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Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Game rhythm and stoppages in soccer. A case
study from Spain
JOSÉ HERNÁNDEZ-MORENO
1
, ANTONIO GÓMEZ-RIJO
2
, ULISES CASTRO
1
, ANTONIO
GONZÁLEZ-MOLINA
1
, MIRIAM E. QUIROGA
1
, FRANCISCO GONZÁLEZ-ROMERO
1
1
Departamento de Educación Física, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
2
Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal, Universidad de La Laguna, Spain
ABSTRACT
Hernández-Moreno J, Gómez-Rijo A, Castro U, González-Molina A, Quiroga ME, González-Romero F.
Game rhythm and stoppages in soccer. A case study from Spain.
J. Hum. Sport Exerc.
Vol. 6, No. 4,
pp. 594-602, 2011. The purpose of this paper was to quantify and analyze the participation/pause game
times and stoppages of 11-a-side soccer. A total of 617 players of 44 Spanish men’s teams and 33
matches of the 2007/08 and 2008/09 men’s soccer players of 2
nd
division A and B and 3
rd
division were
studied. The methodology used is observational and systematic, active and non-participating and with
an observational instrument based on a category system. The variables studied were: Stoppages and
Game Rhythm. The most frequent stoppage is out of bound (mean±SD) (59.03±10.15), followed by
fouls (37.33±7.09). The stoppage which registers the longest duration (in hours, minutes and seconds)
is foul (16’35”±3’48”), followed by out of bound (14’30”±3’26”). Regarding game rhythm the real time of
each match totaled an average of 1h36’14”±2’03” seconds. The actual time of play is on average
49’±4’44” while the pause time is 47’14”±5’23”seconds. In the description of the implications of pause
time in the game dynamics of soccer, some regularities can be observed; such as the fact that the most
frequent stoppages are those made due to fouls and out of bound and that the duration of the majority
of these stoppages varies within a range of 4 to 7 seconds. The pauses have shown to be a major
element in the study of soccer game rhythm because they take at least half the total time of the match.
Consistent with this, it is understood that game rhythm can easily be improved with regulatory
modifications such as the elimination of interruptions because of substitutions.
Key words
:
SOCCER,
DYNAMIC, STRUCTURE, PARTICIPATION, PAUSE.
1
Corresponding author.
Departamento de Educación Física. Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Edificio de
Educación Física del Campus Universitario de Tafira. 35017, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Spain.
E-mail: jmoreno@def.ulpgc.es
Submitted for publication June 2010
Accepted for publication October 2011
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE ISSN 1988-5202
© Faculty of Education. University of Alicante
doi:10.4100/jhse.2011.64.03
Original Article
Hernández-Moreno et al. / Game rhythm and stoppages in soccer
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
INTRODUCTION
Currently Motor Praxeology applied to sports focuses on trying to know what the internal logic –of each
group of sports in general and each sport specifically– is like, and how the development of game action
is produced during motor action and motor situation (Parlebas,
2001
).
Some of the most significant studies related to the epistemological knowledge of Motor Praxeology
carried out so far have been done by Rodríguez-Ribas (
1997
), Parlebas (
2001
) and Hernández-Moreno
& Rodríguez-Ribas (
2004
). On the other hand, those related to the analysis of the structure of sports
(and specifically to the development of game action) have been developed by Hernández-Moreno
(
1996
), Lago & Anguera (
2003
), Lago & Martín-Acero (
2005
), Lago & Martín-Acero (
2007
), Lago et al.
(
2007
), Castellano (
2008
) and Castellano & Casamichana (
2009
) in 11-a-side 1
st
division soccer. Thus
the present work provides a study of game rhythm characteristics in Spanish men's soccer divisions
that have never been studied for such purposes before, i.e. 2
nd
division A, 2
nd
division B and 3
rd
division.
The soccer played nowadays features as one of its main characteristics the so-called
game rhythm
, i.e.,
the speed of play and its variations throughout the course of the matches.
Game rhythm
makes it
increasingly necessary for players to train their physical qualities to suit the demands of the game.
Moreover, very often, teams are increasingly using the so-called "tactical errors" to influence both the
dynamics of the game and game strategies. These facts are being increasingly studied in order to
adapt the training of players and teams to these circumstances (Martín-Acero,
2000;
Lago & Martín-
Acero,
2005
).
The purpose of this paper was to quantify and analyze the participation/pause game times and
stoppages of 11-a-side soccer in 2
nd
division A and B and 3
rd
division.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Subjects
The study sample consisted of 33 soccer matches of the category 2
nd
division A (10 games and 14
teams), 2
nd
division B (13 games and 15 teams) and 3
rd
division (10 games and 15 teams) where 44
Spanish men’s teams participated with a total of 617 players. The age of the studied subjects ranged
from 17 to 36 years old. The results have been recorded during the 2007/08 and 2008/09 seasons. The
subjects were informed of the nature of the study and its intended use, in accordance with ethical
guidelines of Declaration of Helsinki.
Measures
The study's design was descriptive, correlational, and transversal. The observation instrument used
was a category system (Anguera,
2006
). The variables studied were: Stoppages (unsporting behavior,
out of bound, beyond the goal line, corner, incidents, foul, penalty, goal, substitution, and out of play)
(see Table
1
) and Game Rhythm (match real time, match effective time, pause time, home ball-
possession time, visitor
ball-possession time, total number of pauses, maximum pause time, and
minimum pause time (see Table
2
). The observation instrument was designed and validated by pilot
observation, data analysis testing, and observer training test.
Hernández-Moreno et al. / Game rhythm and stoppages in soccer
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
Table 1.
Categories for the variable Stoppages.
Category
Definition
#
Unsporting
behavior
A player’s behavior which is contrary to sports ethics and leads to a disciplinary sanction
which is recorded in the game sheet.
UC
Out of Bound
The ball is thrown by a player over the touch line in violation of the established
regulations.
OB
Beyond the
Goal Line
The ball is thrown by an attacking player beyond the goal lines of the field.
BGL
Corner
The ball is thrown by a defending player beyond the goal line.
C
Incidents
Temporary interruption of the game for non-essential reasons requiring timeout by the
referee-judge.
I
Foul
The infringement committed by a player of the team which has no possession of the ball
on a player of the opposing team, which is sanctioned by a shot from the place of
occurrence of the infringement and recorded in the offending player’s sheet.
F
Penalty
Infringement committed by a player of the team which has no possession of the ball on a
player with possession of the ball and is sanctioned by a shot to the offending team's goal
from a distance of 11 meters.
P
Goal
Action consisting of introducing the ball into the goal of one of the two teams in
accordance with established regulations and is granted by the referee as valid and thus
scores in the records of the game in favor of the team opposing the team in whose goal
line the ball has been introduced.
G
Substitution
Action consisting in changing a field player against one on the bench.
S
Out of Play
Foul committed by a player of the team which is in possession of the ball, whilst not
having himself possession of the ball, when placing himself between the goalkeeper of
the opposing team and the other players of the opposing team before he has access to
the ball, and is therefore whistled by the referee.
OP
# Acronym
Table 2.
Categories for the Game Rhythm variable.
Category
Definition
Acronym
Match Real Time
Period of time from the start of the match according to the referee
until the end of it, minus half time of the game.
MRT
Match Effective Time
Period of time elapsed with the ball in play in possession of either
team.
MET
Pause Time
Period of time elapsed without game action, excluding time-out
periods between half times.
PT
Home Ball- Possession
Time
Total game time in which the home team has possession of the ball.
HBPT
Visitor
Ball-Possession
Time
Total game time in which the visiting team has possession of the
ball.
VBPT
Total Number of
Pauses.
Frequency of pauses of the two teams during a match.
TNP
Maximum Pause Time.
Maximum pause duration of a team during a match.
MaxPT
Minimum Pause Time.
Minimum pause duration of a team during a match.
MinPT
Hernández-Moreno et al. / Game rhythm and stoppages in soccer
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
Procedures
Observations were made of digital recordings taken with Panasonic- P2 DVC Pro HD camera that was
located in the area usually reserved for the media so it would be possible to record all players in the
playground. The recordings were made by a technical expert in audiovisual media.
The matches were analyzed through systematic observation by experienced observers, who were
trained using the methodology described by Anguera (
2006
). NAC-SPORT software has been used to
analyze data.
The inter- and intra-reliability of two separate observations was calculated to guarantee
sufficient quality of the observation system. An inter-reliability and intra-reliability index of 0.80 was
found (intra-class correlation coefficient and Kappa index).
With the aim of a systemic approach, it can be considered that the structure of cooperative
/confrontational sports -and thus of the sports to be analyzed- is determined by the following
parameters:
laws of the
game or balancing system
(as a starting point),
gesture
or
technique
,
sport
space, sport time, motor communication
, and, ultimately,
motor skill strategy
(Parlebas,
2001
;
Hernández-Moreno & Rodríguez-Ribas,
2004
).
The development of
game action
is the result of the interaction between the structure of the game and
the player, occurring in a specific motor situation. This research focuses exclusively on two of these
structures: time and laws of the game, and it specifically addresses
game rhythm
and stoppages. For
the study and analysis of
game rhythm
what is called
play time
has been taken into account, i.e., the
time that elapses while the ball is in play, and pause time, i.e., the time during the interruptions of the
game motivated by the stops in the game which are caused by regulatory stoppages.
Regulatory stoppages are defined as any event that causes a stop in the game, i.e., leading to an
interruption of the development of the game situation and that are explicitly mentioned in the rules of
each sport, in this case, the rules of 11-a-side soccer.
Table
1
shows the categories that we considered for the variable stoppages (unsporting behavior, out
of bound, beyond the goal line, corner, incidents, foul, penalty, goal, substitution and out of play), and
Table
2
shows the categories that we considered for the variable Game Rhythm (match real time,
match effective time, pause time, home-ball possession time, visitor-ball possession time, total number
of pauses, maximum pause time and minimum pause time), these being new to this type of study.
Data analysis
A descriptive analysis of the different variables was carried out using Correlational Analysis Pearson. A
one-factor ANOVA (according to the division to which each team belonged, 2nd, 2nd B and 3
rd
) was
carried out to detect significant differences among the common aspects of the three divisions. Firstly,
for the
stoppages
variable in relation to the observed frequencies and time spent. Secondly, the
variable in relation to
game rhythm
for each category. Statistical program SPSS v.15 was used for
statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at 0.05.
RESULTS
Table
3
shows that the most frequent stoppage is out of bound (mean±SD) (59.03±10.15), followed by
fouls (37.33±7.09). The least recorded stoppage is penalty (0.48±0.66). Also, the following variables
correlate positively and significantly: the variable unsportsmanlike conduct-incidents (p<0.01), incident-
goal (p<0.05), fouls-out of bound (p<0.01) and goal-penalty. On the contrary, fouls-corner (p<0.01)
negatively and significantly correlate.
Hernández-Moreno et al. / Game rhythm and stoppages in soccer
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
Table 3.
Mean, Standard Deviation and Correlations of all categories for the variable Stoppages
(frequencies).
M
SD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1.Incidents
1.79
2.13
0.67(**)
0.16
0.30
0.25
-0.10
0.39(*)
-0.12
0.16
0.18
2.Unsporting
behavior
2.88
3.23
0.15
0.16
0.40(*)
-0.25
0.28
-0.25
0.12
0.05
3.Fouls
37.33
7.09
-0.00
0.25
0.48(**)
-0.06
0.04
-0.10
-0.51(**)
4.Substitutions
4.33
1.55
0.00
-0.19
-0.09
-0.27
-0.10
0.29
5.Out of
Play
5.91
2.75
0.03
0.06
-0.18
-0.31
-0.20
6.Out of Bound
59.03
10.15
-0.07
0.01
0.02
-0.27
7.Goal
2.52
1.41
0.02
0.45(**)
-0.08
8.Beyond the
Goal Line
21.18
4.62
0.02
0.14
9.Penalty
0.48
0.66
0.22
10.Corner
9.18
3.31
**p<0.01, *p<0.05. M= Mean; SD= Standard Deviation
Figure 1.
Mean of the frequencies for the variable Stoppages. INC=Incidents. COND=Conduct.
FOULS=Fouls. SUBS=Substitutions. OoP=Out of Play. OoB=Out of Bound; GOAL=Goal. BGL=Beyond
the goal line. PENALTY=Penalty. CORNER=Corner.
Table
4
shows that the stoppage which registers the longest duration (in seconds) is foul
(16’35”±3’48”), followed by out of bound (14’30”±3’26”). The stoppage which registers the shortest
duration (in hours, minutes and seconds) is penalty (46”±1’12”). Also, the variable unsportsmanlike
conduct- incidents (p<0.01), foul-out of bound (p<0.05), goal-penalty (p<0.01) and (over the goal line)-
corner (p<0.01) all correlate positively and significantly. By contrast, unsportsmanlike conduct-out of
bound (p<0.05), unsportsmanlike conduct-over the goal line (p<0.05), foul-penalty (p<0.05) and out of
play – penalty (p<0.05) all correlated significantly and negatively.
1.79
2.88
37.33
4.33
5.91
59.03
2.52
21.18
0.48
9.18
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
INC
COND
FOULS
SUBS
OoP
OoB
GOAL
BGL
PENALTY CORNER
Frecuency
Hernández-Moreno et al. / Game rhythm and stoppages in soccer
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
Table 4.
Mean, Standard deviation and correlations in all categories for the variable Stoppages (in
minutes and seconds).
M
SD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1. Incidents
1’54“
2’08“
0.68(**)
0.07
0.26
0.25
-0.06
0.34
-0.02
-0.03
0.23
2.Unsporting
behaviour
2’29“
3’04“
0.00
0.27
0.26
-0.43(*)
0.33
-0.35(*)
0.02
-0.12
3. Fouls
16’35“
3’48“
-0.01
0.18
0.34(*)
-0.12
0.30
-0.34(*)
0.08
4. Sustitutions
3’32“
1’28“
-0.15
-0.18
0.18
-0.06
0.30
0.21
5. Out of Play
2’10”
1’21”
-0.09
-0.07
-0.13
-0.38(*)
-0.20
6. Out of Bound
14’30”
3’26”
-0.15
0.37(*)
0.06
0.23
7. Goal
2’41”
1’38“
-0.19
0.63(**)
0.02
8. Beyond the
goal line
8’48“
2’39“
-0.26
0.65(**)
9. Penalty
46“
1’12“
-0.00
10. Corner
4’21“
1’49“
**p<0.01, *p<0.05. M= Mean; SD= Standard Deviation
Figure 2.
Mean duration (in minutes and seconds) for the variable Stoppages. INC=Incidents.
COND=Conduct. FOULS=Fouls. SUBS=Substitutions. OoP=Out of Play. OoB=Out of Bound;
GOAL=Goal. BGL=Beyond the goal line. PENALTY=Penalty. CORNER=Corner.
0:01:54
0:02:29
0:16:35
0:03:32
0:02:10
0:14:30
0:02:41
0:08:48
0:00:46
0:04:21
0:00
0:02
0:05
0:08
0:11
0:14
0:17
0:20
INC
COND
FOULS
SUBS
OoP
OoB
GOAL
BGL
PENALTY CORNER
hours:minutes
Hernández-Moreno et al. / Game rhythm and stoppages in soccer
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
Table 5.
Mean, standard deviation, and correlations in all the categories for the variable Game Rhythm.
M
SD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1. Match Real Time
1h36’14”
2’03”
-0.14
0.50(**)
-0.11
-0.05
0.17
0.36(*)
0.13
2. Match
Effective Time
49”
4’44”
-0.92(**)
0.63(**)
0.53(**)
-0.18
0.06
-0.11
3. Match Pause Time
47’15”
5’23”
-0.58(**)
-0.50(**)
0.23
0.07
0.13
4. Home Ball-Possession
Time
25’02”
4’07”
-0.31
0.06
0.05
-0.13
5. Visitor Ball-
Possession Time
23’54”
3’52”
-0.29
0.02
0.01
6. Total Number of
Pauses
134
15.46
-0.27
0.00
7. Maximum Pause Time
2’04”
35”
-0.00
8. Minimum Pause Time
2”
1”
**p<0.01. *p<0.05. M= Mean. SD= Standard Deviation.
Figure 3.
Mean duration for the variable Game Rhythm. MRT=Match Real Time. MET=Match
Effective Time. MPT=Mach Pause Time. HBPT=Home Ball-Possession Time. VBPT=Visitor
Ball-
Possession Time. MaxPT=Maximum Pause Time. MinPT=Minimum Pause Time.
Regarding game rhythm the real time of each match totaled an average of 1h36’14”±2’03”. The actual
time of play is on average 49’±4’44” while the pause time is 47’15”±5’23”.
Regarding the variables
game rhythm
and
stoppages
no significant differences were observed in the
three categories (2nd A, 2nd B and 3rd), except in
total amount of pauses
(F=8.16; p<0.05) and in the
Fouls
category (F=6.40; p<0.05).
1:36:14
0:49:00
0:47:15
0:25:02
0:23:54
0:02:04
0:00:02
0:00
0:14
0:28
0:43
0:57
1:12
1:26
1:40
1:55
MRT
MET
MPT
HBPT
VBPT
MaxPT
MinPT
hours:minutes
Hernández-Moreno et al. / Game rhythm and stoppages in soccer
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
Authors such as Carling et al. (
2006
), Lago & Martin-Acero (
2005
), Jones et al. (
2004
), and Hughes &
Bartlett (
2002
) refer to a series of collective factors that influence the performance of soccer teams.
These factors are related to tactics and strategy but do not provide –unlike the present study– sufficient
data allowing for the characterization of game dynamics.
As regards the descriptive and correlational analysis carried out in the present work, only the features
considered as the most relevant have been highlighted in order to compare them with the few earlier
works that have been found. Thus, regarding game stoppages, Mombaerts (
1991
), and Castellano et
al. (
1996
) considered that the average was 120 stoppages. Whereas Hernández-Pérez (
1994
)
considered 134 stoppages as the average –which coincides with the average amount of stoppages in
our study, also 134.
In our study, the longest total Pause Time corresponds to the categories of Out of Bound (14’30”) and
Fouls (16’35”) with a total average Pause Time of 47’15” per match. There is no comparative data
available since our study is the first one to analyse these categories. Given the importance of the
studied categories it would seem appropiate to include them in further similar studies.
As regards Game Rhythm (Pause and Participation), Mombaerts (
1991
) indicates an average Pause
Time of 15” and an average Play Time of 22”, whereas for Hernández-Pérez (
1994
), Pause Time is 23”
and Play Time is 27.5”. For Hernández-Moreno (
1996
) the average Pause Time is 20” and 17.4” for
Participation Time and Castellano (
2008
) presents 19.2” and 19.5” respectively. I our study total Pause
Time was 21.1” and 21.9” for Participation Time, which is very close to the results obtained by
Castellano (
2008
) during the 2008 European National Selection Championship.
In the light of data obtained in this study, it can be stated that, in the description of the implications of
pause time in the game dynamics of soccer, some regularities can be observed; such as the fact that
the most frequent stoppages are those made due to fouls and out of bound and that the duration of the
majority of these stoppages varies within a range of 4 to 7 seconds. It has been observed when
comparing the means of pause time among the three divisions (2nd A, 2nd B and 3rd) that its duration
of pause time decreases as the category of the teams analyzed is higher. The pauses have shown to
be a major element in the study of soccer game rhythm because they take at least half the total time of
the match. Consistent with this, it is understood that game rhythm can easily be improved with
regulatory modifications such as the elimination of interruptions because of substitutions.
The results obtained from this study on regulatory incidences and their influence on game rhythm may
be useful in the design of training plans so as to make them better suited to the game's actual
dynamics.
Further research should therefore consider the specificity and game performance indicators used in the
present study –and others which may be determined as long as they are referred to strategy and
tactics– in order to acquire in-depth knowledge of game action development.
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