Artículo en PDF
How to cite
Complete issue
More information about this article
Journal's homepage in redalyc.org
Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
International resistance training
recommendations for older adults:
Implications for the promotion of healthy aging
in Spain
VICENTE ROMO-PÉREZ
1
, ANDIARA SCHWINGEL
2
, WOJTEK CHODZKO-ZAJKO
2
1
Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, University of Vigo, Spain
2
Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Il, USA
ABSTRACT
Romo-Pérez V, Schwingel A, Chodzko-Zajko W. International resistance training recommendations for
older adults: implications for the promotion of healthy aging in Spain.
J. Hum. Sport Exerc.
Vol. 6, No. 4,
pp. 639-648, 2011. The publication of the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand
on Physical Activity and Exercise for Older Adults and the release of the US Government Physical
Activity Guidelines for Americans have emphasized the need for the development of national guidelines
for the promotion of appropriate physical activity levels. Similar efforts are being conducted in many
different countries. Due to the rapid aging of the world population, it is important to develop evidence-
based recommendations regarding lifestyle activities known to decreased chronic disease and promote
functional independence. It is increasing apparent that both aerobic and resistance type of physical
activity are needed. The European Union has strongly advised its member states to adopt a series of
physical activity recommendations, which have been developed to promote physical activity as a major
goal of public health. In Spain several measures are being introduced on this subject. One of the main
aspects of this paper is to examine current international guidelines regarding strength training for older
adults. Recommendations for future action are included.
Key words
:
GUIDELINES RESISTANCE
EXERCISE, EUROPE, EXERCISE RECOMMENDATIONS, AGING, ELDERLY PEOPLE.
1
Corresponding author.
University of Vigo. Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences. Campus a Xunqueira s/n,
Pontevedra 36005. Spain.
E-mail: vicente@uvigo.es
Submitted for publication August 2011
Accepted for publication November 2011
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE ISSN 1988-5202
© Faculty of Education. University of Alicante
doi:10.4100/jhse.2011.64.07
Review Article
Romo-Pérez et al. / Resistance training recommendations for older adults
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
INTRODUCTION
In many countries, in the developed and developing world, life expectancy is increasing and the
proportion of older adults in the population is growing accordingly. In Spain, during the period 2004-
2009, the proportion of individuals 84 years old and older increased by 24.7% (INE,
2011
). These
demographic changes bring with them challenges for national strategy in the areas of health care and
social services. Fortunately, there is growing evidence that old age need not necessarily be
accompanied by physical decline and loss of independence. On the contrary there is growing evidence
that regular participation in physical activity can improve quality of life and promote independence for
people of all ages (Chodzko-Zajko et al.,
2009
). Regular physical activity among older adults is
associated with decreased health care spending (Ackermann et al.,
2003
; Lee & Buchner,
2008
) and a
substantial return on a modest initial investment (Sandstrom & Stahle,
2005
).
Generally, the older people who are physically active spend less in healthcare. These savings in
medical costs realized by society can be reinvested into campaigns for the promotion of physical
activity (Martinson, Crain, Pronk, O'Connor, & Maciosek,
2003
). It is essential to inform and advise the
population about healthy lifestyle choices if we are to enable them to change their behavior to maximize
the likelihood of successful aging. For these reasons, many countries have been developing or
updating national physical activity guidelines that provide a clear and consistent message to the
population.
In recent years the attention of national guidelines has focused not only on the benefits of
aerobic exercise but also on the advantages of resistance or strength training for older adults
(Chodzko-Zajko et al.,
2009
).
There can be little doubt that a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise delays and/or prevents
chronic conditions and disabilities. Unfortunately, many older adults are poorly informed about the types
and amount of physical activity that are most beneficial. The publication of national guidelines can
provide a clear and unambiguous statement regarding the health benefits of regular physical activity.
These statement are of value to both health professionals and members of the general public (de
Souza & Luz,
2011
). Unfortunately, Spain has yet to develop a comprehensive set of national physical
activity guidelines. Furthermore, very little attention has been paid to advising older adults in Spain
about the importance of combining aerobic and resistance forms of physical activity.
The absence of official government guidelines in Spain in the area of physical activity does not mean
that Spanish researchers have not been interested in studying the health benefits of physical activity.
Many Spanish studies have explored the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise for older persons
(Arguelles et al.,
2004
; Izquierdo et al.,
2001
; Izquierdo, Hakkinen, Ibanez, et al.,
2001
; Izquierdo,
Hakkinen, Ibanez, Kraemer, & Gorostiaga,
2005
; Izquierdo et al.,
1999
; Izquierdo, Martinez-Ramirez,
Larrion, Irujo-Espinosa, & Gomez,
2008
). The findings of these studies are highly consistent with other
research from around the world that documents profound health benefits accrue from both aerobic and
resistance exercise (Chodzko-Zajko et al.,
2009
).
There is now strong evidence to that resistance exercise training (RET) provides multiple benefits for
older persons.
It decreases the likelihood of sarcopenia
(Doherty,
2003
; Evans,
1995
; Frontera et al.,
2000
; Peterson, Rhea, Sen, & Gordon,
2010
; Roubenoff & Hughes,
2000
; Visvanathan & Chapman,
2010
), has a positive influence on bone mass (Asikainen, Kukkonen-Harjula, & Miilunpalo,
2004
; Leite,
Prestes, Pereira, Shiguemoto, & Perez,
2010
; Mazzeo & Tanaka,
2001
), is an important factor in
maintaining functional independence (Bean et al.,
2010
; Bean et al.,
2009
; Frontera,
2006
; Frontera et
al.,
2008
) and it is correlated with a decreased risk of
falls (Fiatarone-Singh et al.,
2008
; Frontera et al.,
2000
; Lloyd et al.,
2008
,
2009
).
Romo-Pérez et al. / Resistance training recommendations for older adults
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing guidelines regarding resistance exercise for older
adults with the goal of developing a set of recommendations to be adopted by national and regional
government agencies.
METHODS
The resistance exercise training (RET) recommendations of the following countries and associations
were analyzed: United Kingdom, USA, Canada, Australia, South Africa, Japan, ACSM (American
College of Sports Medicine) and the WHO (World Health Organization). In addition we consulted
relevant meta-analyses on the topic published in the last five years in the fields of the resistance
training in older adults
(Nicola,
2011
; Steib,
2010
) including studies of the effect of RET on bone mass
(James, Duffield, & Carroll,
2010
; James & Carroll,
2006
,
2009
) and physical independence (Peterson,
Rhea, Sen, & Gordon,
2010
).
In total we analyzed 73 papers on RET. These studies explored the influence of RET on improvements
in body composition, strength and muscle morphology. In addition, we analyzed 45 papers about
strength training and bone, and an additional 23 papers on the relationship of strength training and
disability. Each of these studies were analyzed in order to calculated the mean, maximum and minimum
values of the following variables: a) days in a week, b) number of exercises, c) sets, d) repetitions and
e) intensity.
RESULTS
The following initiatives have been developed by national governments and/or non-governmental
organizations such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the World Health
Organization (WHO):
a) The Canadian Health Agency – Center for Health Promotion and the Canadian Society for Exercise
Physiology (CSEP). In 1995 the above agencies began to cooperate in the development of physical
activity guidelines the first of which were published in 1998. In 1999, whilst the International Year of the
Older Adults was taking place, the
Canada’s Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living for Older
Adults
was published. Two guides were published, one for children between 6-9 years old was
published and another for individuals between 10-14 years old, which was called
Canada’s Physical
Activity Guide for Youth.
An important contribution to the development of guidelines for older people in Canada was provided by
the Active Living Coalition for Older Adults (ALCOA). The Canadian guidelines were officially approved
by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Ministers and upwards of 100 national organizations (Sharratt,
2007
). In 2006 a process to update the guidelines began. A commission of experts in the fields of
physiology, social psychology, marketing, epidemiology and physical activity developed the protocols of
the new guidelines. In January 2011 the new guidelines for the Canadians were launched. Regarding
individuals over 65 years of age, three fundamental issues were addressed: a) the relation between
physical activity and functional independence, b) the volume and intensity of physical activity needed
for improved functioning, and c) an increased focus of the dose of physical activity needed for specific
outcomes. The Canadian guidelines provide specific recommendations for both aerobic and resistance
exercise (Tremblay et al.,
2011a
,
2011b
).
The last version of the Canadian recommendations
(Tremblay et al.,
2011b
) recommends that
individuals to do muscular and bone strengthening exercises, including activities that exercise the main
muscular groups. Regarding the frequency, the recommendation strongly advises to practice this
activity at least twice per week.
Romo-Pérez et al. / Resistance training recommendations for older adults
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
Table 1
. Recommendations about muscular resistance exercise in the elderly people.
Country/Org.
Year
Exercices
D/wk
Set
Rep
Canada
2011
Major muscle group
2
WHO
2010
Major muscle group
2
United
States
2008
Major muscle group
2
2-3
8-12
UK
2008
8-10 exercises
2
10-15
Australia
2006
4 exercises in the upper part, 4 lower part
2
Japan
1999
8-10 exercises involving the major muscle
groups
2-3
A minimum 1
set
10-15
ACSM/AHA
2007
8-10 exercise -Major muscle group
At least 2
8-12
South Africa
2000
2
2-3
8-15
Country/Org: Country or Organization; Year: Year of the guideline; Exercise: Number of exercises and characteristics; D/wk:
Days per week; Set: Number of sets; Rep: Number of repetitions; WHO: World Health Organization; UK: United Kingdom;
ACSM: American College of Sports Medicine; AHA:
American Heart Association.
b) In the USA, one of the first set of physical activity recommendations was developed by the American
College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). In 1978, a committee developed recommendations with regard to
the quantity and the type of exercise necessary to improve the physical fitness and functional
performance (ACSM,
1978
). In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American
College of Sports Medicine jointly developed a revised set of physical activity guidelines (Drinkwater,
Grimston, Raab-Cullen, & Snow-Harter,
1995
; Pate et al.
1995
; Pollock et al.,
1998
). The new
guidelines recommended that adults should carry out 30 minutes or more of moderate intensity physical
activity on a daily basis and RET activities should involve the major muscular groups, with the number
of exercises between 8 and 10 (Nelson et al.,
2007
, Haskell et al.,
2007
).
More recently, the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (USDHHS) of the Federal
Government issued its first-ever Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. They describe the types
and amounts of physical activity that offer substantial health benefits to all Americans regardless of age
(USDHHS,
2008
)
. In 2008, the National Institute of Aging, issued a comparable set of
recommendations regarding physical activity for the older adults. In additional to aerobic or
cardiovascular exercise, specific resistance raining recommendations were provided. RET
activities
should involve the major muscular groups and it is recommended that they should be practiced for two
or more times per week. The guidelines propose a total of 2 or 3 sets with a minimum of 8 to 12
repetitions.
c)
A number of guidelines and recommendations have been developed in Australia. One of the first was
published in 1999 and reprinted in 2006 (Sims, Hill, Hunt, & Haralambous,
2009
) by the Department of
Health and Ageing of the Australian Government. This guide stresses that it is never too late to start
physical activity.
Five basic recommendations are suggested: a) the older individual should be active on
a daily basis in as many ways as possible, incorporating strength, flexibility and balance activities. b) 30
minutes per day of physical activity is recommended c) exercise intensity should be increased
progressively d) physical activity should be viewed as an opportunity, not an inconvenience. e) When
possible, it is valuable to include periods of vigorous intensity activity. The guide suggests several types
of RET, proposing four for the lower body and four for the upper body. Two or three sets of 10-12
repetitions are recommended using free weights, RET machines, elastic bands or body weight for
resistance (
Australian Government,
2006
)
.
d) The World Health Organization (WHO), aware of the importance of physical activity as a public
health strategy (WHO,
2009
), recommends at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity five days
Romo-Pérez et al. / Resistance training recommendations for older adults
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
per week or 20 minutes of intense physical activity during three days per week. It is important that
physical activity is performed for bouts of at least 10 consecutive minutes. In addition, the WHO
recommends RET two or three days per week. It is important to highlight than in the year 2010, the
WHO published a sets of recommendations in which resistance is included (WHO,
2010a
). These
recommendations propose that muscular strengthening activities should be done at least twice a week,
with a special attention to the main muscular groups
(WHO,
2010b
).
e) The Japanese Physical Activity Guidelines were developed by the Japanese Ministry of Health and
Welfare. The goal of the guidelines was the maintenance and improvement of independence of older
people. The guidelines suggest some activities that can be performed at home (Ohta, Tabata, &
Mochizuki,
1999
).
Japan’s society is aging rapidly and there is a national need to promote physical
independence (Kato, Kawakami, & Ohta,
2006
). The Japanese Guidelines recommend that RET begin
at a low intensity level and increase in intensity every two to four weeks
(Ohta et al.,
1999
).
f) The United Kingdom published physical activity recommendations for each segment of the population
(Bull & the Expert Working,
2010
). Because the UK guidelines were published by a foundation, this
guide is not considered strictly governmental. The guidelines recommend that RET be practiced at least
twice a week, with the number of exercises approximating between 8 and 10, with around 10 or 15
repetitions
(British Heart Foundation,
2008
).
g) The South African guidelines (Department of Health South Africa,
2000
) were published in 2000 and
they urge a minimum of two weekly sessions of RET, with two sets of 8 to 15 repetitions.
A summary of these various guidelines appears in the Table
1
. The weekly frequency for RET varies
from two to three days, as does the number of sets and repetitions. In the majority of the guidelines it is
mentioned that the exercises should focus in the main muscular groups, and the number of exercises is
kept between 8 and 10.
A summary of the date in presented in Table
2
.
Table 2
. Variables of the muscular resistance exercise.
Days per
week
a
Exercises
b
Sets
c
Repetitions
c
Intensity
d
Studied blocks
M
n
Mx
M
Mn
Mx
M
Mn
Mx
M
Mn
Mx
M
Mn
Mx
M
Strength training in the
elderly (James &
Carroll,
2006
; Nicola,
2011
; Steib,
2010
)
2
3
2.
6
6
12
8.3
2
3
2.9
6
14
8.9
60%
80%
71.4%
Strength training and
bone (James & Carroll,
2006
; James, Duffield, &
Carroll, S. ,
2010
;
James & Carroll,
2009
)
2
5
2.
9
4
9
7.9
1
4
2.7
6
15
9.5
70%
85%
76.7%
Strength training in
order to avoid the
physical incapacity
(Peterson et al.,
2010
)
1
3
2.
7
5
16
8.3
1
6
2.5
2
20
10
40%
85%
70%
Mn: Minimum; Mx: Maximum; M: Mean; Exercises: Number of exercises.
a,b,c,b.
Independent variables: Days per week, Number of exercises, Number of sets, Number of repetitions and intensity.
Romo-Pérez et al. / Resistance training recommendations for older adults
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
DISCUSION AND CONCLUSIONS
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of international recommendations related to physical
activity and resistance exercise for older adults. Numerous government and organizational guidelines
have been summarized and it is clear that there is strong evidence for the health benefits of regular
physical activity (Chodzko-Zajko et al.,
2009
; Tremblay et al.,
2011b
; Warburton, Nicol, & Bredin,
2006
).
Although the strength of the evidence varies from excellent to more modest, the overall consensus is
that there is sufficient evidence to recommend both aerobic and resistance training on a regular basis
(Chodzko-Zajko et al.,
2009
). With respect to RET, there are some discrepancies regarding the
frequency,
number of exercises, sets, repetitions and intensity needed to maximize the health benefit
(Caserotti, Aagaard, & Puggaard,
2008
; Hass, Feigenbaum, & Franklin,
2001
).
It is important to note that most RET guidelines recommend exercising the major muscle groups,
including the quadriceps, gluteus, hamstrings, pectorals, dorsal, biceps and triceps. This
recommendation is consequent with the scientific literature and the major national (Bull & the Expert
Working,
2010
; Chodzko-Zajko et al.,
2009
; Australian Government,
2006
; Ohta et al.,
1999
). The vast
majority of the guidelines suggest RET be performed at least twice a week. Several studies about the
strength training state that these exercises should be performed in alternate days, starting with a rate of
2 or 3 days per week (Campos et al.,
2002
; Kraemer et al.,
2002
; Kraemer & Ratamess,
2004
).
However, the intensity is a fairly controversial subject (Queiroz, Kanegusuku, & Forjaz,
2010
), thus it
may be better to exercise in a prudent way with intensities of about 40% (Kraemer et al.,
2002
).
Overall, the analyzed evidence suggest the following recommendations, a) perform muscular strength
exercises 2-3 times per week in alternate days, b) resistance exercises should focus on the main
muscular groups, c) 2-3 sets of 8 repetitions for each exercise should be performed; d) individuals
should start with an intensity of approximately 40% and should increase intensity as appropriate.
REFERENCES
1.
ACKERMANN R, CHEADLE A, SANDHU N, MADSEN L, WAGNER E, LOGERFO J.
Community exercise program use and changes in healthcare costs for older adults.
American
Journal of Preventive Medicine
. 2003; 25(3):232-237. doi:
10.1016/S0749-3797(03)00196-X
[
Back to text
]
2.
AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SPORTS MEDICINE
. Position statement on the recommended
quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults.
Med
Sci Sport Exer
.
1978; 10(3):vii-x. [
Back to text
]
3.
ARGUELLES I, FORGA L, IZQUIERDO M, GOROSTIAGA E, FUENTES C, IBANEZ J,
RIVERO A. Progressive resistance training (PRT) decreases abdominal fat and improves
insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetic older men.
Diabetologia.
2004; 47:677.
[
Back to text
]
4.
ASIKAINEN TM, KUKKONEN-HARJULA K, MIILUNPALO S. Exercise for health for early
postmenopausal women - A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Sports Med.
2004; 34(11):753-778.
doi:
10.2165/00007256-200434110-00004
[
Back to text
]
5.
AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT.
Physical activity recommendations for older Australians
. 2006.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
6.
BEAN JF, KIELY DK, LAROSE S, GOLDSTEIN R, FRONTERA WR, LEVEILLE SG. Are
changes in leg power responsible for clinically meaningful improvements in mobility in older
adults?
J Am Geriatr Soc.
2010; 58(12):2363-2368. doi:
10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03155.x
[
Back to text
]
7.
BEAN JF, KIELY DK, LAROSE S, O'NEILL E, GOLDSTEIN R, FRONTERA WR. Increased
velocity exercise specific to task training versus the national institute on aging's strength
Romo-Pérez et al. / Resistance training recommendations for older adults
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
training program: changes in limb power and mobility.
Journals of Gerontology Series a-
Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences.
2009; 64(9):983-991.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
8.
BRITISH HEART FOUNDATION.
Guidelines for the promotion of physical activity with older
people
. 2008.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
9.
BULL FC, THE EXPERT WORKING GROUP.
Physical activity guidelines in the U.K.: Review
and recommendations
. Leicestershire: School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences,
Loughborough University; 2010.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
10.
CAMPOS G, LUECKE T, WENDELN H, TOMA K, HAGERMAN F, MURRAY T. Muscular
adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition
maximum training zones.
Eur J Appl Physiol.
2002; 88(1-2):50-60. doi:
10.1007/s00421-002-
0681-6
[
Back to text
]
11.
CASEROTTI P, AAGAARD P, PUGGAARD L. Changes in power and force generation during
coupled eccentric-concentric versus concentric muscle contraction with training and aging.
Eur
J Appl Physiol.
2008; 103(2):151-161. doi:
10.1007/s00421-008-0678-x
[
Back to text
]
12.
CHODZKO-ZAJKO W, PROCTOR D, SINGH M, MINSON C, NIGG C, SALEM G.
Exercise and
physical activity for older adults.
Med
Sci
Sport
Exer
.
2009; 41(7):1510-1530.
doi:
10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c
[
Back to text
]
13.
DE SOUZA E, LUZ M. A critical analysis of research guidelines in Chinese medicine.
Historia
Ciencias Saude.
2011; 18(1):155-174.
[
Abstract
] [
Back to text
]
14.
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SOUTH AFRICA.
Guideline for the promotion of active ageing in
older adult at primary level
. 2000.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
15.
DOHERTY TJ. Aging and sarcopenia.
J Appl Physiol.
2003; 95(4):1717-1727.
[
Full Text
] [
Back
to text
]
16.
DRINKWATER BC, GRIMSTON SK, RAAB-CULLEN DM, SNOW-HARTER CM. ACSM
position stand on osteoporosis and exercise.
Med Sci Sport Exer.
1995; 24(4):i-vii.
[
Back to
text
]
17.
EVANS WJ. What is Sarcopenia.
Journals of Gerontology Series a-Biological Sciences and
Medical Sciences.
1995; 50
:
5-8.
[
Abstract
] [
Back to text
]
18.
FIATARONE-SINGH MA, LLOYD B, HANSEN R, FINNEGAN T, ALLEN B, SINGH N.
Functional performance/falls and mobility methodology and baseline characteristics for the
sarcopenia and hip fracture (SHIP) study: a one-year prospective study.
Gerontologist.
2008;
48:99-100.
[
Back to text
]
19.
FRONTERA WR, HUGHES VA, FIELDING RA, FIATARONE MA, EVANS WJ, ROUBENOFF
R. Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study.
J Appl Physiol.
2000; 88(4):1321-1326.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
20.
FRONTERA WR, REID KF, PHILLIPS EM, KRIVICKAS LS, HUGHES VA, ROUBENOFF R,
FIELDING RA. Muscle fiber size and function in elderly humans: a longitudinal study.
J Appl
Physiol.
2008; 105(2):637-642.
doi:
10.1152/japplphysiol.90332.2008
[
Back to text
]
21.
FRONTERA WR. Strengthening exercise in elderly.
Med Sport.
2006; 59(4):449-450.
[
Back to
text
]
22.
HASKELL WL, LEE IM, PATE RR, POWELL KE, BLAIR SN, FRANKLIN BA, MACERA CA,
HEATH GW, THOMPSON PD, BAUMAN A.
Physical activity and public health: updated
recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American
Heart
Association.
Med
Sci
Sport
Exerc.
2007;
39(8):1423-34.
doi:
10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616b27
[
Back to text
]
23.
HASS C, FEIGENBAUM M, FRANKLIN B. Prescription of resistance training for
healthy
populations.
Sports med.
2001; 31(14):953-964. doi:
10.2165/00007256-200131140-00001
[
Back to text
]
24.
INE: INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA.
Demografia y poblacion
. 2011.
[
Full Text
]
[
Back to text
]
Romo-Pérez et al. / Resistance training recommendations for older adults
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
25.
IZQUIERDO M, HAKKINEN K, ANTON A, GARRUES M, IBANEZ J, RUESTA M,
GOROSTIAGA EM.
Maximal strength and power, endurance performance, and serum
hormones in middle-aged and elderly men.
Med Sci Sport Exerc
.
2001; 33(9):1577-1587.
doi:
10.1097/00005768-200109000-00022
[
Back to text
]
26.
IZQUIERDO M, HAKKINEN K, IBANEZ J, GARRUES M, ANTON A, ZUNIGA A, LARRION JL,
GOROSTIAGA EM. Effects of strength training on muscle power and serum hormones in
middle-aged and older men.
J Appl Physiol.
2001; 90(4):1497-1507.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
27.
IZQUIERDO M, HAKKINEN K, IBANEZ J, KRAEMER W, GOROSTIAGA E. Effects of
combined resistance and cardiovascular training on strength, power, muscle cross-sectional
area, and endurance markers in middle-aged men.
Eur J Appl Physiol.
2005; 94(1-2):70-75.
doi:
10.1007/s00421-004-1280-5
[
Back to text
]
28.
IZQUIERDO M, IBANEZ J, GOROSTIAGA E, GARRUES M, ZUNIGA A, ANTON A, LARRION
JL, HAKKINEN K. Maximal strength and power characteristics in isometric and dynamic actions
of the upper and lower extremities in middle-aged and older men.
Acta Physiol Scand.
1999;
167(1):57-68. doi:
10.1046/j.1365-201x.1999.00590.x
[
Back to text
]
29.
IZQUIERDO M, MARTINEZ-RAMIREZ A, LARRION J, IRUJO-ESPINOSA M, GOMEZ M.
Functional capacity evaluation in a clinical and ambulatory setting: new challenges of
accelerometry to assessment balance and muscle power in aging population.
Anales del
sistema sanitario de Navarra.
2008; 31(2):159-170.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
30.
JAMES M, CARROLL S. A meta-analysis of impact exercise on postmenopausal bone loss: the
case for mixed loading exercise programmes.
Brit J Sport Med.
2009; 43(12):898-908.
doi:
10.1136/
bjsm.2008.052704v1
[
Back to text
]
31.
JAMES M, CARROLL S. High-intensity resistance training and postmenopausal bone loss: a
meta-analysis.
Osteoporosis Int.
2006; 17(8):1225-1240. doi:
10.1007/s00198-006-0083-4
[
Back to text
]
32.
JAMES M, DUFFIELD L, CARROLL S. High and low-intensity resistance training for
postmenopausal bone: an updated meta-analysis.
Osteoporosis Int.
2010; 21:173-173.
[
Back
to text
]
33.
KATO Y, KAWAKAMI O, OHTA T. Physical activity and healthy aging in elderly people.
Jpn J
Phys Fit Sport.
2006; 55(2):191-206.
[
Abstract
] [
Back to text
]
34.
KRAEMER W, ADAMS K, CAFARELLI E, DUDLEY G, DOOLY C, FEIGENBAUM M. Joint
Position Statement: progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.
Med Sci Sport
Exerc
.
2002; 34(2):364-380.
doi:
10.1097/00005768-200202000-00027
[
Back to text
]
35.
KRAEMER W, RATAMESS N. Fundamentals of resistance training: Progression and exercise
prescription.
Med
Sci
Sport
Exerc
.
2004;
36(4):674-688.
doi:
10.1249/01.MSS.0000121945.36635.61
[
Back to text
]
36.
LEE I, BUCHNER D. The importance of walking to public health.
Med Sci Sport Exerc
.
2008;
40:S512-S518. doi:
10.1249/MSS.0b013e31817c65d0
[
Back to text
]
37.
LEITE RD, PRESTES J, PEREIRA GB, SHIGUEMOTO GE, PEREZ SEA. Menopause:
Highlighting the Effects of Resistance Training.
Int J Sport Med.
2010; 31(11):761-767.
doi:
10.1055/s-0030-1263117
[
Back to text
]
38.
LLOYD BD, FIATARONE-SINGH M, SINGH N, HANSEN R, FINNEGAN T, ALLEN B.
Recurrent and injurious falls in the year following hip fracture: a prospective study of incidence
and risk factors from the sarcopenia and hip fracture (SHIP) study.
Gerontologist.
2008;
48:100-100. doi:
10.1093/gerona/glp003
[
Back to text
]
39.
LLOYD BD, WILLIAMSON DA, SINGH NA, HANSEN RD, DIAMOND TH, FINNEGAN TP,
ALLEN BJ, GRADY JN, STAVRINOS TM, SMITH EU, DIWAN AD, FIATARONE SINGH MA.
Recurrent and injurious falls in the year following hip fracture: a prospective study of incidence
and risk factors from the sarcopenia and hip fracture study.
Journals of Gerontology Series a-
Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences.
2009; 64(5):599-609. doi:
10.1093/gerona/glp003
[
Back to text
]
Romo-Pérez et al. / Resistance training recommendations for older adults
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
40.
MARTINSON B, CRAIN A, PRONK N, O'CONNOR P, MACIOSEK M. Changes in physical
activity and short-term changes in health care charges: a prospective cohort study of older
adults.
Prev Med.
2003; 37(4):319-326. doi:
10.1016/S0091-7435(03)00139-7
[
Back to text
]
41.
MAZZEO RS, TANAKA H. Exercise prescription for the elderly - Current recommendations.
Sports Med.
2001; 31(11):809-818.
doi:
10.2165/00007256-200131110-00003
[
Back to text
]
42.
NELSON M, REJESKI W, BLAIR S, DUNCAN P, JUDGE J, KING A.
Physical activity and
public health in older adults - Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine
and
the
American
Heart
Association.
Circulation
.
2007;
116(9):1094-1105.
doi:
10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.185650
[
Back to text
]
43.
NICOLA F. Dose-response relationship of resistance training in older adults: A meta-analysis.
Brit J Sport Med.
2011; 45(3):233-234. doi
:10.1136/bjsm.2010.083246
[
Back to text
]
44.
OHTA T, TABATA I, MOCHIZUKI Y. Japanese national physical activity and health promotion
guidelines.
J Aging Phys Activ.
1999; 7(3):231-246.
[
Abstract
] [
Back to text
]
45.
PATE R, PRATT M, BLAIR S, HASKELL W, MACERA C, BOUCHARD C, BUCHNER D,
ETTINGER W, HEATH G, KING A, KRISKA A, LEON A, MARCUS B, MORRIS J,
PAFFENBARGER R, PATRICK K, POLLOCK M, RIPPE J, SALLIS J, WILMORE J. Physical
activity and public health. A recommendation from the centers for disease control and
prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine.
JAMA.
1995; 273(5):402-407.
doi:
10.1001/jama.1995.03520290054029
[
Back to text
]
46.
PETERSON MD, RHEA MR, SEN A, GORDON PM. Resistance exercise for muscular strength
in older adults: A meta-analysis.
Ageing
Research
Reviews.
2010; 9(3):226-237.
doi:
10.1016/j.arr.2010.03.004
[
Back to text
]
47.
POLLOCK M, GAESSER G, BUTCHER J, DESPRES J, DISHMAN R, FRANKLIN B. The
recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory
and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults.
Med Sci Sport Exerc
.
1998; 30(6):975-
991.
doi:
10.1097/00005768-199806000-00032
[
Back to text
]
48.
QUEIROZ A, KANEGUSUKU H, FORJAZ C. Effects of resistance training on blood pressure in
the elderly.
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia.
2010; 95(1):135-140. doi:
10.1590/S0066-
782X2010001100020
[
Back to text
]
49.
ROUBENOFF R, HUGHES VA. Sarcopenia: Current concepts.
Journals of Gerontology Series
a-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences.
2000; 55(12):M716-M724.
[
Abstract
] [
Back to text
]
50.
SANDSTROM L, STAHLE A. Rehabilitation of elderly with coronary heart disease -
Improvement in quality of life at a low cost.
Advances in Physiotherapy.
2005; 7(2):60-66.
doi:
10.1080/14038190510010287
[
Back to text
]
51.
SHARRATT MT. Canada's physical activity guides: Background, process, and development.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.
2007; 32(2E):S9-S15. doi:
10.1139/H07-124
[
Back to text
]
52.
SIMS J, HILL K, HUNT S, HARALAMBOUS B. Physical activity recommendations for older
Australians.
Aust J Ageing.
2009; 29(2):81-87. doi:
10.1111/j.1741-6612.2009.00388.x
[
Back to
text
]
53.
STEIB S. Dose-response relationship of resistance training in older adults: A meta-analysis.
Med Sci Sport Exerc
.
2010; 42(5):902-914. doi:
10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181c34465
[
Back to text
]
54.
TREMBLAY MS, WARBURTON DER, JANSSEN I, PATERSON DH, LATIMER AE, RHODES
RE, KHO ME, HICKS A, LEBLANC AG, ZEHR L, MURUMETS K, DUGGAN M. New Canadian
physical activity guidelines.
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism.
2011a; 36(1):47-58.
doi:
10.1139/H11-010
[
Back to text
]
55.
TREMBLAY MS, WARBURTON DER, JANSSEN I, PATERSON DH, LATIMER AE, RHODES
RE, KHO ME, HICKS A, LEBLANC AG, ZEHR L, MURUMETS K, DUGGAN M. New Canadian
physical activity guidelines.
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism.
2011b; 36(1):36-46.
doi:
10.1139/H11-009
[
Back to text
]
56.
USDHHS.
Physical activity guidelines for Americans
. 2008.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
Romo-Pérez et al. / Resistance training recommendations for older adults
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
57.
VISVANATHAN R, CHAPMAN I. Preventing sarcopaenia in older people.
Maturitas.
2010;
66(4):383-388. doi:
10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.03.020
[
Back to text
]
58.
WARBURTON D, NICOL C, BREDIN S. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence.
Can
Med Assoc J.
2006; 174(6):801-809. doi:
10.1503/cmaj.051351
[
Back to text
]
59.
WHO.
Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks
.
Geneve: WHO; 2009.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
60.
WHO.
Global recommendations on physical activity for health
. 2010b.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
61.
WHO.
Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health
. 2010a.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
logo_pie_uaemex.mx