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Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
INDIANA 29 (2012): 331-341
Catherine J. Julien
(19 May 1950 - 27 May 2011)
Catherine Jean Julien was born at Stanford, California, on 19 May 1950 and spent
her childhood in Turlock, California. After graduating from high school in 1967,
Julien began her academic career at Whitman College, a Liberal Arts college in
Walla Walla, Washington, where she studied philosophy, economics, and history. In
1970, she enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley to study anthropology
and fnished her studies in December 1971 with a B.A. in anthropology.
With her studies at Berkeley began Julien’s lifelong association with John H.
Rowe and his wiFe Patricia Lyon. Julien especially understood herselF frst and Fore
most to be in a continuous dialogue with Rowe. At his suggestion, she went to Peru
in 1972 and worked with the collections of Inca ceramics at the
Museo Arqueológico
of the
Universidad Nacional de San Antonio de Abad
in Cuzco, a research project
aiming at a more detailed chronology of Inca-style pottery. In 1973 and 1974, Julien
worked as a feldwork assistant in the
Qotakalli Tarawi
project organized by Rowe
and Lyon, excavating sites in the neighborhood of Cuzco. She received her master
in June 1975
Immediately afterwards, Julien started with the research for her dissertation.
From August 1975 to December 1976, she conducted archaeological excavations
and archival research in Peru, concentrating her excavations on the town of Hatun-
qolla northwest of Puno, the capital of the Peruvian department of this name. Hatun-
qolla had been an Inca provincial center and before an important settlement of the
Collas, an ethnic group on the northwestern shore of the Lake Titicaca. During her
excavations from November 1975 to January 1976, Julien collected 17,000 pottery
sherds and investigated test pit stratigraphies with the goal to develop a chronologi-
cal sequence of the local pottery style in relation to Inca ceramics. In addition to
her archaeological work, Julien consulted ethnohistorical sources to reconstruct the
effects of the Inca administration on the Collas.
With her dissertation emerged two important themes in Julien’s research during
much of her following career, the discussion of Inca provincial rule and the regional
focus on the ethnic groups on the shore of Lake Titicaca. After her return to the
United States, Julien became a teaching assistant at Berkeley’s Department of An-
thropology in 1977 and 1978. She received her Ph.D. in December 1978. The revised
text of her thesis was published in 1983 under the title “Hatunqolla: A view of Inca
rule from the Lake Titicaca region”. Julien continued to teach at Berkeley in 1979
Kerstin Nowack
and went to Peru in 1980. She returned to the United States in 1984 and spent the
year as a Senior Fellow at the Newberry Library in Chicago. Starting with her Ph.D.
thesis, the focus of Julien’s work on the Andes had moved away from archaeology to
ethnohistory. For her intensifying work with published and unpublished documents,
Julien participated at the Newberry Library in a summer program taught by Vicenta
Cortés Alonso, an expert on Spanish paleography.
From January 1984 to May 1989, she became the director of the Courthouse
Museum at Merced, California, a town south of her hometown Turlock. During her
work at the museum (and also in 1989), Julien used Wenner-Gren grants to pursue
her work on the ethnohistory of Peru. In 1988, she contacted the University of Bonn,
following a recommendation by Woodrow Borah, and asked if there was a position
available for a specialist of Andean studies. Hanns Prem suggested that she should
apply for a grant by the Alexander-von-Humboldt Foundation. Her application was
received very well, and she arrived at Bonn in October 1989 and immediately went
to work on the research project she had proposed, a study of Andean territoriality
in the early colonial and Inca period. In relation to her Humboldt grant, Julien pub-
lished a short article on the orientation of buildings at Machu Picchu in the magazine
of the Humboldt-Foundation (1990).
Julien’s research on territoriality was an outgrowth of her dissertation where
she reconstructed territorial units working backwards in time from the colonial
capitanías de mita
(divisions for forced labor at
Potosí) to the provinces in the Inca empire. She employed a similar approach for
the study of the Condesuyu south of the Inca capital of Cuzco (Condesuyu was one
of the four
or quarters of the Inca empire). The choice of this study area also
developed out of her work in the Lake Titicaca basin, because ethnic groups from the
highland like the southern neighbors of the Collas, the Lupacas, had colonies of set-
tlers for the exploitation of lowland resources south of the Condesuyu quarter. These
colonies were famous as one of the four test cases for John V. Murra’s discussion
of Andean verticality (Murra 1975). The vertical economy of the Andes with its use
of different ecological zones and reciprocal or redistributive exchange systems was
one of the central topics for Andeanists from the 1970s, and Julien’s strong interest
in territorial organization and economics relates to these discussions. Her Humboldt
grant was extended until the end of July 1991 which allowed her to Fnish a book
presenting the results of her research titled “Condesuyo: The political division of
territory under Inca and Spanish rule” (Julien 1991).
Necrología / Orbituary / Nachruf
During her frst stay at Bonn, Julien also taught courses at the university and
became a mentor for serveral students graduating in Andean studies, myself among
them. In many ways, Julien’s interests ftted very well into the traditions oF Andean
studies at Bonn. Like her, Hermann Trimborn and Udo Oberem had both worked on
ethnohistory and archaeology (Oberem 1976, 1981; Trimborn 1936, 1939, 1981).
When Julien came to Germany, Andean studies in Bonn were represented by
Roswith Hartmann, a Quechua linguist and ethnographer, and by Albert Meyers, an
archaeologist and ethnohistorian. Meyers had written his PhD thesis on Inca archae-
ological material, especially ceramics, from Ecuador (Meyers 1976). With Julien’s
arrival, there were two researchers working on the Inca, together with a larger
number of students graduating in Andean studies, and this gave the impulse for the
development of a new project to study the Inca presence in the Bolivian montaña.
The focus of the project was planned to be on Inca rule and interaction with the
ethnic groups on the eastern slopes of the Andes. The project was interdisciplinary
and brought together researchers from archaeology and ethnohistory.
A parallel ethnohistorical project was planned with Julien as the principal re-
searcher. Olinda Celestino from
Centre national de la recherche scientifque
in Paris
received fnancing For archival research in South America. Like the archaeological
project, the
Proyecto Etnohistórico Montaña de Bolivia
was funded by the
(DFG). After Julien’s Humboldt grant ended in July 1991,
she returned for several months to California and came back to Germany in summer
1992 when the frst year oF the ethnohistorical project started. In 1993, the project
was extended for another two years until August 1995.
The goal oF the ethnohistorical project was to fnd published and unpublished
materials which could shed light on the 15th and 16th century population structure
and cultures in the Bolivian
, the incursion of the Inca state, and the inter-
action with the Spanish colonial regime. It was planned that the research should
concentrate on the area around Samaipata. The available published literature was to
be studied, but the main emphasis would be on the search for new, previously un-
published material from Spanish and South American archives. The project allowed
Julien to spent an extensive and enormously productive year at the
Archivo de Indias
(AGI) in Seville and to visit a number of other archives in Spain as well as in Peru,
Bolivia and Argentina.
Julien came back to Germany in October 1993 to organize and catalogue the
materials she had discovered. From January to May 1994, a second phase of archival
research followed in South America where Julien especially consulted the
Nacional de Bolivia
in Sucre. She also visited archives in Lima, La Paz, Cochabamba,
Kerstin Nowack
Potosí and Tarija as well as the
Archivo General de la Nación
at Buenos Aires. From
the archives in Europe and South America, Julien collected copies of 240 documents
of differing lengths, from a few pages to 1,300 pages, which are still stored at the
institute in Bonn. The remaining time of the project until August 1995 was dedicated
to the transcription and analysis of these documents.
project was not without problems. Julien discovered relatively
soon that documents referring to Samaipata and the surrounding area were difFcult
to Fnd. The Spanish crown had lost control of the area around the site in the 16th
century and did not fully regain until the 18th century. There were hardly any extant
documents covering the period directly after the end of Inca rule when it could be
assumed that Inca organization and indigenous cultures were relatively undisturbed
by Spanish in±uence, and when the initial changes resulting from Spanish domina
tion could be traced. Lamentably, in the case of Samaipata the Ft between ethno
historical and archaeological results – to paraphrase the title of an article by Julien
from 1993 – was not very good.
This in a way proved to be disappointing for the general project goals, but
Julien’s attempt to Fnd a solution for this problem was innovative and fruitful for her
research. Instead of looking for material about the
created by the Spanish
administration in the Andes, Julien turned to the Spanish colonization in Argentina
and Paraguay. She collected documents about the Spanish reconnaissance of the
Paraná and Paraguay river basins and Frst Spanish settlements there, and developed
a completely new research Feld. A Frst result could be seen in an article about the
different perceptions of the lowland groups, especially the Chiriguanos, by Spanish
colonists in the Andes and in Paraguay and the Bolivian lowlands, depending on
their relations with the indigenous population (Julien 1997a), while a later article
discusses the Spanish expeditions and their goals (2007b). Many documents col-
lected about the early exploration were published in the volume on the Frst founda
tion of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and the Spanish exploration of the territory around it
(2008). Ultimately, the research on Argentina and Paraguay led to the project which
occupied Julien nearly until her death – the edition of the materials from the gover-
norship of Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (see below).
Julien recovered an impressive amount of material on the ethnohistory of the
Inca and the colonial period in Peru and Bolivia. Many of her writings in the fol-
lowing years can be directly and indirectly related to the
project. A more
direct relation is seen in those on the organization of Inca coca-growing on the east
Andean slopes (Julien 1998a) and of Inca frontier defense to the lowlands (1994).
Articles on other topics were also based on documents found during her archival
Necrología / Orbituary / Nachruf
research from 1992 to 1994, like that on water reservoirs built for the reFning of
silver at Potosí (Julien 1997b), another on the
of La Plata (1997c), and a
third on the devastating 1650 earthquake in Cuzco (1996).
A main outcome of her research on the early history of Spanish occupation in
the montaña were two volumes of documents from the early history of the town
of Tarija (in southeastern highlands of Bolivia) and the already mentioned book
Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Julien, Angelis & Bass Werner de Ruiz 1997; Julien
2008). Together with three students she published a tribute assessment (
) of the
Lupacas, the already mentioned ethnic group from the western shore of the Lake
Titicaca (Julien et al. 1993).
During her stay in Germany, Julien was also contacted by the publisher C.H.
Beck in Munich, which was planning a new series of introductory books on a variety
of topics from the humanities, social and natural sciences. Julien was asked to con-
tribute a book on Inca culture and history. The book was Frst published in 1998 and
provides an introduction on her thinking about the development of the Inca state, the
role of the
(the ruler’s descent groups), provincial organization and religion.
The book went through several reprints and still is the only modern summary of Inca
research available in German. After its initial publication, it was soon translated into
Italian and Spanish (2000b, 2001b).
Part of this book served as a basis for Julien’s magistral study “Reading Inca
on Inca historical genres and their interpretation by 16th and 17th century
Spanish writers (2000c). Studies of the Inca empire had long been hampered by
doubts about the historicity of the narratives found in the Spanish historical accounts.
Julien argued that the Incas had an interest to conserve recollections of the past and
that they developed various oral genres to preserve historical memories, as in the
form of lists of the Inca rulers and their wives and life histories of individual rul-
ers transmitted by their descent groups (
). Inca genres in various degrees of
complexity were collected and recounted by the Spanish historians, either directly
or by copying of previous works. In a labour-intensive and meticulous comparison
between the most important Spanish narratives (“chronicles”), Julien found evidence
for the existence of these genres and the extent of textual borrowing between the
Spanish authors. Her efforts were recognized by the scholarly community and she
received two awards for this book, in 2000 the Katherine Singer Kovacs prize for the
best work on the history and culture of Latin America from the Modern Language
Association, and in 2001 the Ermine-Wheeler Voeglin prize for the best work in
ethnohistory from the American Society for Ethnohistory.
Kerstin Nowack
Working on “Reading Inca history” was Julien’s frst major project aFter she
returned to the United States in 1995 and became a member of the Department of
History at the Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, in 1996. A second major
project was the publication of the “Guide to documentary sources for Andean stud-
ies, 1530-1900” (Pillsbury 2008). Julien was intensely involved in the assembling
and editing of the contributions for this overview on sources for Andean ethnohis-
torical and historical studies, and herself wrote eleven entries and articles, either
wholly or in part. (A return to the discussion of sources was one of her last articles,
on the authorship of the “Discurso sobre la descendencia y gouierno de los ingas”,
work also known as the “Relación de los Quipucamayos”, Vega 1974; Julien 2009).
Julien’s contribution to this overdue introduction to sources about the Andes is
another example of her dedication to provide Andeanists with basic resources for
their work. This dedication can be seen as well in her publication of new or revised
transcriptions of documents which accompanied her articles and in the above men-
tioned document collections on Tarija, Santa Cruz and the Toledo tasa of 1574. Julien
was a indefatigable transcriber of documents, and a topic of special interest for her
were the early
grants which she used as a basis for the reconstruction
of Andean indigenous territorial divisions and economics.
grants can
be found in the Tarija document collection and in the articles on the functionaries of
local Inca administration, “An Inca information network” (2006a), on the
of Hernando Pizarro and Diego Maldonado (2001a, 2002a) as well as on
and indigenous religious land holdings in the Condesuyu (2002b, 2003).
Another project also shows her dedication to publishing of source materials.
During a sabbatical in 2003 Julien spent fve months at the John Carter Brown
Library transcribing and translating the “Ynstruccion del ynga don Diego de Castro
Titu Cussi Yupangui” from 1570. The
is the only text composed by a
descendent of the Inca dynasty describing their experiences in the early colonial
period. Julien edited the text in a newly transcribed Spanish version with a page by
page English translation (2006b).
Related to this book was the fascinating discovery of a letter by Titu Cusi Yupan-
qui written in 1562 (Julien 2006c). In this letter, Titu Cusi threatens the Spanish
of Cuzco, Gregorio González Cuenca, with war. The letter is in Spanish, but
it contains a series of rhetoric questions and responses which seem to be a relatively
direct translation of a form of Quechua poetry. Julien discovered traces of a similar
form in a passage of the
. The letter provides a new, intriguing insight into
how the Inca thought and spoke about warfare.
Necrología / Orbituary / Nachruf
During her last years, Julien was preparing an edition of Alvar Núñez Cabeza
de Vaca’s reports about his expeditions as the governor of Rio de la Plata. For this
project, Julien cooperated with Pablo Pastrana-Pérez, a colleague from the Depart-
ment of Spanish at the Western Michigan University. Pastrana-Pérez will complete
the edition of this work (Western Michigan University 2011). The editing of Cabeza
de Vaca’s texts has become the conclusion of Julien’s intensive occupation with the
Spanish exploration and settlement of the lowlands of Bolivia, Paraguay and Argen-
Most of Julien’s other research focussed on a number of interrelated topics in the
Andes, mostly dealing with 16th century history. A turning point in Andean history
was the term of ofFce of the viceroy ±rancisco de Toledo (1569 to 1581).
Not surprisingly, much of Julien’s research was related to this momentous Fgure
of Andean history. She was enormously well-informed about the career of Toledo,
both in Spain and in Peru, about the political context of his activities, and the life
of the viceroy in general. Julien worked with the materials gathered during Toledo’s
general inspection of the viceroyalty, as in the publication of the Lupaca
1574 (Julien et al. 1993). Toledo’s political (and military) activities were re²ected
in her study about the Chiriguanos (Julien 1997a), about the conquest of Vilcabam-
ba (2007a) and about the subsequent treatment of the high-ranking Inca prisoners
(Nowack & Julien 1999). Turning to the ideological projects of the viceroy and his
attempts to show the illegitimacy of Inca rule, Julien especially wrote about the
collections of Inca objects Toledo brought back to Spain. Based on an inventory
made after his death in Spain, the article “History and art in translation: The ‘paños’
and other objects collected by Francisco de Toledo” dealt with the paintings of the
members of the Inca dynasty which the viceroy had ordered to be made as gifts for
the Spanish king (1999). Another object that Toledo apparently brought to Spain was
the gold statue of the sun god Punchao, one of the holiest objects of the Inca, which
Julien discussed in 2002c.
Julien’s intensive use and publication of early
grants has already
been mentioned. The
can be viewed as the strongest Spanish attempt to
remodel the Andean world prior to the time of Toledo. The institution of the Spanish
gave the Spanish conquerors access to indigenous labor, mostly in the
form of tribute. Much of Julien’s reconstructions of prehispanic spatial organization
were based on the
(and on the
). The studies of the territo-
rial bases of Andean social and political organization was interwoven with her strong
interest in economics. Tribute re²ected the resources and organization of Andean
territories, and it became a recurring theme in Julien’s discussions of 16th century
Kerstin Nowack
Peru, as for example in her already mentioned studies on Inca tribute categories
(Julien 1985, 1987), her ground-breaking analysis of the Inca decimal organization
(1982, 1988) for which she used the above mentioned Lupaca
from 1567, and
her article on Inca textile standards (textiles being a principal form of Inca tribute
(2000d)). Evident in Julien’s studies of Toledo’s government and the
her view that the colonial administration and Spanish politics have to be analyzed to
understand the scope and limitations of the documentation generated by them.
Another recurring theme in Julien’s research on the 16th century is the Inca
elite, which she studied in their various relations with colonial society and Spanish
administration. The translation of Titu Cusi’s Ynstruçion and the publication of his
letter as well as the study of Toledo’s war against Vilcabamba and the article on the
treatment of the Vilcabamba and other Inca prisoner are testimonies of this interest.
Another article on two women of the Inca elite, “Francisca Pizarro, la cuzqueña, y
su madre, la coya Ynguill” (2000a) deals with an earlier period of Spanish-Inca rela-
tions, the reign of Manco Inca. For the 1530s Julien also reconstructed the original
holdings of Manco Inca (1998c) in search for evidence about the private
estates owned by the Inca
, the ruler’s descent groups. In this context, she
also discussed the
of Hernando Pizarro who apparently received grants
deriving from the original
possessions (2001a). These articles like the one
on the
of well-known protagonists of colonial history including Diego
Maldonado (2002a), holder of important tribute grants west of Cuzco, are linked
to the topics of territoriality and Inca provincial organization. Several of Julien’s
most recent articles also refect her abiding interest in Inca politics and territoriality
(2006a, 2007c, 2010).
With another text on
in Majes and Cabanaconde, Julien returned
to Condesuyu quarter of the Inca empire, as she did with an article on
place, here especially mountains) in the Arequipa region (2002b). The major
in Condesuyu, as Julien already suggested in the 1991 book, had their own small
provinces assigned to them which provided them with animals and plant products
for the subsistence of the
itself, but also of its attendants and priests. From this
follows one of Julien’s suggestions for the understanding of Inca administration and
politics, her deFnition o± di±±erent types o± Inca provinces.
The research leading to this conclusion was presented in an article from 1993,
“²inding a Ft: Archaeology and ethnohistory o± the Incas”. The 1993 article was
written as a summary and general discussion of the essays in a volume on “Provin-
cial Inca” (edited by Michael Malpass). The interdisciplinary approach of the col-
lection allowed Julien to return to her studies of Inca ceramics which had begun in
Necrología / Orbituary / Nachruf
Cuzco in 1972 and were continued in her dissertation. Julien never lost her original
interest in Inca archaeology and saw herself as an archaeologist and anthropologist
as well as a historian. In this sense, she probably did not regret that her studies of
Inca ceramics from Cuzco took so long to be published, because it was a welcome
reminder of her work in this Feld. The long article (nearly a small book) studied the
Inca pottery from 13 gravelots of the Sacsaguaman, the fortress of Cuzco, excavated
in 1933 and 1934 by Luis E. Valcárcel and in 1940 by Luis A. Llanos and José María
±ranco Inojosa. Julien Frst worked with these collections at the
Museo Arqueológico
of Cuzco
during her trip in 1972 and continued to study them during subsequent vis-
its from 1973 to 1984. The article, originally written and revised in the 1980s, was
Fnally printed in 2004. Together with her work on lowland South America, it is a
testimony of the broad span of Julien’s research, and as it can be seen in her long list
of contributions to the studies of the Andes, lowland South America, and especially
the Incas, she was one of the most brilliant and productive ethnohistorians of the last
Bibliographical references
Note: Only the books and articles mentioned the text are listed here. A complete
bibliography of Catherine J. Julien’s works will soon be published in the journal
“Andean Past”. I like to thank Monica Barnes that she made her bibliography
available to me.
Julien, Catherine
Inca decimal administration in the Lake Titicaca region. In: Collier, George A., Renato I.
Rosaldo & John D. Wirth (eds.):
The Inca and Aztec states, 1400-1800: Anthropology and
. New York/London: Academic Press, 119-151.
Hatunqolla: A view of Inca rule from the Lake Titicaca region
. Berkeley/Los Angeles/
London: University of California Press.
Guano and resource control in sixteenth-century Arequipa. In: Masuda, Shozo, Izumi
Shimada & Craig Morris (eds.):
Andean ecology and civilization. An interdisciplinary
perspective on Andean ecological complementarity
. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press,
The Uru tribute category: Ethnic boundary and empire in the Andes.
Proceedings of the
American Philosophical Society
131(1): 53-91.
How Inca decimal administration worked.
35(3): 257-279.
La metáfora de la montaña.
31(100): 84-89.
Condesuyo: The political division of territory under Inca and Spanish rule
. Bonner
Amerikanistische Studien, 19. Bonn: Seminar für Völkerkunde.
Kerstin Nowack
Finding a ft: Archaeology and ethnohistory o± the Incas. In: Malpass, Michael (ed.):
Provincial Inca: Archaeological and ethnohistorical assessment of the impact of the Inca
. Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 177-233.
Oroncota entre dos mundes. In: Presta, Ana María (ed.):
Espacio, etnias, frontera:
atenuaciones políticas en el sur del Tawantinsuyu, siglos XV-XVII
. Sucre: Ediciones
ASUR, 97-160.
La documentacion presentada por la ciudad del Cuzco sobre el terremoto de 1650.
del Museo e Instituto de Arqueología
25: 293-373.
Colonial perspectives on the Chiriguaná. In: Cipolletti, María Susana (ed.):
Resistencia y
adaptación nativas en las tierras bajas Latinoamericanas
. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala,
Las lagunas de Potosi en tiempo de Don Pedro de Lodeña: documentos del Archivo de
Historia y Cultura
(La Paz) 24: 13-53.
La visita toledana de los yanaconas de la ciudad de La Plata.
Memoria Americana
6: 49-
Coca production on the Inca frontier : The yungas of Chuquioma.
Andean Past
5: 129-
Die Inka: Geschichte, Kultur, Religion
. Translated by Kerstin Nowack. München: Beck.
La encomienda del Inca. In:
Actas del IV Congreso Internacional de Etnohistoria
, 2.
Lima: Pontifcia Universidad Católica del Perú, 489-516.
History and art in translation: The ‘paños’ and other objects collected by Francisco de
Colonial Latin American Review
8(1): 61-89.
Francisca Pizarro, la cuzqueña, y su madre, la coya Ynguill.
Revista del Archivo Regional
del Cusco
15: 53-74.
Gli inca
. [Italian edition of Julien 1998]. Translated by Alice Guarnotta & Antonio
Guarnotta. Bologna: Mulino.
Reading Inca history
. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.
Spanish use of Inca textile standards.
16: 57-81.
Inca estates and the encomienda: Hernando Pizarro’s holdings in Cusco.
Andean Past
Los Incas: historia, cultura, religión
. [Spanish edition of Julien 1998]. Translated by
Rosa Pilar Blanco. Madrid: Acento.
Diego Maldonado y los chancas.
Revista Andina
34: 183-197.
Las huacas pacariscas de Arequipa y el volcán Misti.
Historia: Revista de la Escuela
Professional de Historia
5: 9-40.
Punchao en España. In:
El hombre y los Andes: homenaje a Franklin Pease G.Y
. Lima:
Institut Français d’Études Andines/Pontifcia Universidad Católica del Perú, 709-715.
Majes y Cabanaconde en 1535.
Historia: Revista de la Escuela Professional de Historia
6: 11-24.
Las tumbas de Sacsahuaman y el estilo Cuzco-Inca.
Ñawpa Pacha
25-27: 1-125.
An Inca information network.
Ñawpa Pacha
28: 41-61.
History of how the Spaniards arrived in Peru
. Dual-language edition. Indianapolis:
Hackett Publishing.
Titu Cusi Yupanqui amenaza declarar la guerra. In: Zevallos Aguilar. Juan, Takahiro
Kato & Luis Millones, (eds.):
Ensayos de cultura virreinal Latinoamericana
. Lima:
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 79-98.
Necrología / Orbituary / Nachruf
Francisco de Toledo and his campaign against the Incas.
Colonial Latin American Review
16(2): 243-272.
Kandire in real time and space: Sixteenth-century expeditions from the Pantanal to the
54(2): 245-272.
War and peace in the Inca heartland. In: Raafaub, Kurt A. (ed.):
War and peace in the
Ancient World
. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 329-347.
Desde el Oriente: documentos para la historia del Oriente Boliviano y Santa Cruz la
Vieja (1542 - 1597).
Santa Cruz de la Sierra: Fondo Editorial Municipal.
Polo de Ondegardo y el ‘Discurso sobre la descendencia y gouierno de los ingas’.
33(2): 7-28.
Inca worldview. In: Raafaub, Kurt A. & Richard J. A. Talbert (eds.):
Geography and
ethnography: Perceptions of the world in pre-modern societies.
Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell,
Julien, Catherine, Kristina Angelis & Zulema Bass Werner de Ruíz
Historia de Tarija
(corpus documental)
, 6. Tarija: Ediciones Guadalquivir.
Julien, Catherine, Kristina Angelis, Alexander Voß & Annette Hauschild
Toledo y los Lupacas: las tasas de 1574 y 1579.
Bonn: Holos.
Meyers, Albert
Die Inka in Ekuador: Untersuchungen anhand ihrer materiellen Hinterlassenschaft
Bonner Amerikanistische Studien, 6. Bonn: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität.
Murra, John V.
El control vertical de un máximo de pisos ecológicos en la economía de las sociedades
andinas. In: Murra, John V.:
Formaciones económicas y políticas del mundo andino
Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, 59-115.
Nowack, Kerstin & Catherine Julien
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