
percent of analyzed families, with income up to one minimum wage, stated using Internet
on the cell phone. Although cell phones are widely used all over the world, on Latin-
American context this situation tends to be a little different. The main causes are cost and
technology limitations (Brazil has one of the world‟s most expensive mobile phone rates)
(S. Silva, 2010). Even though not largely used, this usage can be situated on a broader
context of cyberculture.
Mobility and Cyberculture
Mobile devices usage for information and communication data exchange is an actual
tendency. This tendency is based on technological progress that allows the integration
between Internet and many devices. Mobile communication and pervasive technologies
(that are technologies characterized by chip presence on equipments that start to change
information between them (Lemos & Valentim, 2007)) start changing the way people meet
themselves, work, fight, sell, govern and create (Rheingold, 2002). Rheingold (2002)
suggested that mobile Internet will not be a new manner to do old things with mobility but
will be a new way to do different things that could not be done before.
By using this new available communication and information tool, people can have access to
another individuals and companies from anywhere, at any time, on a way never thought
before.
This connectivity possibility, when generalized, generates ubiquity feeling, which means,
the feeling of being able to stay simultaneously in more than one place at a time (Santaella,
2007). With ubiquity desire satisfied, mobile Internet utilization inducts new ways of
information consumption and sociability, leading to the appearance of a new culture
(Lemos & Valentim, 2007).
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
This new culture is called cyberculture and has had three fundamental stages according to
Lemos (2004). At first, in the 70‟s, technological center was the personal computer. The
second stage (80‟s and 90‟s) is characterized by Internet popularization that turned personal
computer
into
a
public
computer.
Nowadays
(on
21th
century),
the
third
stage‟s
technological center is the mobile public computer that is inserted in the so-called
connection age. This last stage is characterized by ubiquitous and pervasive computation
continuing the public production of previous stage (like blogs and forums) but on a mobile
form.
In this case Internet changes into a generalized connection environment. This environment
gives to technological mobile devices a special status. One of the most used devices that
meet these requirements is the cell phone. Last developed cell phones can be classified as
teletudo
” (something like “televerything”), that means, a cell phone that has multiple
functions (Lemos, 2004).
Cell phones connected to mobile Internet allows its usage in displacement, restricted to
areas that receive call signal but not to a unique place. The introduction of the telephone
changed people‟s life, but mobility brought by the cell phones together with social
interactions and computer-mediated communication changed even more (Katz & Aakhus,
2002).
Cyberspace is affected by the possibility of accessing Internet from cell phones because it is
not necessary to be on determinate physical place to: (i) be connected, (ii) access
determinate content and (iii) interact to other individuals. Many sites and applications are
being developed in order to exploit this potentiality, as on mobile social networks and
games. These applications use information as individual geo-localization that is provided
by cell phone as additional resources for sites. Two concepts are very important and have a
direct impact on cyberspace: cyberculture and appropriation.
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
Cyberculture and appropriation
Appropriation is a typical aspect of the cyberculture environment. Users tend to use the
tools not only on the way they are specified by the manufacturers, but also into unimagined
or inventive ways.
SMS messages, for example, were created for short data exchange
between cell phones. Its users, however, appropriated it for several other purposes, as for
organizing smart mobs (Rheingold, 2002), control robots (Manojkumar et al., 2010) or
getting aid after tragedies in difficult access places, as it happened on the 2004 tsunami on
Asia (Lemos & Novas, 2006).
Appropriation is understood in this work the same way it is in Lemos (2002). This concept
is based on Perriault and his sociology of uses, as the creative ways adopted by Internet
users, often very diverse from the original purpose of the systems in a context of
cyberculture. While adopting a new technology involves simply its usage and tool
consumption, appropriation is a creative process where limits and possibilities are tested
aiming to adapt the new technology to individual social life and culture (S. Silva, 2010).
Twitter
mobile
appropriations,
in
this
sense,
would
be
the
forms
by
which
the
microblogging tool is used and adapted by users through mobile access, as in using cell
phones to update and receive updates from Twitter.
To get necessary data for this work, there are many possible methods and the chosen
method
is
presented
in
the
next
section
followed
by
results
and
conclusions
of
development.
Development method
After a deep analysis of the theoretical information presented in the previous sections, some
questions appeared:
(i) In practice, how is Twitter used through cell phones? (ii) Are there
different possible uses for it? (iii) Does 3G technology affects Twitter usage on cell
phones?
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
One way to answer these questions is asking them to people that use Twitter. The idea was
to get many answers as possible for a general mapping of this area since it is difficult to
find specific material about it. A great procedure to get a lot of answers was to apply a
survey available online. In order to limit the scope of this research paper, authors chose to
restrict the survey to Brazilian users of Twitter. The authors believe that appropriation is a
culturally located phenomenon, which is why it made sense to restrict the survey to users
from a single country. According to a report by Sysomos, Brazilian users are the second
larger geographical group on Twitter (Sysomos, 2010). Also, recent data from comScore
shows that Twitter penetration among Brazilian users of the tool is extremely high (20.5
percent of Brazilian Internet users use the tool). Nonetheless, the country is not listed on the
same report on results regarding mobile access (comScore, 2010).
Following this line, the survey was created with Google Forms tool (Google, 2010) and its
link was released through blogs and Twitter between 6 and 19 April 2010. Questions were
addressed in Portuguese. There were a great number of answers in the first three days and
after that the number remained constant but reduced. After closing the survey, the number
of answers was 802. The result was a non-probabilistic random sample by convenience.
It‟s important to say that respondents are part of a specific group of users often connected
to Twitter.
But this specific group have different types of users and uses. Everybody that
had access to survey link could answer it, either by finding it on one of the author‟s Twitter
profile, or by finding it from one of the many people that helped spreading the word about
it by retweeting the link.
There were objective, of single and multiple choice, and discursive questions chosen based
on authors experience with Twitter usage from cell phones. Initially, questions seemed to
cover all topics needed by authors but, by compiling data, it was noticed that some non-
covered topics were also important and they are discussed on conclusions section. The
possible choices of objective questions were chosen empirically.
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
To relate the answers given for chosen questions and conclude something about them, some
statistical methods should be applied on collected data. Correlation and determination
coefficients can give the direct or reverse relation between two variables and the
quantitative measurement of this relation (Cohen et al
.
, 2003).
The most common method to measure dependency between two variables is the correlation
coefficient. This coefficient is obtained by dividing covariance by the product of standard
deviation of two variables. One way of getting this coefficient is using Equation 1.
Equation 1 has
X
and
Y
as the two series of variables and
n
as the number of samples. When
this coefficient achieves value of
+1
, is a perfect positive correlation or increasing linear
relationship. Value of
-1
is perfect negative correlation but in this case is a decreasing linear
relationship between two variables. If variables are independent, correlation coefficient is
0
.
After calculating correlation coefficient, to know how percentage of Y values explains X
values
behavior
is
simple.
Correlation
coefficient
squared
is
called
determination
coefficient and gives exactly this desired percentage. Correlation between X and Y has the
same value of correlation between Y and X. Applying this method the results of the survey
could be analyzed correctly searching for relevant information.
Results and discussion
Data collected from applied survey is presented in following paragraphs. There are some
interesting characteristics about Twitter users analyzed after each table. Altogether 26
questions were made available to users but only some of them are analyzed in this work.
Also, some questions didn‟t have answers from everyone.
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
First interesting information is that 58 percent of respondents are from Brazil‟s southeast
region with 34 percent from São Paulo state. According to Table 1, 47 percent of them are
between 18 and 25 years old. Few new users answered this survey. Table 2 shows that older
users of the tool predominate in the sample, 83 percent of respondents use Twitter for more
than six months with 23 percent using it for more than two years.
Table 1
. How old are you?
Age
#
%
Less than 18 years
65
8%
from 18 to 25 years
37
4
47%
from
26 to 30 years
17
3
22%
from 31 to 40 years
14
3
18%
from 41 to 50 years
34
4%
from 51 to 60 years
9
1%
More than 61years
2
0%
Total
80
0
100
%
Table 2
. For how long do you use Twitter?
Time
#
%
Less than a month
36
5%
From one to six months
10
0
12%
From six months to one
year
21
1
26%
From one to two years
27
1
34%
From two to three years
13
6
17%
More than three years
48
6%
Total
80
2
100
%
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
Tables 3 and 4 presents number of followers and following users. People tended to have
less than 500 followers (81 percent) and to follow less than 500 users (90 percent).
Table 3
. Followers
Total Followers
#
%
More than 100.
314
39%
Between 101 and 500.
336
42%
Between 501 and 1000.
75
9%
Between
1001
and
5000.
68
8%
More than 5001.
9
1%
Total
802
100
%
Table 4
. Following
Total Following
#
%
More than 100.
312
39%
Between 101 and 500.
409
51%
Between 501 and 1000.
50
6%
Between
1001
and
5000.
28
3%
More than 5001.
3
<
1%
Total
802
100
%
Twitter profiles can be public or private, 93 percent of users that answered the survey have
public profiles (Figure 1). A public profile allows everyone to see published messages
without previous authorization.
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
Figure 1
. Profile Types
Table 5
. Do you use to access Twitter from your cell phone?
Frequency
#
%
Never
21
9
27%
Rarely
80
10%
Sometimes
19
2
24%
Almost Always
12
4
15%
Always
18
7
23%
Total
80
2
100
%
Table 5 shows that people have different habits about accessing Twitter from the cell
phone. While 27 percent reported never access Twitter this way, 23 percent affirmed that
always use this technology.
One of the discursive questions asked why not access Twitter from cell phone, aimed
specifically at those 219 users that reported never using Twitter from a cell phone. The
main reasons presented are: (i) not having applications that allow this access (101 answers),
(ii) lack of knowledge about how to do this access (25), (iii) the high cost of accessing the
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
Internet from the cell phone (22) and (iv) prepaid phones (18). Seventy-three percent of
them answered yes when the question was about intention to use Twitter from cell phone in
the future.
How users access Twitter from their cell phones? (Figure 2) This question is very important
for this work and has two possible answers: (i) regarding access technology or (ii)
regarding application used for this access. Most used access technologies are Wi-Fi (43
percent) or 3G (37 percent),
19 percent use EDGE connection
.
Forty-two percent have a
special software to access Twitter while 34 percent access it by mobile browsers
and 40
percent update it using SMS.
Table 6 shows the results of another important question for this work‟s proposal. Fifty-
eight percent of respondents have 3G technology but only 44 percent of them use this
technology to access Twitter. Table 7 shows that more than 90 percent of cell phone users
of Twitter use it to send messages, and 66 percent use it to receive updates. The difference
between people that use to send and to receive was expected to be bigger due to mobile
Internet costs. Since June 2010 TIM offers an official number for sending Twitter updates
by SMS in Brazil (G1, 2010). But by the time we applied the questionnaire, Twitter still
didn‟t have an official number for SMS updates in the country.
Figure 2
. Access Types from Cell Phones
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
Table
6
. Does your cell phone have 3G technology? Do you use it to access Twitter?
3G Technology
#
%
My cell phone has /
Use for Twitter
253
44%
My cell phone has /
Do not use for Twitter
79
14%
My cell phone doesn‟t
have / Would use for
Twitter
226
39%
My cell phone doesn‟t
have / Would not use
for Twitter
21
4%
Total
579
100%
So it made sense to ask if users had a specific plan from their cell phone operators in order
to access Twitter on their cell phones.
Only 85 users, or 14 percent of the respondents that reported using Twitter on cell phones,
said that they had subscribed to a specific plan from their cell phone operators in order to
send or receive updates from Twitter.
Table 7
. Purposes of cell phone Twitter utilization.
Purposes
#
%
Send updates
195
34%
Receive updates
46
8%
Both
337
58%
Total
578
100
%
These 85 users were asked to provide details about their plans. The most cited plan was
Vivo
“Twittando
”, from Vivo cell phone operator, which allows sending and receiving
Twitter updates using SMS technology. Forty percent of these 85 respondents declared that
they not only are able to send but also can receive Twitter updates by SMS. Since they have
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
to pay for every SMS they receive, the majority of these users reported that only receives
messages that mentions their usernames (replies) or direct messages.
All respondents that reported using Twitter on cell phone were invited to relate, on a
discursive question, what situations inducted them to send updates to Twitter from a cell
phone. Among those users, 13.7 percent use Twitter from cell phones the same way they
use on their computers, 18.1 percent use cell phones only when there is no computer near
them. Cell phones are used to access Twitter while users are waiting something for 1.3
percent and to say where they are for other 1.3 percent. Two percent access mobile Internet
to send messages for Twitter when there is no Wi-Fi connection available, and 0.04 percent
when there‟s no electric energy. Only 3.5 percent use Twitter when are travelling, 8.6
percent use it to do live coverage of events, 10.44 percent use on traffic. Worrying about
bring useful information to users appeared on 0.06 percent of the answers, 12.72 percent
only use for facts that are important to them. Other specific uses for Twitter from cell
phones are interesting: (i) 0.47 percent use for replies, (ii) 1.3 percent for retweets, (iii) 4.8
percent use for posting tweets with photos, (iv) 2.6 percent report using on laziness
situations and (v) 0.32 percent use when they are too lazy to turn on the computer.
After analyzing the results, some answers were correlated to know if they are statistically
linked. Table 5 answers were correlated to tables 1,2,3,4 and 6 answers. To make this
analysis possible, options were quantified on a crescent order, for example:
on questions
that asked for ages, lower ages received lower numbers and higher ages received higher
numbers. Non-answered questions received 0 because correlation formula is a group of
sums and this is a neutral value. Figure 3 presents rounded coefficient values.
Statistical analysis of these variables showed that: (i) the older users (related to age) are the
less that accesses Twitter, (ii) new Twitter users (related to time usage) access Twitter from
cell phone more frequently than older users, (iii) as a direct consequence of (ii) the more
followers and following the less cell phone accesses, and the most interesting relation (v)
the fact that cell phone has 3G technology does not mean that people access Twitter more
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
from their cell phones. All this conclusions were based on coefficient values. There are no
perfect relations between variables but these conclusions are real tendencies.
Figure 3
. Coefficients
Conclusions
Although the use of Twitter from cell phone seems to be uncommon among respondents, it
is interesting to notice that many different uses for Twitter through mobile devices were
found. While most users choose Wi-Fi to access Twitter from cell phones, SMS users are a
high number (40 percent) and draws attention. This result is due to the fact that few cell
phones have 3G and Wi-Fi technology forcing users that want to use Twitter this way to
spend a little more and choose SMS as an alternative.
It‟s interesting to notice that this tool is largely used to send updates from mobile devices.
This fact allows users to announce facts recently happened. Survey answers also show that
Brazilian users do not largely use Twitter from their cell phones because of technological
and financial limitations. However, a large amount of those that doesn‟t yet use Twitter
through cell phones (73 percent) is willing to use it in the future, which can be seen as a
positive perspective to mobile access of Twitter.
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
The main goal of this work was achieved and information contained in this document is
very important to future studies of microblogs. Data from other countries can be retrieved
in order to compare Twitter usage from mobile phones in different regions.
As future works, other questions not mentioned in this work can be analyzed and correlated
to find other relations between them. After this survey, some questions showed to be not
what authors were expecting so they had to be reformulated and some interviews can be
done with a fewer number of users but in a more profound way in order to explore these
questions further. A higher number of answers is also necessary to verify if this statistical
relations between variables will tend to perfect relations or to independent relations.
References
Amaral, A., Recuero, R., & Montardo, S. (2009). Blogs, Mapeando um Objeto, In: Amaral,
A.,
Recuero, R. & Montardo, S. (Eds.)
. Blogs.com: estudos sobre blogs e comunicação
(pp. 257-274)
.
São Paulo: Momento Editorial.
.
Boyd, d., Golder, S. & Lotan, G. (2010). Tweet, Tweet, Retweet: Conversational Aspects
of Retweeting on Twitter, In:
HICSS-43
, IEEE press.
Bruns, A. (2005).
Gatewatching
. New York: Peter Lang.
Burns, A. & Eltham, B. (2009). Twitter Free Iran: an Evalutation of Twitter‟s Role in
Public
Diplomacy
and
Information
Operations
in
Iran‟s
2009
Election
Crisis.
Communications Policy & Research Forum
, University of Technology, Sydney.
Cetic (2009). Pesquisa sobre o uso das TIC‟s no Brasil. Accessed 06 July 2010 at
2009?pais=brasil&amp;estado=mg&amp;servicos
=servicos&amp;age=de-16-a-24-
anos&amp;educati on= pos-mestrado&amp;purpose=pesquisa-academica,
Cohen,
J.,
Cohen,
P.,
West,
S.G.
&
Aiken,
L.S.
(2003).
Applied
multiple
regression/correlation
analysis
for
the
behavioral
sciences
.
Hillsdale,
New
Jersey:
Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.
comScore (2010). Indonesia, Brazil and Venezuela Lead Global Surge in Twitter Usage.
Accessed
on
22
November,
2010
at
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
nezuela_Lead_Global_Surge_in_Twitter_Usage
G1 (2010). Acordo entre TIM e Twitter permite atualizações no microblog via SMS.
Accessed on 25 June 2010 at http://g1.globo.com/tecnologia/noticia/2010/06/ac ordo-entre-
tim-e-twitter-permite-atualizacoes-no-micr oblog-sms.html
Google
(2010).
Google
Docs:
Docs
Help.
Accessed
on
26
July
2010
at
Honeycutt,
C.
&
Herring,
S.
(2009).
Beyond
microblogging:
Conversation
and
collaboration via Twitter. In:
Proceedings of the 42th Hawaii International Conference on
System Sciences
. Los Alamitos, CA. IEEE press.
Huberman, B., Romero, D. & Wu F. (2009). Social networks that matter: Twitter under the
microscope.
First Monday
,
volume 14, number 1.
Java, A., Song, X., Finin, T. & Tseng, B. (2007). Why We Twitter: Understanding
Microblogging Usage and Communities. In:
9
th
WEBKDD and 1
st
SNAKDD Workshop.
San
Jose, California USA.
Katz, J.E. & Aakhus, M. (2002). Perpetual Contact.
Mobile communication, private talk,
public performance
. Cambridge: University Press.
Kwak, H., Lee, C., Park, H. & Moon, S. (2010). What is Twitter, a Social Network or a
News Media? In:
WWW
, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.
Lemos, A. & Novas, L. (2006). Cibercultura e tsunamis: tecnologias de comunicação
móvel, blogs e mobilização social.
Revista FAMECOS,
volume 1, number 16, 2006.
Lemos, A. (2002).
Cibercultura
. Porto Alegre: Sulina.
Lemos, A. (2004). Cibercultura e Mobilidade: a Era da Conexão.
Razón y Palabra
, number
41.
Lemos, A. & Valentim, J. (2007). Ciberspaço e Tecnologias Móveis: processos de
Territorialização e Desterritorialização na Cibercultura.
Lenhart, A. & Fox, S. (2009). Twitter and Status Updating. In:
Pew Internet & American
Life Project
.
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
Manojkumar, D., Mathankumar, P., Saranya, E. & Pavithradevi, S. (2010.) Mobile
Controlled Robot using DTMF Technology for Industrial Application.
International
Journal od Electronic Engeneering Research
, volume 2, number 3, pp. 349-355.
Mischaud, E. (2007). Twitter: Expressions of the Whole Self. An Investigation into user
appropriation
of
a
web-based
communications
platform.
In:
Msc
in
Politics
and
Communication
, London School of Economics and Political Science.
Pirotti, R.P. & Zuccolotto, M. (2009). Transmissão de dados através de telefonia celular:
arquitetura de redes GSM e GPRS.
Revista Liberato
, Novo Hamburgo, volume 10, number
13, pp. 81-89.
Rheingold, H. (2002).
Smart Mobs
. USA: Basic Books.
Santaella, L. (2007).
Linguagens líquidas na era da mobilidade
. São Paulo: Paulus.
Silva, F.F. (2008). Jornalismo live Streaming: tempo real, mobilidade e espaço urbano. In:
6th Encontro Nacional de Pesquisadores em Jornalismo
. São Bernardo do Campo:
SBPJor.
.
Silva, F.F. (2009). Moblogs e microblogs: jornalismo e mobilidade. In: Amaral, A.,
Recuero, R. & Montardo, S. (Eds.).
Blogs.com: Estudos sobre blogs e comunicação
(pp.
257-274). São Paulo: Momento Editorial.
Silva, S.R. (2010). Do celular pai-de-santo ao celular-orelhão: humor, conflito e novas
práticas socioculturais na apropriação do telefone celular em grupos popuplares.
Intexto.
Porto Alegre, UFRGS, volume 1, number 22, pp. 116-133.
Simon, M. (2008). Student „Twitters‟ his way out of Egyptian jail. In: CNN, 25 April 2008.
Sysomos (2010). Exploring the Use of Twitter Around the World. Accessed on 22
Terdiman, D. (2009). Photo of Hudson River plane crash downs TwitPic. In: CNET News,
15 January
2009. Accessed on 26 July 2010 at http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-
10143736-93.html
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
1
Doutoranda em Comunicação e Informação – UFRGS – Brazil – E-mail: gabriela.zago@ufrgs.br - Blog:
http://gabrielazago
2
Mestranda em Estudos de Linguagem – CEFET/MG – Brazil – E-mail: contato@raquelcamargo.com - Blog:
http://raquelcamargo.com
3
Doutorando em Ciências da Computação e Matemática Computacional – USP – Brazil – E-mail:
macccdias@gmail.com
RAZÓN Y PALABRA
Primera Revista Electrónica en América Latina Especializada en Comunicación
www.razonypalabra.org.mx
NÚMERO 77
AGOSTO - OCTUBRE 2011
logo_pie_uaemex.mx