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Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
ISSN printed: 1806-2563
ISSN on-line: 1807-8664
Acta Scientiarum
Doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.19193
Acta Scientiarum. Technology
Maringá, v. 35, n. 4, p. 757-763, Oct.-Dec., 2013
Sacha inchi as potential source of essential fatty acids and
tocopherols: multivariate study of nut and shell
Aloisio Henrique Pereira de Souza
1
, Aline Kirie Gohara
1
, Ângela Cláudia Rodrigues
3
, Nilson
Evelázio de Souza
2,4
, Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer
1,2
and Makoto Matsushita
1,2*
1
Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
2
Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências
Agrárias, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringa, Paraná, Brazil.
3
Departamento de Química, Universidade
Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Medianeira, Paraná, Brazil.
4
Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. *Author for
correspondence. E-mail: mmakoto@uem.br
ABSTRACT.
The present study investigated the fatty acid composition, tocopherols and nutritional
factors in the nut and shell of Sacha inchi (
Plukenetia volubilis
) through multivariate data analysis. The nut
showed a high lipid content (48.5%), while the shell showed a low content (1.2%), although both parts of
the plant had similar fatty acid composition. Low contents of saturated fatty acids were found in both parts,
indicating anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombogenic and hypercholesterolemic effects. The content of n-3 fatty
acids (438.7 mg g
-1
of total lipids) found in the nut corroborates with the literature, while the content
found in shell (329.4 mg g
-1
) is not previously described. The total tocopherol content was higher than
other oilseeds. The great amount of
α
-tocopherol present in the shell is highlighted since this is considered
primarily responsible for the metabolic activity of vitamin E. Dietary Reference Intakes proved that both
parts of Sacha inchi have a good nutritional supply. The use of multivariate analysis allowed nuts and shells
to be distinguished and their constituents to be checked. The incorporation of Sacha inchi in the human
diet is promising due to its intrinsic characteristics, as well as the use of the shell in food processing.
Keywords:
Plukenetia volubilis
L., alfa-linolenic, linoleic, vitamin E, antioxidants, chemometric.
Sacha inchi como fonte potencial de ácidos graxos essenciais e tocoferóis: estudo
multivariado da castanha e casca
RESUMO.
O presente estudo investigou a composição em ácidos graxos, tocoferóis e seus fatores
nutricionais na castanha e casca de Sacha inchi (
Plukenetia volubilis
) com o uso da análise multivariada dos
dados. A castanha apresentou um elevado teor de lipídios (48.5%), quando comparado com a casca (1.2%).
Com relação à composição em ácidos graxos, ambas as partes foram semelhantes, sendo verificados baixos
percentuais de ácidos graxos saturados e possivelmente efeitos antiaterogênico, antitrombogênico e
hipercolesterolêmico. O conteúdo de n-3 (438,7 mg g
-1
lipídios totais) encontrado na castanha foi
semelhante ao relatado na literatura, enquanto o teor analisado na casca (329,4 mg g
-1
), não foi mencionado
em outros trabalhos. O conteúdo de tocoferóis foi elevado quando comparado com outras oleaginosas.
Destaca-se o conteúdo de
α
-tocopherol presente na casca, que é considerado a principal responsável pela
atividade metabólica da vitamina E. Através da DRI foi verificado um bom aporte nutricional nas partes da
Sacha inchi. O uso da análise multivariada permitiu distinguir os lotes da castanha e casca, bem como
verificar os seus constituintes. A incorporação da Sacha inchi na dieta apresenta-se promissora devido as
suas características intrínsecas, sendo ressaltado o aproveitamento da casca e a sua aplicação no
processamento de alimentos.
Palavras-chave:
Plukenetia volubilis
L., alfa-linolênico, linoleico, vitamina E, antioxidante, quimiometria.
Introduction
Sacha inchi (
Plukenetia volubilis
L.), commonly
called ‘Inca Inchi’, ‘Inca Peanut’, ‘Mountain Peanut’,
‘Sacha Peanut’, ‘Supua’, ‘Ticazo’, ‘Sacha Maní’,
‘Maní del Inca’, ‘Maní Del Monte’ or ‘Maní Jibaro’,
is a plant which belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family
and
i
s
found
in
the
Amazon
fo
re
s
t
o
f
Pe
ru
a
t
altitudes of 200-1500 meters (HAMAKER et al.,
1992). The nut can be considered an excellent
source of proteins and lipids, with levels of 27-30
and 40-60%, respectively (CAI, 2011).
The lipid fraction of the Sacha inchi nut is
primarily composed of unsaturated fatty acids,
which comprise about 90% of the total lipids
(ZULETA et al., 2012). According to the Institute of
Medicine (2002/2005), the consumption of saturated
fatty acids should be avoided in a balanced diet.
Follegatti-Romero et al. (2009), Fanali et al. (2011)
758
Souza et al.
Acta Scientiarum. Technology
Maringá, v. 35, n. 4, p. 757-763, Oct.-Dec., 2013
and Gutiérrez et al. (2011) reported contents of
33.4-36.2% of linoleic fatty acids (18:2n-6) and 46.8-
50.8% of alfa-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). According to
Ratnayake and Galli (2009), these fatty acids are
considered essential because they cannot be
metabolized in the human body and must be
consumed through diet.
Fanali et al. (2011) highlight the presence of
antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids and
tocopherols in nut; the latter may reduce the risk of
heart disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer (KÖKSAL
et al., 2006; YANG, 2009). Tocopherols and
tocotrienols are fat-soluble compounds and fractions
of vitamin E, which are identified by the prefixes
α
,
β
,
γ
and
δ
. They are compounds with different
activities of vitamin E and the isomer
α
-tocopherol
is the most biologically active. These compounds are
found only in plants (YADA et al., 2011).
Sacha inchi oil is obtained after the process of
cold pressing and peeling nuts. The co-products
generated, especially the shell, can be exploited in
food processing and/or as cementitious materials
due to their physico-chemical composition, as
reported by Ferreira et al. (2006) for Brazil nuts and
Lima and Rossinolo (2010) for the co-products of
cashew nuts, which are oilseeds with characteristics
similar to the Sacha inchi.
Multivariate analysis enables the extraction of
additional information when compared to univariate
analysis. This chemometric tool allows pattern
recognition, gathering of information, reduction of
data dimensionality and organization of data in a
simpler structure, which is easier to understand.
The principal component analysis (PCA) is based on
performing linear comparisons of the original
variables. The principal components (PC) are
mutually orthogonal and the explained variance
decreases with an increase in PC number
(CORREIA; FERREIRA, 2007).
There are few available studies about the Sacha
inchi nut and the potential use of its shells, which
are obtained as co-products from the extraction of
crude oil. Therefore, the present study investigated
the fatty acid composition, tocopherols and their
nutritional factors in nuts and the shell of Sacha
inchi.
Material and methods
Sampling
Sacha inchi grains (
Plukenetia volubilis
) were
purchased from the local market in Lima, Peru. This
plant is obtained from the plant extractivism
performed in the Peruvian Amazon. Sampling
consisted of 3 batches of 5 kg, collected at intervals
of 30 days.
The Sacha inchi nut was separated from the shell
using a manual breaker, then it was ground using a
food processor (Philips - Walita) to form a
homogeneous paste; the shell was ground in a
hammer mill to obtain a flour which was sieved
using a 14 mesh sieve. The two fractions (nut paste
and shell flour) were vacuum-packed and protected
from the light and were stored frozen until analysis.
Lipid extraction
The total lipids were extracted with methanol,
chloroform and water (2:2:1) according to Bligh and
Dyer (1959), using 3.50 g of sample, and adding 12.0
mL of water to correct the moisture.
Fatty acid composition
To determine the fatty acid composition, the
lipids were converted into fatty acid methyl esters
(FAME) and were methylated according to Hartman
and Lago (1973). The FAME were separated using a
gas chromatograph CP-3380 (Varian, USA) fitted
with a flame ionization detector and a CP 7420-
select
Fame
fused-silica
capillary
column
(100 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25
μ
m cyanopropyl). The gas
flows were carrier gas hydrogen 1.4 mL min.
-1
,
make-up gas nitrogen 30 mL min.
-1
, synthetic air
300 mL min.
-1
and flame gas hydrogen 30 mL min.
-1
;
the sample was injected in a split ratio of 1:100. The
injector and detector temperatures were 235°C. The
column temperature was maintained at 165°C for 4
min., increased by 4°C min.
-1
to 185°C and
maintained for 5 min., and then raised from 185°C
by 10°C min.
-1
to 225ºC and maintained for 10 min.
The retention times were compared to those of
standard methyl esters (Sigma, USA). The fatty
acids were quantified using tricosanoic acid methyl
ester (Sigma, USA) as an internal standard,
following Joseph and Ackman (1992). The peak
areas were determined with software Star 5.0
(Varian, USA) and the concentrations were
expressed in mg g
-1
of total lipid.
Tocopherols determination
Samples were saponified and the isomers of
vitamin E were extracted according to the
methodology described by Delgado-Zamarreño
et al. (2004), only changing the extraction time to
four hours. Under stirring and protected from light,
50.0 mL of ethanol, 5.0 mL of aqueous solution of
ascorbic acid 10% (w v
-1
), 10 mL of aqueous solution
of potassium hydroxide 80% (w v
-1
) and 25 mL of
water were added to 2.00 g of ground sample. The
unsaponifiable material extraction was performed
Multivariate study of Sacha inchi
759
Acta Scientiarum. Technology
Maringá, v. 35, n. 4, p. 757-763, Oct.-Dec., 2013
with hexane and water. The hexane phase, which
contained the tocopherol fraction, was collected and
evaporated using evaporator en route under vacuum
at 50°C and the residue was dissolved in methanol.
Vitamin E was determined using High-
Efficiency Liquid Chromatography (Varian), with a
C18 column (microsorb, 250 × 4.6 mm, with 5
μ
m
particles) fitted with a scanning UV/Vis detector.
The
mobile
phase
used
was
methanol/dichloromethane in the ratio 85:15 (v v
-1
),
and
the
flow
rate
was
0.8
mL
min
-1
(KORNSTEINER et al., 2006). The tocopherols
were quantified using the external standard method
of
δ
-tocopherol,
(
β
+
γ
)-tocopherol
and
α
-
tocopherol (Sigma, USA), according to Instituto
Adolfo Lutz (IAL, 2005). This involved the sum of
the
β
-tocopherol and
γ
-tocopherol isomers, since
the separation of these is not possible by this
methodology (KORNSTEINER et al., 2006).
Vitamin E activity
The activity of vitamin E in the samples was
represented according to Kornsteiner et al.
(2006);
the value found for each isomer, in milligrams, was
multiplied by the equivalent factor for
α
-tocopherol
(
α
-TE). For
α
-tocopherol,
α
-TE = mg x 1.0; for
(
β
+
γ
)-tocopherol,
α
-TE = mg x 0.25; and for
δ
-
tocopherol,
α
-TE = mg x 0.01.
Calculation of the dietary reference intake
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a percentage
estimate of the daily nutrient requirements per age and
gender, established by the Institute of Medicine (2001,
2011) for individuals aged over 12 months. The DRI of
vitamin E, n-3 and n-6 were determined as the mean
amounts in 10-g portions, as proposed by Brasil (2003)
for the Brazil nut.
Indices of the nutritional quality of lipids
A better approach to the nutritional evaluation of
fat is the utilization of indices based on the
functional effects of fatty acid composition. These
indices were available for atherogenicity (IA) =
[(12:0 + (4 x 14:0) + 16:0)] / (MUFA + n-6 + n-
3), and thrombogenicity (IT) = (14:0 + 16:0 +
18:0) / [(0.5 x MUFA) + (0.5 x n-6) + (3 x n-3) +
(n-3:n-6)], by Ulbricht and Southgate (1991); and
the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty
acid ratio (HH) = (18:1n-9 + 18:2n-6 + 20:4n-6 +
18:3n-3 + 20:5n-3 + 22:5n-3 + 22:6n-3) / (14:0
+16:0), according to Santos-Silva et al. (2002).
Statistical analysis
Lipid
extraction,
fatty
acid
composition,
tocopherols determination, vitamin E activity and
indices of the nutritional quality of lipids were
carried out in triplicate on the three different
batches. The results were compared using the
Student's t-test with a 5% (p < 0.05) significance
level for rejection of the null hypothesis. The
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) tool was used
for multivariate analysis. The individual average of
the three batches was used for the PCA of the main
fatty acids (18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, n-6:n3 and
PUFA:SFA) and another for the tocopherols. Means
were auto-scaled for all of the variables to present
the same weight and two-dimensional graphs of
PCA. All statistical analyses were conducted using
Statistica, version 7.0 (Statsoft, USA).
Results and discussion
Table 1 shows the total lipid content for nuts and
shells of Sacha inchi, which presented a significant
difference (p < 0.05). Studies performed by
Follegatti-Romero et al. (2009) and Gutiérrez et al.
(2011) showed levels of 54 and 42% of oil in Sacha
inchi nut, through extraction by supercritical carbon
dioxide and chloroform:methanol (v v
-1
, 1:1),
respectively. There are no reports in the literature
about the composition of the shell of Sacha inchi.
Table 1.
Total lipids and indices of the nutritional quality of the
lipid fraction in Sacha inchi peanut and shell.
Indices
Fraction
Total lipids
IA
1
IT
2
HH
3
Nut
48.52
a
± 1.05
0.05
b
± 0.01
0.05
b
± 0.01
20.48
a
± 0.12
Shell
1.24
b
± 0.17
0.12
a
± 0.01
0.12
a
± 0.01
7.94
b
± 0.54
Means followed by the same letters in columns do not differ by the Student's t-test
(p < 0.05).
1
IA: Index of atherogenicity.
2
IT: Index of thrombogenicity.
3
HH:
Hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratio. n = 9 replicates.
The fatty acid compositions of the parts of Sacha
inchi were similar, as shown in Table 2. The levels
of saturated fatty acids were 7.7 and 15.8%,
respectively, in the lipid fraction of the nut and the
shell. Maurer et al. (2012) showed that the following
vegetable oils exhibit increasing levels of saturated
fatty acids: canola < sunflower < flaxseed < corn <
olive < cotton, ranging from 8.5 to 25.2%; these
values are higher than those presented by Sacha
inchi oil analyses.
Stroher et al. (2012) reported that some
manufacturers have increased the amount of
saturated fatty acids in order to reduce ‘trans’ fatty
acids, but according to the Institute of Medicine
(2002/2005), the intake of saturated fatty acids
should be avoided in a balanced diet. Therefore,
Sacha inchi could be a good choice for food due to
its low saturated fatty acids content.
The classes of fatty acids and their relationship
to the proper functioning of the body may be
760
Souza et al.
Acta Scientiarum. Technology
Maringá, v. 35, n. 4, p. 757-763, Oct.-Dec., 2013
attested by the use of nutritional indices
(SANTOS-SILVA et al., 2002; ULBRICHT;
SOUTHGATE,
1991)
and
their
ratios
(HARWOOD et al., 2007; SIMOPOULOS,
2011). Table 1 shows the atherogenicity and
thrombogenicity indexes which are associated
with the presence of lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0),
palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) fatty acids, and
the increased incidence of coronary diseases when
compared
to
monounsaturated
fatty
acids,
especially oleic (18:1 n-9) and the series omega 3
and 6. Ulbricht and Southgate (1991) found
values of IA and IT for sunflower oil that were
similar to this study and emphasized the direct
relationship between the lowest ratio and an
attenuated risk of coronary disease.
The major ratios HH (Table 1) and PUFA: SFA
(Table
2)
are
important
due
to
the
hypocholesterolemic effect and the prevalence of
polyunsaturated fatty acids that are involved with the
lowest risk of cardiovascular disease (RATNAYAKE;
GALLI, 2009). According to Simopoulos (2011), the
excessive consumption of lipids, ‘trans’ fatty acids
and an unbalanced n-6:n-3 ratio are related to a
higher frequency of myocardial infarction cases,
hypercholesterolemia,
increased
low
density
lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and blood pressure,
atheroma, lipid disorders and other disorders. The
n-6:n-3 ratio of the Sacha inchi is near the ideal
value of 1:1 (SIMOPOULOS, 2011).
Table 2.
Fatty acid absolute quantification of Sacha inchi
peanut
and shell.
Fatty acid (mg g
-1
TL)
Nut
Shell
16:0
42.11
b
± 0.76
96.75
a
± 3.68
18:0
29.86
b
± 0.55
47.40
a
± 0.62
18:1n-9
85.24
b
± 1.72
112.95
a
± 2.03
18:2n-6
338.51
a
± 7.42
324.54
a
± 9.75
18:3n-3
438.77
a
± 9.84
329.48
b
± 15.79
Sums and ratios of fatty acid
SFA
71.98
b
± 1.06
144.15
a
± 4.07
MUFA
85.24
b
± 1.72
112.95
a
± 2.03
PUFA
777.28
a
± 12.32
654.02
b
± 18.56
n-6
338.51
a
± 7.42
324.54
a
± 9.75
n-3
438.77
a
± 9.84
329.48
b
± 15.79
PUFA:SFA
10.80
a
± 0.13
4.54
b
± 0.04
n-6:n-3
0.77
b
± 0.03
0.99
a
± 0.06
Means followed by the same letters in rows do not differ by the Student's t-test (P <
0.05). TL: total lipids, SFA: total saturated fatty acids, MUFA: total monounsaturated
fatty acids, PUFA: total polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6: total omega-6 fatty acids and n-
3: total omega-3 fatty acids. n = 9 replicates.
Figure 1 shows the chromatograms of the
tocopherols analysis. The contents of tocopherols
isomers found for the Sacha inchi nut and shell are
presented in Table 3. The isomer
α
-tocopherol was
not detected in Sacha inchi oil by Follegatti-Romero
et al. (2009), but Fanali et al. (2011) found this
isomer; they also found high levels of
γ
-tocopherol.
Costa et al. (2010) showed higher activity of vitamin
E for Brazil nuts. However, studies that analyzed
linseed and other oilseeds (RYAN et al., 2007) and
soybean (BOSCHIN, ARNOLDI, 2011) showed
lower contents of total tocopherols and lower
activity of vitamin E than for Sacha inchi. The
isomer
α
-tocopherol is the most biologically active
form of vitamin E (YADA et al., 2011) and is related
to the protection of unsaturated lipids present in
biological systems, since it is a lipophilic substance
(TAIPINA et al., 2009).
Figure 1.
Representative chromatograms with identification of
the isomers of tocopherols. 1.
δ
-Tocopherol; 2.
β
+
γ
-Tocopherol;
3.
α
-Tocopherol. A – Sacha inchi shell: 1. 5.700 min.; 2. 6.200
min.; 3. 6.680 min. B – Sacha inchi nut: 1. 5.700 min.; 2. 6.147
min.; 3. 6.627 min. C –Standards of tocopherol isomers: 1. 6.013
min.; 2. 6.413 min.; 3. 6.893 min. D – Sacha inchi nut with
isomers standards: 1. 5.933 min.; 2. 6.333 min.; 6.840 min.
Multivariate study of Sacha inchi
761
Acta Scientiarum. Technology
Maringá, v. 35, n. 4, p. 757-763, Oct.-Dec., 2013
Table 3.
Tocopherol composition (mg 100g
-1
) of Sacha inchi
peanut and shell analyzed.
Fraction
δ
-Tocopherol
β
+
γ
-Tocopherol
α
-Tocopherol
Total tocopherol
content
α
-TE
1
Nut
2.95
a
± 0.01
5.05
a
± 0.15
0.99
b
± 0.06
8.99
a
± 0.16
2.29
a
±0.07
Shell
0.57
b
± 0.01
0.65
b
± 0.01
1.84
a
± 0.02
3.06
b
± 0.02
2.01
b
±0.01
Means followed by the same letters in columns do not differ by the Student's t-test (p < 0.05).
1
α
-TE:
α
-tocopherol equivalents. n = 9 replicates.
Table 4 presents the nutritional contribution
(INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE, 2001, 2011) of the
nut and shell of Sacha inchi for different age groups,
based on the value per portion set forth by Brasil
(2003). The Dietary Reference Intake showed that
the Sacha inchi nut presents a high contribution of
n-3 fatty acids for all of the analyzed populations.
Despite a lower contribution compared to the nut,
the shell may be a promising source of n-3 and
tocopherols (Table 4), mainly due to their metabolic
activity (Table 3). Therefore, both fractions of Sacha
inchi could be greatly applied and consumed by
humans.
Figure 2 shows the principal component analysis
(PCA) of fatty acids selected from the loadings
(Figure 2A) to evaluate the distribution of the
batches (Figure 2B). Through the decomposition
into principal components (PC1 and PC2), it is
possible to explain 99.88% of data variance. PC1
(Figures 2A and 2B) can distinguish batches of nuts
and shells. This is due to the higher concentration of
leic fatty acids (18:1 n-9) and the PUFA:SFA ratio
for batches of the shell.
Table 4.
Vitamin E, n-3 and n-6 contents in 10-g of Sacha inchi
peanut and shell
portions as percentages of Dietary Reference
Intake (DRI) per age and gender.
Age group
Vitamin E
n-3
n-6
(years)
Nut
Shell
Nut
Shell
Nut
Shell
C
h
i
l
d
r
e
n
1-3
14.98
3.32
304.14
5.83
70.39
0.57
4-8
12.84
2.84
236.55
4.53
49.27
0.40
M
e
n
9-13
8.17
1.81
177.41
3.40
41.06
0.33
14-18
5.99
1.33
133.06
2.55
30.80
0.25
19-50
5.99
1.33
133.06
2.55
28.98
0.24
>51
5.99
1.33
133.06
2.55
35.20
0.29
W
o
m
e
n
9-13
8.17
1.81
212.90
4.08
49.27
0.40
14-18
5.99
1.33
193.54
3.71
44.79
0.37
19-50
5.99
1.33
193.54
3.71
41.06
0.33
> 51
5.99
1.33
193.54
3.71
44.79
0.37
Pregnant
14-50
5.99
1.33
152.07
2.92
37.90
0.31
Lactating
14-50
4.73
1.05
163.77
3.14
37.90
0.31
Analyzing the PCA of tocopherols in Figure 3,
PC1 was plotted versus PC2. PC1 separated the
batches of Sacha inchi fractions (Figure 3B) and
explained 97.49% of the variance.
α
-tocopherol
contributed positively to the separation of batches of
shell when compared with the Sacha inchi nut
(Figure 3A). Table 3 confirms the higher amount of
this isomer of vitamin E in the shell.
Figure 2.
Principal components analysis of fatty acids in Sacha
inchi. A: Loadings; B: Scores.
SFA: total saturated fatty acids, MUFA: total monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA: total
polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6: total omega-6 fatty acids and n-3: total omega-3 fatty acids.
Figure 3.
Principal components analysis of tocopherols in Sacha
inchi.
A: Loadings; B: Scores. 1:
δ
-Tocopherol; 2:
β
+
γ
-Tocopherol; 3:
α
-Tocopherol; 4:
Total tocopherol content; 5: vitamin E activity (
α
-TE).
Conclusion
The present study showed that the Sacha inchi nut
is an excellent source of essential fatty acids, high
contents of tocopherols
and presents anti-atherogenic,
anti-thrombogenic and hypocholesterolemic effects.
The values of DRI enable the evaluation of the
nutritional potential of Sacha inchi fractions. The
multivariate analysis allowed the distinction of batches
of nuts and shells, as well as evaluating the weights of
its constituents. The incorporation of Sacha inchi in
the human diet is promising due to its intrinsic
characteristics, as well as the use of the shell in food
processing.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Capes, CNPq,
Araucaria Foundation for the financial support and
the Complex of Research Support Centers
(Comcap/State University of Maringa) for the
availability of resources and technology for the
development of this research.
762
Souza et al.
Acta Scientiarum. Technology
Maringá, v. 35, n. 4, p. 757-763, Oct.-Dec., 2013
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