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Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Contam. Amb. 1, 45-49, 1985
GENETIC EFFECTS OF THINNER, BENZENE
AND TOLUENE IN
Drospohila rnelanogaster
2. SEX LINKED RECESSIVE LETHAL MUTATIONS
AND TRANSLOCATIONS 11-111
ROSARIO
RODRIGUEZ ARNAIZ
*
AND
RAFAEL
VILLALOBOS-PIETRINI
**
*
Laboratorio de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias,
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MCxico, Mé-
xico,
D.
F. 04510. MCxico.
**
Laboratorio de Citogenética y Mutagénesis Am-
biental, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Uni-
versidad Nacional Autónoma de México, MCxi-
co, D. F. 04510 y Centro de Investigación y Re-
producción
Animal,
Universidad
Autónoma de
Tlaxcala.
ABSTRACT
The effects of thinner, benzene and toluene on the;induction of sex-linked recessive
lethal mutations and translocations 11-111 in
D~osophila melanogaster
were in-
vestigated by means of a genetic scheme designed. by Oster and a modified z for
statistical analysis. Thinner induced sex-linked recessive lethals while benzene
and toluene did not. Translocations 11-111 were produced only by benzene.
RESUMEN
Se investigaron los efectos del tíner, del benceno y del tolueno sobre la inducción
de mutaciones letales recesivas ligadas al sexo y sobre la frecuencia de transloca-
ciones de los cromosomas 11 y 111 en
Drosophila melanogaster.
Se utilizó el sis-
tema de cruzas Oster y la prueba de diferencia'de proporciones
(z
modificada)
para valorar estadísticamente los resultados. El tíner indujo mutaciones letales
recesivas ligadas al sexo, mientras que el benceno y $1 tolueno no las produjeron.
Las translocaciones 11-111 fueron producidas solamente por el benceno.
INTRODUCTION
Drosophila has been employed to test the whole spectrum of genetic damage in-
duced by chemicals such
as
dominant lethals, chromosome loss, non-disjunction
and translocations (Sobels
1974;
Zimmering
1975;
Vogel and Sobels
1976).
The
genetic events are scored as segregations which are clearly due to gene mutations
(Kilbey et
al.
1981).
Drosofihila
microsomes have the ability to biotransform
compounds that require metabolic activation (Baars
et
al. 1980).
This paper reports the results obtained with thinner, benzene and toluene on
the induction of sex-linked recessive lethal mutations and translocation 11-111 in
Drosophila melanogaster.
MATERIALS ANO METHODS
The genetic scheme designed by Oster (1958) was employed. For sex-linked
recessive lethals the following crosses were done.
P "Oster" females
X
"Oster" males
y sc51 Inv 49 sc8; bw; st, pp
XQ
yB/scs Y
(y white)
(YB)
F, Females: y scS1 Inv 49 scs/Xc2 y B
(y B)
X
F, Males: y scS1 Inv 49 scs/sca Y
(wild)
F- Females:
y
scS1
Inv 49 scs/y scS1 In 49 scs (y)
-
y scsl Inv 49 scs/xm y B (y
B)
-
F2 Males: y sc"
In 49 sc8/sc8 Y
(wild)
-
XC2
y B/scX Y
(B/+)
7-
The induction of sex-linked recessive lethals was scored when the phenotype
B
+
in males was not present, being the sex ratio 2: 1 instead of
2:2.
For translocation 11-111 the following crosses were done:
P "O~ter" females
hw/bw; st pp/st pp
"Ckter" males
+/+;
++/++
(white eyes)
(wild eyes)
F, Females and Males: bw/+; st pn/++
(wild eyesj
P2
Females bw/bw; st pP/st p1'
X
Males (F)
bw/+;
pP/+
+
(white eyes)
.(wild eyes)
-
1
F, bw/+;
st Pi'/++,
bw/+;
st pl'/st pP
f
(wild)
(scarlet pink peach)
bw/bw; st pp/++,bw/bw;
st pp/st pn
(brown)
--
(white)
P males were treated orally with solvents at different concentrations. Males
and females were allowed to mate for three days after treatment. Fifteen days
later,
F1
was scored and
Fi
males were mated with "oster" females of the constitu-
tion bw/bw; st pP/st
PP.
Females were put into fresh vials (one per vial)
and
fifteen days later
F2
flies were scored.
LETHAL MUTATIONS AND TRANCLOCATIONS
The assayed solvents were: Thinner
*
at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 2.5
and 3.0%; benzene (Balker) at 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25%; and toluene
at 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75,
1.00, 1.25 and 1.50%. LD,,
was the highest con-
centration used for al1 substances. The solvents were administered orally with
food. For al1 experiments and concent.rations, parallel controls were run. Al1
experiments were carried out at 25OC
*
l..Statistical significance tests were done
on the basis of a modified z (Spiegel 1961).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Tables 1 to 111 mmarize the results obtained. The spontaneous frequency of sex-
linked recessive lethals was 0.70%, whie translocations varied from 0.19 to 0.45yo
in the present report. Thinner (Table 1) induced sex-linked recessive lethals,
while benzene (Table 11) and toluene (Table 111) did not prove to be mu-
tagenic.
Benzene did not induce sex-linked recessive lethals. These results were in
agreement with those reported by Kale and Baum (1983) in
Drosophila melano-
gaster.
Also the results obtained with
toluene in the present report were in
agreement with those of Donner
et al.
(1981) and Norppa
et
al.
(1981) in the
same species. Translocations 11-111 were induced only by benzene (Table 1 1 ).
It has been shown that some chemicals induce sex-linked recessive lethal muta-
tions at high exposure .levels, whie the doses needed to induce translocations should
be even higher (Ahon and Lee, 1978). In the present report thinner induced sex-
linked recessive lethals. This could be due to the presence of other solvents
like ethanol, isopropanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and n-heptane in the mixture.
Drosophila
has demonstrated the existence of mutagens that are efficient in
TABLE 1. INDUCTION OF SEX-LINKED RECESSIVE LETHALS
AND TRANSLOCATIONS IN
Drosophila melanogaster
MALES TREATED
WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF THINNER
Concentration
Chromosomes with sex-
Frequency
Chromosomes with
%
linked recessive lethals
%
translocations 11-III
Control
0/249
0/28 1
0.5
6/254
2.36"
0/301
1
.O
7/275
2.54"
0/323
1.5
7/244
2.86"
0/335
2.0
8/241
3.32"
0/299
2.5
9/270
3.33"
0/302
3.0
7/212
3.3 1
*
0/289
*
Gas
chromatograrn run in the Centro Mexicano de Salud Mental showed that thinner
conrtituents are: toluene
52.Wo
n-hexane,
25.%,
ethano
12.5%,
ethyl acetate
6.076,
iiiopro-
pan01
2.0%,
benzene
1.0%
and n-heptane
1.00/0,
TABLE 11. INDUCTION OF SEX-LINKED RECESSIVE LETHALS
AND TRANSLOCATIONS IN
Drosophila melanogaster
MALES TREATED
WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BENZENE
Chromosomes
Concentration
with sex-linked
Frequency
Chromosornes with
Frequency
70
recessive lethals
%
translocations II-III
%
Control
3/450
0.70
2/43:,
0.45
O. 1 0
3/262
1.15
3/270
1.11"
0.25
3/260
1.15
3/273
1.09"
0.50
2/383
0.52
3/263
1.14"
0.75
3/410
0.73
3/256
1.17"
1 .O0
3/335
0.89
2/265
1.13"
1.25
2/264
0.75
3/209
1.43"
TABLE 111. SEX-LINKED RECESSIVE LETHALS
AND TRANSLOCATIONS IN
Drosophila melanogaster
MALES TREATED
WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TOLUENE
Concentrations
Chromosomes with sex-
Chromosomes with
%
%
linked recessive lethals
translocations IZ-111
Frequency
Control
0.10
0.25
0.50
0.75
1
.o0
1.25
1.50
the induction of gene mutations, but fail to induce chromosome breakage or
cause chromosomal aberration except at toxic levels of exposure (Vogel and Leigh
1975).
Auerbach (1976) suggests that the induction of sex-linked recessive lethal mu-
tations
is
a test so sensitive that it can be used as a biological dosimeter. Never-
theless, some objections have been made, because sex-linked recessive lethals
include a heterogenous group of genetic changes ranging from deletions to severa1
types of mutations, and the rate of such events varies among concentrations and
mutagens (Vogel and Natarajan 1979).
The fact that the induction of structural aberrations (translocations) reqqired
LETHAL M UTATIONS AND TRANSLOCATIONS
higher doses (Abrahamson et al. 1969) than those employed to point mutations,
supports the hypothesis that the probability of interactions of induced events may
be different; a concept already expressed by Muller (1941) early in the research
with chemical mutagens.
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