Artículo en PDF
How to cite
Complete issue
More information about this article
Journal's homepage in redalyc.org
Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2012 |
770
The effects of glutamine supplementation on
performance and hormonal responses in non-
athlete male students during eight week
resistance training
MEHDI HAKIMI
1
1
Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, Islamic Azad University Marivan Branch, Marivan, Iran
, MARYAM ALI MOHAMADI
2
, ZOLEIKHA GHADERI
3
2
Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
3
Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, University of Payam noor, Tehran, Iran
ABSTRACT
Hakimi M, Mohamadi MA, Ghaderi Z.
The effects of glutamine supplementation on performance and
hormonal responses in non-athlete male students during eight week resistance training.
J. Hum. Sport
Exerc.
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp.770-782, 2012. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glutamine
supplementation on performance, and hormonal changes during an 8-week resistance training program in
non athlete male students. Thirty healthy non athlete male (age 21.25 ± 1.6 years, height 173.2 ± 3.2 cm,
body mass 72.8 ± 2.8 kg, VO
2max
43.48± 2.38 ml·kg
-1
·min
-1
) were randomly divided into a glutamine
supplementation (GL) group (n=15), and a placebo (PL) group (n=15). Each group was given either
glutamine or a placebo in a double blind manner to be taken orally for eight weeks (0.35 g/kg/day). GL and
PL groups performed the same weight training program 3 days, each week for 8 weeks. The training
consisted of 3 sets of 8 repetitions, and the initial weight was 80% of the pre-1RM. Subjects were tested for
performance and blood hormone concentrations before and after the 8-week period. Both groups increased
their performance however the GL group showed significantly greater increases in upper and lower body
strength, explosive muscular power, blood testosterone, GH and IGF-1 when compared to the PL group;
however, cortisol concentrations were significantly more reduced in GL group when compared to the PL
group. It can, therefore, be concluded that within 8 weeks glutamine supplementation during resistance
training was found to increase performance (explosive muscular power, muscle strength) and improved
body composition (increased body mass, fat-free mass and reduced body fat).
Key words
:
GLUTAMINE
SUPPLEMENTATION, RESISTANE TRAINING, HORMONAL CHANGES.
1
Corresponding author.
Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, Islamic Azad University Marivan Branch, Marivan,
Iran.
Phone: +98 9189123757
E-mail: Mehdihakimi@yahoo.com
Submitted for publication September 2012
Accepted for publication November 2012
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE ISSN 1988-5202
© Faculty of Education. University of Alicante
doi:10.4100/jhse.2012.74.05
Original Article
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
771
| 2012 | ISSUE 4 | VOLUME 7
© 2012 University of Alicante
INTRODUCTION
Nowadays the high level of muscular fitness can aid to achieve best performance. On this basis, coaches
are searching ways to improve performance. Resistance training has become a frequently chosen method
for increasing strength, flexibility, muscle mass, power and speed, local muscular endurance, balance and
for improving athletic performance (American College of Sports Medicine,
2001
). Also amino acids are
theorized to enhance performance in a variety of ways, such as increasing the secretion of anabolic
hormones, modifying fuel use during exercise, preventing adverse effects of overtraining, and preventing
mental fatigue (Melvin,
2005
). Glutamine is the most abundant non-essential amino acid in human muscle
and plasma (Phillips,
2007
). Glutamine is one of the most popular dietary supplements marketed to athletes
and physically active individuals (Varnier et al.,
1995
; Bowtell et al.,
1999
). Also glutamine is involved in so
many physiological processes, it has been suggested that glutamine supplementation may assist athletes
by: providing nutritional support for the immune system and preventing infection, improving cellular fluid
retention, increasing water absorption from the gut, encouraging muscle glycogen synthesis, stimulating
muscle protein synthesis, therefore enhance muscle growth, reducing muscle soreness and enhancing
tissue repair and enhancing buffering capacity (Varnier et al.,
1995
; bowtell et al.,
1999
).
Glutamine is an important component of protein and is involved in many physiological roles such as
nucleotide synthesis, gluconeogenesis, maintaining acid-base balance, and regulation of protein production
and destruction (Wernerman et al.,
2008
; Gleeson,
2008
; Karogotich et al.,
2007
; Lagranha et al.,
2007
). In
a study by Lacey et al. (
1990
) short-term glutamine ingestion had no effect on muscular strength; however,
long-term supplementation showed to be a more effective application of glutamine in regards to strength
gains.
Candow et al. (
2001
) assessed the effect of oral glutamine supplementation combined with resistance
training in young adults. Strength and muscular skeletal markers were examined before and after the six
week study in both the placebo and experimental group. It appears as though there was a slight increase in
one repetition squat, force production in the knee extensor, and lean muscle mass. Although these
numbers were slightly higher than the placebo group they were not enough to be a "significant" difference.
It must be noted that many world class athletes may work years for small increases in performance that
may or may not seem "significant" to those in a laboratory setting but may be of utmost importance to the
elite athlete. However to the average weightlifter results from this specific study may not warrant
supplementation with glutamine.
One study has investigated the effect of oral glutamine supplementation during resistance training (Antonio
et al.,
2002
). No significant differences between the glutamine groups and placebo groups were reported
for any of the variables of strength or body mass. Several studies indicate that glutamine supplementation
increases cell volume and stimulates protein and glycogen synthesis (Antonio,
1999
; Low et al.,
1996
;
Varnier et al.,
1995
). Theoretically, glutamine supplementation prior to and/or following exercise (e.g., 6-10
g) would help to optimize cell hydration and protein synthesis during training leading to greater gains in
muscle mass and strength. However, although there is strong scientific rationale, additional research is
needed to determine the impact of glutamine supplementation during training on body composition and
strength before definitive conclusions can be made. The scientific evidence suggests that acute
consumption of 20-30g per day in healthy adults has been tolerated without adverse effects (Walsh et al.,
2000
). For a full review on dosages utilised in scientific studies, please refer to Gleeson (
2008
).
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2012 |
772
Hormonal concentrations in blood have been widely used to study the association of training programmes
with performance in a multitude of exercise training including resistance training. Anabolism is the
metabolic pathway by which complex tissues such as fat and muscle are synthesized from simple
compounds. Anabolic hormone is primarily responsible for protein synthesis resulting in the promotion of
muscle growth and the growth of other complex living tissue in the body. There are 4 major anabolic
hormones that indirectly or directly affect protein synthesize. They are growth hormone (GH), insulin-like
growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and testosterone. Also catabolic hormones such as cortisol are secreted by the
human body and act to erode muscle tissue. Both anabolic and catabolic hormones are needed by the
human body to maintain homeostasis, or regulation of a stable internal environment (Hadley & Hinds,
2002
;
Demling & Desanti,
2001
). However, there have only been a few studies that have examined the effect of
prolonged glutamine supplementation (e.g. length of a typical off-season resistance training program) on
changes in hormonal concentrations in non athlete men during resistance training. The main hormones
which have been studied in this protocol training are anabolic hormones such of growth hormone (GH),
testosterone, insulin like growth factor (IGF-1) and catabolic hormones such of cortisol hormone.
Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of glutamine supplementation on upper and lower
body strength, explosive muscular power, body composition (body mass, body fat, fat-free mass) and
hormonal adaptations (Testosterone, GH, IGF-1 and cortisol) during an 8-week resistance training program
in non athlete healthy young male students.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Participants
Thirty non athlete healthy young male students volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were
randomly assigned to either a glutamine supplement group (GL; n =15) or a placebo group (PL; n =15).
After signing the informed consent, demographic information regarding each subject was collected. This
information included the subject’s age, height, VO
2max
and body composition (see Table
1
). Before
undergoing the tests, the subjects were given explanations about the assessment procedures, study
objectives, and the possible benefits and risks. The Institutional Review Board of the University approved of
the research protocol. According to the medical information questionnaire, all subjects were healthy and
none complained of hypertension, a cardiovascular disease, diabetes, lipid disorders, a kidney disease a
liver disease, respiratory and bone injuries and did not report any supplement use in past 6 months. None
of them had continuous exercise history. They were non athlete and did not follow a specific diet. The study
protocol was explained to the volunteers, and all of them signed a written consent for the study. Before the
study, the subjects were informed about the type, severity and number of days in a week and the time of
activities, and they were asked to keep the diet and the intensity of activities constant during the study
period, and not to use any other dietary supplements. Their body mass was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg
using an electronic body mass scale (Seca 707; Seca GmbH & Co. KG., Hamburg, Germany) also height
was measured by rod (Iran). Standing height and weight was used to calculate the BMI (kg/m
2
).
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
773
| 2012 | ISSUE 4 | VOLUME 7
© 2012 University of Alicante
Table 1.
Study participants’ demographics.
Parameters
GL group
PL group
(N=15)
(N=15)
Age (yrs)
20.8 ± 1.3
21.7 ± 3.1
Height (m)
1.74 ± 2.18
1.72 ± 3.32
Body mass (kg)
74.2± 3.45
71.4± 2.36
Body fat (kg)
11.3± 4.38
10.6± 5.45
Body fat (%)
15.22± 5.12
14.84± 3.68
Fat-free mass (kg)
62.9± 2.31
60.8± 4.18
BMI (Kg/m
2
)
24.50± 1.58
24.13± 1.18
Vo
2max
(Ml·Kg
-1
·Min
-1
)
42.54 ± 5.84
44.42 ± 6.46
Note: Data are presented as means ± standard deviations.
GL: glutamine supplementation group, PL: placebo supplementation group.
Data collection procedures
Approval to conduct this research was granted by the Institutional Review Boards of the two participating
institutions. Coaches from various sport teams were contacted to inform them of the study and to gain their
support. An online survey was posted on SurveyMonkey, a web-based Internet survey engine. An email
was sent directly to potential participants via SurveyMonkey with an invitation to participate in the study. In
the email a link was provided to directly access the survey. Once the link was clicked, participant rights
were presented along with a description of the study. If participants consented to participate they continued
to fill out the survey. Once the survey was completed the window automatically closed and the data was
saved on SurveyMonkey for export and analysis.
Experimental design
A double-blind, randomized study was employed using two experimental groups (glutamine and placebo
supplementation) who underwent 8 weeks’ supplementation. Before starting the training, pre-1 repetition
maximum (1RM) values were obtained on the following exercises: leg extension, leg flexion, squat, bench
press, lateral pull down, and triceps pushdown. Six different lifts were performed and they were identical to
those used in the 1RM measurements. GL and PL groups performed the same weight training program 3
days (Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday) each week for 8 weeks. The training consisted of 3 sets of 8
repetitions, and the initial weight was 80% of the pre-1RM. The warm-up prior to each session consisted of
2 sets of 12 repetitions of the first exercise at 40% of the 1RM load, and then 80% of the 1RM load was
selected as the load used in testing (Burke et al.,
2001
; Mayhew et al.,
1992
). When participants were able
to perform more than 8 repetitions on the third set, they were instructed to increase their resistance for the
next workout. Rest times between sets were 2-3 minutes, and 3-5 minutes elapsed between the 6 different
lifts. After selection for either the supplement group or the placebo group, the subjects were required to
participate in an 8- week training program, details of which are outlined below. After the 8-week training
program, post-testing for 1RM were repeated in the same manner in which they were performed during
pretesting.
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2012 |
774
Strength measures
Lower and upper body maximal strength was assessed by using 1RM actions. During each testing session
subjects performed a 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength test for the squat and bench press exercises.
The 1 RM tests were conducted as described by Hoffman (
2006
). Each subject performed a warm-up set
using resistance that was approximately 40-60% of his perceived maximum, and then performed three to
four subsequent attempts to determine the 1-RM. A 3-5 minute rest period was provided between each lift.
No bouncing was permitted, as this would have artificially boosted strength results. Bench press testing
was performed in the standard supine position: the subject lowered an Olympic weightlifting bar to midchest
and then pressed the weight until his arms were fully extended. The squat exercise required the subject to
rest an Olympic weightlifting bar across the trapezius at a self-chosen location. The squat was performed to
the parallel position, which was achieved when the greater trochanter of the femur was lowered to the
same level as the knee. The subject then lifted the weight until his knees were extended.
Vertical jump
The vertical jump has become a standard measure of athletic ability and power performance. Vertical jump
height was measured via a Vertec vertical jump tester (Sports Imports, Hilliard, OH, USA) to give an
indication of explosive muscular power (Canavan & Vescovi,
2004
). Each subject performed three trials
with one minute of rest in between each jump and the highest jump height was used in the data analysis.
The following procedure was used for each subject during data collection. The Vertec was adjusted to
match the height of the individual subject by having them stand with their dominant side to the base of the
testing device. Their dominant hand was raised and the Vertec was adjusted so that their hand was the
appropriate distance away from the marker based on markings on the device itself. At that point, subjects
performed a countermovement jump. Arm swings were allowed but no preparatory step was performed.
Body composition
Body composition was determined from seven skinfold sites (triceps, subscapular, midaxillary, chest,
suprailiac, abdomen, and thigh) according to the method of Lohman, et al. (
1988
) using a Lange skinfold
caliper. Skinfold measurements were based on the average of two trials and obtained on the right side in
serial fashion by the same investigator. Body density was estimated using the age-adjusted equation of
Pollock and Jackson (
1984
). The three-compartment Siri equation was used for % body fat (Siri,
1961
).
Blood collection and analyses
The subjects were asked to fast for 10 hours before the study. Immediately after the first resistance training
session, blood samples were drawn from an antecubital forearm vein using a 20-gauge needle and
Vacutainers to determine serum testosterone, GH, IGF-1 and cortisol concentration. For each subject blood
samples were obtained, before and after 8 weeks of supplementation (immediately after the first and the
last resistance training sessions), in the early morning hours and after a 10-h overnight fast in order to
minimize the effects of diurnal hormonal variations. The blood was processed and centrifuged, and the
resultant serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed. Serum total testosterone, GH, IGF-1 and cortisol were
determined in duplicate by using standard RIA procedures and were assayed via ELISA kits obtained from
Diagnostic Systems Laboratories (Webster, TX. OH).
Supplement schedule
The glutamine supplement (ultimate nutrition, Farmington Inc, CT, USA) and placebo (the placebo content
of the supplement consisted of starch) was in powder form and provided in individual packets. The only
permitted supplement was glutamine powder containing no additional ingredients. Daily glutamine
supplementation was 0.35g/kg/day parceled into three equal dosages to be consumed with each major
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
775
| 2012 | ISSUE 4 | VOLUME 7
© 2012 University of Alicante
meal (Finn et al.,
2003
). The contents of each packet were mixed with 500 ml of water. Subjects consumed
one drink every morning, the second daily drink following their exercise session and the third daily drink in
the evening. On non-training days, the GL and PL groups ingested 1 dose of the GL or PL supplement in
the morning and once again in the evening. The subjects consumed the supplements for 8-week.
Statistical analyses
Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows
software (version 17.0; SPSS Inc.). Descriptive statistics were calculated as the mean and standard
deviations (Mean ± SD). Changes from baseline were assessed using the paired sample t-test. In addition,
PRE – POST comparisons between groups in performance measures were analyzed with independent
student’s t-tests. The level of significance for this investigation was set at p<0.05.
RESULTS
Performance
Significant increases in strength and explosive muscular performance from PRE occurred for both GL and
PL in the 1-RM squat; 1-RM bench press and vertical jump (see Table
2
). However, strength and explosive
muscular comparisons showed that subjects in GL had significantly greater improvement in 1-RM squat, 1-
RM bench press strength and vertical jump compared to the PL group.
Table 2.
Measures of body strength (Upper and lower body strength) in the GL (N=15) and PL (N=15)
groups during the pre and post-supplementation period. Data presented as mean ± SEM.
GL
PL
Pree
post
Pree
post
Upper body
Strength (kg)
81.25 ± 6.07
87.5 ± 5.48* **
82.12 ± 5.53
85.65 ± 6.54*
Lower body
Strength (kg)
89.76 ± 7.27
95.78 ± 6.45* **
90.37 ± 7.87
93.91 ± 6.52*
Vertical Jump
(cm)
62.31 ± 5.22
67.11 ± 4.44* **
65.31 ± 7.34
67.47 ± 5.43*
GL: glutamine supplementation group, PL: placebo supplementation group
* Significantly different from corresponding to pre training value; ** Significantly different between GL and PL.
Body composition
The GL group gained significantly more body mass (2.3 ± 0.08 kg) and fat-free mass (2.9 ± 1.05 kg) than
the PL group. Also GL group showed significantly greater decrease in body fat (0.6± 0.11) compared to GL
group (Table
3
).
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2012 |
776
Table 3.
Measures of body composition (body mass, Body fat and Fat-free mass) in the GL (N=15) and PL
(N=15) groups during the pre and post-supplementation period. Data presented as mean ± SEM.
GL
PL
Pree
post
Pree
post
Body mass (kg)
74.2± 3.45
76.5± 4.53***
71.4± 2.36
72.1± 2.36*
Body fat (kg)
11.3± 4.38
10.7 ± 6.11***
10.6± 5.45
10.4± 5.28
Body fat (%)
15.22± 5.12
13.98± 3.71***
14.84± 3.68
14.42± 5.31
Fat-free mass (kg)
62.9± 2.31
65.8 ± 7.14***
60.8± 4.18
61.7± 4.51
GL: glutamine supplementation group, PL: placebo supplementation group
* Significantly different from corresponding to pre training value; ** Significantly different between GL and PL
.
Hormonal responses
A significant increase in blood testosterone, GH and IGF-1 from PRE occurred for both GL and PL groups
(see Table
4
). However, blood testosterone, GH and IGF-1 comparisons showed that subjects in GL had
significantly greater increase in blood testosterone, GH and IGF-1 compared to the PL group. A significant
decrease in blood cortisol from PRE occurred for both GL and PL groups (see Table
4
). However, blood
cortisol comparisons showed that subjects in GL had significantly greater decrease in blood cortisol
compared to GL group.
Table 4.
Serum growth hormone, testosterone, insulin like growth factor and cortisol concentrations in the
GL (N=15) and PL (N=15) groups during the pre and post-supplementation period. Data presented as
mean ± SEM.
GL
PL
Pree
post
Pree
post
Serum GH (ng/ml)
10.25± 1.42
11.94± 1.73***
11.12± 2.23
11.54± 2.35*
Serum Testosterone
(ng/ml)
5.41 ± 0.42
6.32 ± 0.14***
5.92 ± 0.42
6.32 ± 0.31*
Serum IGF-1(ng/ml)
511.52± 16.52
602.32± 22.42 ***
503.14± 41.42
545.41± 65.42*
Serum Cortisol (mg %)
18.91 ± 1.68
17.37 ± 2.11***
19.21 ± 2.28
18.92 ± 1.76*
GL: glutamine supplementation group, PL: placebo supplementation group
* Significantly different from corresponding to pre training value; ** Significantly different between GL and PL.
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
777
| 2012 | ISSUE 4 | VOLUME 7
© 2012 University of Alicante
DISCUSSION
In the present study we investigated the effects of glutamine supplementation on performance (explosive
muscular power, body upper and lower muscle strength (body composition (body mass, fat-free mass and
body fat) and hormonal changes) Testosterone, GH, IGF-1 and cortisol (during an 8-week resistance
training program in non athlete male students.
The results of this study demonstrated that even though both groups demonstrated significant performance
(explosive muscular power, body upper and lower muscle strength (increases over time, the glutamine
supplemented (GL) group showed greater improvements in upper and lower body strength and explosive
muscular power when compared to the placebo (PL) group.
These findings were similar to the study by Candow et al. (
2001
). Although two studies have investigated
the effect of oral glutamine supplementation during resistance training (Antonio et al.,
2002
; Lacey et al.,
1990
). No significant differences between the glutamine groups and placebo groups were reported for any
of the variables of strength or body mass. Most of these studies have shown short-term effects of glutamine
supplementation however, long-term supplementation showed to be a more effective application of
glutamine in regards to strength gains. Although glutamine may simulate muscle glycogen synthesis,
Varnier et al. (
1995
) and Bowtell et al. (
1999
) demonstrated that infusion and oral glutamine
supplementation promotes storage of muscle glycogen. On this basis one current widely used supplement
is L-glutamine, which increases protein synthesis within skeletal muscle leading to enhanced muscle
growth. By increasing muscle mass, the contractile force of a muscle can be increased furthermore, protein
sparing and synthetic action of glutamine can result in improved markers of sport performance as a direct
result of increases in muscle strength (Phillips,
2007
).
The vertical jump test is a simple and reliable test that can provide useful information about explosive
muscular power and performance characteristics of athletes (Canavan & Vescovi,
2004
). Significant
changes were seen during the 8-week resistance training program in any of the power performance
measures for either group. Although GL has been shown to significantly enhance power performance.
Comparison of our results in the vertical jump test with other studies is difficult because the magnitude of
exercise induced loss in muscle power has not been reported systematically.
Also, the results of this study demonstrated a significant increase in blood testosterone, GH and IGF-1 from
PRE in both GL and PL groups. However, blood testosterone, GH and IGF-1 comparisons showed that
subjects in GL had a significantly greater increase in blood testosterone, GH and IGF-1 compared to the PL
group.
Blood concentrations of testosterone stimulate muscle protein accretion (Kraemer et al.,
2007
).
Testosterone also increases protein synthesis by binding to the androgen receptor for the complex to
become a transcription factor and thirdly by possibly activating muscle satellite cells, which is important
because gene transcription is an initial target for the modulation of protein synthesis (Herbst & Bhasin,
2004
, Olsen et al.,
2006
). Resistance training is associated with significant elevations in anabolic hormones
such as testosterone (Kraemer & Ratamess,
2005
). The findings about testosterone hormone changes in
this study were similar to the study by Volek et al. (
1997
).
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2012 |
778
Growth hormone has major effects on metabolism and affects the utilization of substrates and changes the
tissue specific metabolism (Hammarqvist et al.,
2010
). Findings in this study were similar to the study by
Zou et al. (
2006
) and Welbourne (
1995
). Parts of the action of growth hormone are mediated through the
insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Administration of growth hormone induces a rise in circulating IGF-1
(Kimbrough et al.,
1991
) that has important metabolic effects in stimulating glucose and amino acid uptake
in muscle and improving muscle protein synthesis (Fryburg,
1994
; Russell-Jones et al.,
1994
). In catabolic
situations the levels of IGF-1 decrease while its binding proteins increases leading to a lower local IGF-1
activity, contributing to the decreased insulin sensitivity seen in catabolism (Van den Berghe
et al.,
2000
;
Bang et al.,
1998
). These results similar to the study by Marcelo et al. (
2011
).
Cortisol is an adreno-cortical steroid hormone released into the body from the adrenal cortex in response to
stressful physical or psychological stimuli (Fleck & Kraemer,
2004
). Resistance training may also have led
to an overall reduction (Kraemer et al.,
2007
; Staron et al.,
1994
) or similar (Ahtiainen et al.,
2005
;
Ahtiainen,
2003
) cortisol responses to exercise loading in men. Although the results of this study
demonstrated a significant decrease in blood cortisol after supplementation. This improved hormonal
response may help to reduce the significant decrease in muscle glycogen that occurs during exercise, and
result in an enhanced anabolic environment where muscular adaptations and recovery can occur.
Furthermore, glutamine supplementation increases the availability of amino acids which may result in an
increased uptake of amino acids by the muscle. Increased uptake of amino acids by the muscle enhances
net muscle protein balance and improves the anabolic environment (Finn et al.,
2003
). On the other hand
D-Roshan and Barzegarzadeh (
2009
) reported no significant changes in cortisol concentration between
glutamine and placebo groups, although this study was implemented in the short term.
8-week of glutamine supplementation resulted showed significant increase in both body mass (2.30 ± 0.08
kg) and fat-free mass (2.90 ± 2.25 kg) these findings similar to the study by Yan and Zhao-Han (
2002
) and
Shabert (
1999
). On the other hand one study has investigated the effect of glutamine supplementation
during resistance training (Antonio et al.,
2002
). No significant differences between the glutamine groups
and placebo groups were reported for body mass. A limitation of the current study was that muscle mass
were not measured. Nevertheless, the increase in body mass is most likely due to an increase in muscle
protein or muscle mass (Wernerman et al.,
2008
; Gleeson,
2008
; Karogotich et al.,
2007
).
CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, the results of this investigation suggested that 8-week resistance training combined with the
timed ingestion of glutamine supplementation increase explosive muscular power and muscle strength
(upper and lower body strength) in non athlete male students. Additionally, the strategic consumption of a
daily glutamine supplementation (0.35g/kg/day) parceled into three equal dosages represents a simple but
effective strategy that enhances performance during resistance training. Also, this strategic (glutamine
supplementation combined with resistance training) improved body composition.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors like to thank all the Guilan University students who assisted in the collection of this data and
the subjects who gave us their time.
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
779
| 2012 | ISSUE 4 | VOLUME 7
© 2012 University of Alicante
REFERENCES
1.
AHTIAINEN JP, PAKAINEN A, ALEN M, KRAEMER WJ, HAKKINEN K. Muscle hypertrophy,
hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and
untrained men.
European Journal of Applied Physiology.
2003; 89:555-563. doi:
10.1007/s00421-
003-0833-3
[
Back to text
]
2.
AHTIAINEN JP, PAKAINEN A, ALEN M, KRAEMER WJ, HAKKINEN K. Short vs. long rest period
between the sets in hypertrophic resistance training: inXuence on muscle strength, size, and
hormonal adaptations in trained men.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
2005;
19:572-582. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
3.
AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SPORTS MEDICINE. Position stand on the appropriate intervention for
weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.
Journal of Medicine Science Exercise.
2001;
33(12):2145-2156. doi:
10.1097/00005768-200112000-00026
[
Back to text
]
4.
ANTONIO J, SANDERS M, KALMAN D, WOODGATE D, STREET C. The effects of high-dose
glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
2002; 16:157-160. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
5.
ANTONIO J, STREET C. Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes.
Canadian Journal
of Applied Physiology.
1999; 24:1-14. doi:
10.1139/h99-001
[
Back to text
]
6.
BANG P, NYGREN J, CARLSSON-SKWIRUT C, THORELL A, LJUNGQVIST O, Postoperative
induction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 proteolytic activity: relation to insulin and
insulin sensitivity.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
1998; 83:2509-2515.
doi:
10.1210/jc.83.7.2509
[
Back to text
]
7.
BOWTELL JL, GELLY K, JACKMAN ML, PATEL A, SIMEONI M, RENNIE MJ. Effect of oral
glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise.
Journal
of Applied Physiology.
1999; 86:1770-1777. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
8.
BURKE DG, CHILIBECK PD, DAVIDSON KS, CANDOW DG, FARTING J, SMITH-PALMER T.
The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with
resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength.
International Journal Sport Nutrition
Exercise Metabolism.
2001; 11:349-64. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
9.
CANAVAN PK, VESCOVI JD. Evaluation of power prediction equations: peak vertical jumping
power
in
women.
Medicine
Science
Sport
Exercise.
2004;
36:1589-1593.
doi:
10.1249/01.MSS.0000139802.96395.AC
[
Back to text
]
10.
CANDOW DG, CHILIBECK PD, BURKE DG, DAVISON DS, SMITH-PALMER T. Effect of
glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults.
European Journal of
Applied Physiology.
2001; 86:142-149. doi:
10.1007/s00421-001-0523-y
[
Back to text
]
11.
DABIDI-ROSHAN V, BARZEGARZADEH H. The effect of the short-term
glutamine
supplementation on exhaustive exercise-induced changes in immune system of active boys.
World
Journal of Sport Sciences.
2009; 2(4):222-230. [
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
12.
DEMLING R, DESANTI L. The anabolic steroid oxandrolone reverses the wound healing
impairment in corticosteroid-dependent burn and wound patients.
Wounds
. 2001; 13:203-208.
[
Abstract
] [
Back to text
]
13.
FINN KJ, LUND R, ROSENE-TREADWELL M. Glutamine supplementation did not benefit athletes
during short-term weight reduction.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.
2003; 2: 163-168.
[
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
14.
FLECK SJ, KRAEMER WJ. Designing resistance training programs. Champaign, IL:
Human
Kinetics,
2004. [
Back to text
]
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2012 |
780
15.
FRYBURG D. Insulin-like growth factor I exerts growth hormone- and insulin-like actions on human
muscle protein metabolism.
American Journal of Physiology.
1994; 267:331-336. [
PubMed
] [
Back
to text
]
16.
GLELSON M. Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport
training.
Journal of Nutrition.
2008; 138(10):2045-2049. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
17.
HADLEY JS, Hinds CJ. Anabolic strategies in critical illness.
Current Opinion Pharmacology.
2002;
2:700-707. doi:
10.1016/S1471-4892(02)00217-5
[
Back to text
]
18.
HAMMARQVIST F, WENNSTRÖM I, WERNERMAN J. Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like
growth factor-1 on postoperative muscle and substrate metabolism.
Journal of Nutrition and
Metabolism.
2010; 10:1-9. doi:
10.1155/2010/647929
[
Back to text
]
19.
HERBST KL, BHASIN S. Testosterone action on skeletal muscle.
Current Opinion in Clinical
Nutrition & Metabolism Care
. 2004; 7:271-277. doi:
10.1097/00075197-200405000-00006
[
Back to
text
]
20.
HOFFMAN JR.
Norms for fitness, performance and health
. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics, 2006.
[
Back to text
]
21.
KARGOTICH S, KEAST D, GOODMAN C, BHAGAT CI, JOSKE DJ, DAWSON B, MORTON AR.
Monitoring 6 weeks of progressive endurance training with plasma glutamine.
International Journal
of Sports Medicine.
2007; 28(3):211-216. doi:
10.1055/s-2006-924218
[
Back to text
]
22.
KIMBROUGHR TD, SHEMAN S, ZIEGLER TR, SCHELTINGA M, WILMORE DW, Insulin-like
growth factor-I response is comparable following intravenous and subcutaneous administration of
growth hormone.
Journal of Surgical Research.
1991; 51(6):472-476. doi:
10.1016/0022-
4804(91)90167-K
[
Back to text
]
23.
KRAEMER WJ, HATWELD DL, SPIRING BA, VINGREN JL, FRAGALA MS, HO JY, VOLEK JS,
ANDERSON JM, MARESH CM. Effects of a multi-nutrient supplement on exercise performance
and hormonal responses to resistance exercise.
European Journal of Applied Physiology.
2007;
101:637-646. doi:
10.1007/s00421-007-0535-3
[
Back to text
]
24.
KRAEMER WJ, RATAMESS N. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and
training.
Journal Sport Medicine.
2005; 35(4):339-361. doi:
10.2165/00007256-200535040-00004
[
Back to text
]
25.
LACEY JM, WILMORE DW. Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?
Journal of Nutrition,
Review.
1990; 48:297-309. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
26.
LAGRANHA CJ, LEVADA-PIRES AC, SELLITTI DF, PROCOPIO J, CURI R, PITHON-CURI TC.
The effect of glutamine supplementation and physical exercise on neutrophil function.
Journal of
Amino Acids, Review.
2007; 34(3):337-346. doi:
10.1007/s00726-007-0560-x
[
Back to text
]
27.
LOHMAN TG, ROCHE AF, MARTORELL R.
Anthropometric standardization reference manual.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1998. [
Back to text
]
28.
LOW SY, TAYLOR PM, RENNIE MJ. Responses of glutamine transport in cultured rat skeletal
muscle to osmotically induced changes in cell volume.
Journal of Physiology (London).
1996;
492(3), 877-885. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
29.
MARCELO MR, MARIA CARLONIA B, INAR AC, IVANIR SO, PIRES, PRIMAVERA B, JULIO T.
Effects of Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on the Body Composition and Protein Status of
Early-Weaned Mice Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin.
Journal of
Nutrients.
2011; 3(9): 792-804. doi:
10.3390/nu3090792
[
Back to text
]
30.
MAYHEW JL, BALL TE, ARNOLD TE, BOWEN JC. Relative muscular endurance as a predictor of
bench press strength in college men and women.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
1992; 6:200-206. [
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
781
| 2012 | ISSUE 4 | VOLUME 7
© 2012 University of Alicante
31.
MELVIN W, Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids.
Journal of the
International Society of Sports Nutrition.
2005; 2(2):63-67. doi:
10.1186/1550-2783-2-2-63
[
Back to
text
]
32.
OLSEN LS, AAGAARD P, KADI F, TOFEKOVIC G, VERNEY J, OLSEN JL, SUETTA C, KJAER M.
Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human
skeletal muscle induced by strength training.
Journal of Physiology.
2006; 573(2):525-534.
doi:
10.1113/jphysiol.2006.107359
[
Back to text
]
33.
PHILLIPS GC. Glutamine: the nonessential amino acid for performance enhancement.
Current
Sports Medicine Reports.
2007; 6(4):265-8. doi:
10.1007/s11932-007-0043-6
[
Back to text
]
34.
POLLOCK ML, JACKSON AS. Research progress in validation of clinical methods of assessing
body composition.
Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
1984; 16:606-613.
[
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
35.
RUSSELL-JONES DL, UMPLWBY AM, HENNESSY TR, BOWES SB, SHOJAEE-MORADIE F,
HOPKINS KD et al. Use of a leucine clamp to demonstrate that IGF-I actively stimulates protein
synthesis in normal humans.
American Journal of Physiology.
1994; 267(4):591-598. [
PubMed
]
[
Back to text
]
36.
SHABERT JK, WINSLOW C, LACEY JM, WILMORE DW. Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation
increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled
trial.
Journal of Nutrition.
1999; 15(11-12):860-864. doi:
10.1016/S0899-9007(99)00213-0
[
Back to
text
]
37.
SIRI ME.
Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods in techniques for
measuring body composition.
Washington, DC: National Academy of Science, National Research
Council. 1961. [
Back to text
]
38.
STARON RS, KARAPONDO DL, KRAEMER WJ, FRY AC, GORDON SE, FALKEL JE,
HAGERMAN FC, HIKIDA RS. Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy resistance
training in men and women.
Journal of Applied Physiology.
1994; 76:1247-1255. [
PubMed
] [
Back
to text
]
39.
VAN G, BAXTER RC, WEEKERS F, WOUTERS P, BOWERS CY, VELDHUIS JD. A paradoxical
gender dissociation within the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis during protracted
critical illness.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
2000; 85(1):183-192.
doi:
10.1210/jc.85.1.183
[
Back to text
]
40.
VARNIER M, LEESE GP, THOMPSON J, RENNIE MJ. Stimulatory effect of glutamine on glycogen
accumulation in human skeletal muscle.
American Journal of Physiology.
1995; 269:309-315.
[
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
41.
VOLE JS, WILLIAM JK, JILL AB, T. INCLEDO, BOETES M. Testosterone and cortisol in
relationship to dietary nutrients and resistance exercise.
Journal of Applied Physiology.
1997;
82:49-54. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
42.
WALSH NP, BLANNIN AK, BISHOP NC, ROBSON PJ, GLEESON M. Effect of oral glutamine
supplementation on human neutrophil lipopolysaccharide-stimulated degranulation following
prolonged exercise.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition.
2000; 10:39-50. [
PubMed
] [
Back to
text
]
43.
WELBOURNE TC. Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine
load.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
1995; 61:1058-1061. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
44.
WERNERMAN J. Clinical use of glutamine supplementation.
Journal of Nutrition.
2008; 138:2040-
2044. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
Hakimi et al /
Resistance training combined with glutamine
JOURNAL OF HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE
VOLUME 7 | ISSUE 4 | 2012 |
782
45.
YAN GU, ZHAO-HAN WU. The anabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone and
glutamine on parenterally fed, short bowel rats.
World Journal of Gastroenterology.
2002; 8(4):752-
757. [
PubMed
] [
Back to text
]
46.
ZOU XT, ZHENG GH, FANG XJ. JIANG JF. Effects of glutamine on growth performance of
weanling piglets.
Czech Journal of Animal Science.
2006; 10:444-448. [
Full Text
] [
Back to text
]
logo_pie_uaemex.mx