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Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
CONFERENCIAB MAGIBTRALEB
f
mOIBTRAL CONFERENCEB
ECOLOOICAL BTUDIEB OF THE RECONCAVO, BABIA, BRAZIL
(1976 UNTIL 1990
Tania M. Tavares
Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica
Campus Universitário da Federacao, .s/n
40.210 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
OB
JECTIVE
To study the effect of the inorganic chemical pollutants in air,
sediments, fauna, and human population of the Todos os Santos Bay
area in Bahia, Brazil.
IMPORTANCE
The project is interdisciplinary and promotes the development of
cooperative research among disciplines previously isolated such
as chemistry, biology, geosciences, community health, and
statistics. These disciplines work together to solve a
significant problem of the community related directly to the
development of the region. The project also aims to provide data
to the government to use for planning, to locate industries and
to establish adequate safe levels for industrial effluents with
chemical pollutants in the tropics, particularly strong acids in
the air and heavy metals in air and water bodies.
DEBCRIPTION OF BTUDIED AREAS
The Recencavo in Bahia comprises the Todos os Santos Bay (1,000
square km, the largest in Brazil), and the land around it,
locqted at 13 South latitude and 38 West longitude. Since 1968,
the Recencavo has been submitted to an intense exploitation of
its natural resources and to an exponential industrial growth.
Today, this area consists of the second largest industrial park
of the country: about 200 industries, dedicated mainly to ferrous
metallurgy, manufactured products (tools, weapons, etc.),
synthetic fibers, plant oil, cement, ceramic, etc., constitute
the Aratu Industrial Center (CIA). On the northeast, about 50
plants of petrochemical products along with one pulp plant, one
copper smelter and severa1 fine chemical industries are
concentrated in the Camacari Complex. On the northern part, two
paper mills, one lead smelter and an oil refinery (250 000
barrelslday) operate independently.
The city of Salvador, one of the fastest growing in Brazil,
presently with 2 million inhabitants, is a historical and
artistical center. The old section is considered to have the
greatest concentration of baroque art in the world.
ACHIEVEMENTB TO DATE
A. Related
-
establishment
a
infrastructure
Laboratories have been mounted in the knalytical Chemistry
Department for trace chemical analysis of substances in water,
sediment, biological material, and atmosphere. The chemistry
staff has developed considerable expertise in the analytical
techniques for inorganic compunds in geological land and
biological materials
(Raymundo and Tavares, 1980; Santos and
Tavares, 1980; Sntos et al., 1980; Tavares and Santos, 1980;
Tavares et al., 1987; Tavares, et al., 1988a; Tavares et al.,
1989), improving the methodology for determination of mercury by
atomic
absoption
spectroscopy,
increasing 2.5 times its
sensitivity (Tavares and Kirkwood, 1981), and developing
effective procedure for subdivision of humid sediments for the
analysis of volatile compounds (Tavares and Tavares, 1981b).
An infrastructure for collecting field samples was established
for water,
sediment
(superficial an profile),
bivalves,
atmosphere, and human breathing conditions. In the case of water
bodies, it has been mounted an analytical infrastructure
(until 20 meters deep) for basic physical chemical parameters.
In the case of atmosphere, it has been established systems for
separatly sampling gaseous and particulated phases (fractionated
by size), which allow studies of chemical speciation of S, N, and
C1 in the atmosphere (Klockow et al., 1984). Methodology for
field sampling and determination of gaseosus hydrogen peroxide in
air has been developed (Jacob et al, 1986; Jacob et al., in
press). Sampling systems of rain water and fog have been
established. A glossary of terms used in environmental
analytical chemistry has been elaborated (Klockow et al., in
revision)
.
B. Related
-
mercury emissions IHq) in the Tainheiros Inlet
Problem
At the east side of the Tainheiros Inlet bay (5 km2, average
depth of 5 m), a chlor-alkali plant released, for 12 years, 10
ton of inorganic Hg into the environment.
About 110 thousand
people, of very low social-economic level, living near the
industry, consumed the contaminated shellfish.
Answered auestions
1) How much mercury has been accumulated by the sediments and
edible bivalves of the Tainheiros Inlet?
Data have been obtained on the distribution of mercury in
sediment and edible bivalves from the Tainheiros Inlet,
indicating that most of the sediments in this area could be
considered polluted by mercury (Tavares et al., 1977).
L,
pectinata was found to be the edible bivalve of Todos os Santos
Bay which accumulated the most mercury (Tavares et al., 1979),
but based on perliminary data, Anomalocardia brasiliana is
probably the most useful local indicator species (Peso
&
Tavares,
in prsparation). Ingestion of 100 g of edible molluscs from
Tainheiros Inlet, randomly fished, exceeds the limit of mercury
intake recommended by WHO (Tavares
&
Peso, 1979).
2) How did these concentrations affect the local consumer
population?
The effects of mercury intake on the local population were
investigated, proving that the ingestion of molluscs in the area
did not result in significantly greater Hg absorption than paired
controls (Carvalho et al., 1985), from another area.
3) Did the mercury released in the Tainheiros Inlet affect the
levels of this metal in the rest of the Bay?
The mercury concentration of the interdial bivalves of the
continental coast of the Todos os Santos Bay was investigated in
1980, showing that the levels are lower than the limit
established for consumption by the FDA (1 ppm, wet weight basis)
(Silva et al., 1981)
.
Conseauences of these studies
The chlor-alkali industry was relocated, introducing abatement
measures
.
C. Related cadmium
m
lead iPb) emissions
the
Suba6
.estuarv
Problem
The emissions of Cd and Pb occurred at the north side of the bay,
at the bank of the Subaé river. For 21 years, a lead smelter
released 400 ton of Cd, and even greater quantities of Pb into
the environment.
Around 2,000 fishermen and their families live
at this estuary consuming local sea and agricultura1 products.
The metallurgy is 1.5 km far from the center of Santo Amaro City,
(30 thousand inhabitants). The poor population of this city,
located at the industry surroundings, used the industry dross to
floor their backyards. Some even used the industryls chimney
filters as carpets or blankets in their houses.
Both fishermen
and Santo Amaro's citizens brethcd polluted air.
Answered auestions
1) How much Cd and Pb have been accumulated by sediments and
edible bivalves of the Subaé estuary?
Data have been obtained on the concentrations of cadmiun and lead
in the sediments and fixed fauna of the Subaé estuary (Souza et
al., 1978; Tavares, 1978), demonstrating that the Subaé river and
its estuary presented higher concentrations of these metals than
the normal concentrations found by other scientists in non-
polluted areas. These high concentrations were associated with
the presence of a lead smelter in the area. Oysters from the
Subaé estuary contained lead concentrations up to 4 ppm
(dry
basis) and Cd concentrations up to 140 ppm (dry basis), which is
equivalent to approximately 0.8 and 28 ppm repectively (wet
basis)
.
2) How did these concentrations affect the 2,000 fishermen in the
area?
It was concluded that the fishermen of the Subaé area have
absorbed excessive levels of cadmium and lead (Carvalho et al.,
1979; Carvalho, 1980), but no correlation could be established
between Cd and Pb absorption and seafood consumption (Carvalho et
al., 1983). Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher
among fishermen with straight hair than among those with curly
hair, but no significant differences were found in relation to
hair colour (Carvalho et al., 1984).
3) How waS the local agriculture affected by Pb and Cd emissions
to the air?
Local vegetables and fruits, within 1,000 m from the lead
smelter, presented lead concentrations ranging from 0.01-215 ug/g
and cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.004-11.8 ug/g (dry
basis)
.
The highest levels were found in the leafy vegetables
which are submitted to a greater contact with air, and the lowest
levels were found in the local fruits (banana and orange).
However, considering the local dietetic habits, the greatest
concern is for the constant ingestion of okra, sweet-potato, and
sweet cassava, for Cd and only for the last two for lead. The
daily consumption of more than 73 g of okra, produced at 200 m
from the industry, by a 60 kg weight person, surpasses the limit
recommended by WHO/FAO of maximum ingestion of 70 ug of Cd/day.
Likely, quantities of 150 g or more of sweet-potato or sweet
cassava per day, result in ingestion of 70 ug of Cd/day. Likely,
quantities of 150 g or more of sweet-potato or sweet cassava per
day, result in ingestion of cadmium and lead higher than the
limit proposed by that institution (limit for lead: 430 ug/day
for a 60 kg weight person).
4) How was the children population living near the smelter
affected by Cd and PL intake in 1980?
It was proven by determination of zinc protoporphyrin in blood,
and lead in blood and hair that, among 617 children living within
900 m from the industry, 10% were lead intoxicated and 17.5% were
at high risk of intoxication (Carvalho and Tavares, 1980).
Forty
five percent of the children presented lead in blood above the
tolerance limit of the Center for Disease Control of USA, CDC
(2.00 micromol/L), 25% of which were above the critica1 limit
(3.36 micromol/L). Ninety five percent of the children showed
cadmium results in blood above normal reference values (0.0089
micromol/L). The average blood concentration was 10 times this
value and the range was from 0.004-0.51 micromol/L. Levels of Cd
encountered in this study are the highest registered in the
literature for environmental axposure.
5) Did the high environmental levels of cadmium cause renal
deficiency in the adult population?
Elderly women (population mostly affected in the Cd-Itai itai
case in Japan) of Santo Amaro, 131 women aged 50 years or more
were studied, as well as 122 individuals from a control area.
Prevalence rates of proteinuria and glucosuria among women of
Santo Amaro were low and similar to those observed in the
reference population showing no signs of renal deficiency
(Carvalho et al., 1984).
6) Since anemia is caused by a number of factors, being Pb
pollution one of them, which one is considered to be the
dominating factor?
A prevalence study of anemia was carried out among children, aged
one to nine years old, living near to the smelter, and it was
found that variation in hemoglobin levels was significantly
associated with malnutrition and with interaction between
malnutrition and iron deficiency, but not with lead levels,
hookworm infection, and iron deficiency (Carvalho, 1982; Carvalho
et al., 1983).
7) How was the lead and cadmium in blood related to nutritional
status in a child population?
Multiple regression analysis of 555 children for lead and 396 for
cadmium did not show statistically significant associations
between Pb and Cd levels in blood and malnutrition, as measured
by the wasting (weightlheight) index, keeping constant the
effects of the variables age, sex, racial group, pica (distortion
of eating habits), distance from childfs home to smelter, being a
child of lead worker, family income, iron status and severe
hookworm infection. Neither weight nor height of children with
low Pb blood leve1 (11.68 micromol/L) were significantly
associated with the variation in blood lead levels (Carvalho et
al., 1986). These findings are not consistent with corresponding
strong associations found recently for a large sample of North
American children.
8) What was the prevalence of lead intoxication in children aged
1-9 living in Santo Amaro City (where the lead smelter is
located) and how was this prevalence associated with the
urbanization process?
The interation
between
certain aspects connected
with
urbanization and industrialization processes and non-occupational
lead contamination is strongly associated to the urban space
occupation. In turn, this is determined by migration and social-
economic situation. Factors such as more than six months
residence in the area, age below 2 years, home located on the
road leading to smelter, black race, and contact with smelter
employees, when combined, increased the Pb intoxication risk in
children (Silvany-Neto, 1982; Carvalho et al., 1984).
Conseauences of this studies until 1980
Based on these studies (Carvalho and Tavares, 1985), the CRA
(state environmental institution) forced the metallurgy to
undertake measures for pollution control (build a 90 m chimney
and insta11 a more ef f iciente f iltration system)
,
remove the
population living in an area of 300 m from the metallurgy to
other places, and become reponsible for the medical treatment of
the affected children.
Other auestions answered after 1980 in relation to Cd and
Santo Amaro
--
9) How was this children population 5 years after the medical
treatment and the installation of pollution abatement
equipment in the smelter?
According to the CDC criteria, the proportion of children
considered in normal conditions with relation to lead remained
aproximately the same.
However, it was observed a reduction of
21% of the children with indicator levels (ZPP) of lead
intoxication, classified as "extremely high1I and "moderated
highgo,
having this part of the population shifted to the class
"slightly highw. However, 39% of those who remained in the two
first classes where under three years old and though only exposed
to the new conditions of the industry. Using the criteria of Pb
contents in blood as indicator of absorption of CDC, there was a
general reduction of 38%, but around 25% of the children should
yet be treated (Silvany-Neto et al., 1989). The reduction of
average leve1 of Cd was of
67%,
but yet 89% of the population
presented values higher than the normal of reference (to be
published)
.
10) Which are the possible causes of persisting cases of Pb
intoxication and high concentrations of Cd in the children
population, living 1,000 m from the industry chimney?
Social, racial, and personal factors, which affect the absorption
of these two metals, were evaluated. It was proved that the fact
of being son of worker in the smelter and the presence of smelter
dross nutritional condition do not influence on the absorption-
intoxication process of these metals. Sex, age, and nutritional
condition do not influence on the absorption-intoxication process
of these metals. Hookworm infection increases the cadmium
absorption, but not the lead one. Belonging to the negro or mixed
race increases the Pb absorption-intoxication, and belonging to
the white race favours a greater absorption of cadmium. The use
of hair as an indicator is useful on situations of great
exposure, but hair type and its daily treatment influence the
metals levels (Carvalho et al., 19843; Silvany-Neto et al., 1985;
Carvalho et al., 1986; Carvalho et al., 1985; Carvalho et al.,
1987; Silvany-Neto et al., 1989; Tavares et al., 1989b). The
high contents of the two metals in soil around the dwellings
represent one of the factors responsible for the persistence of
intoxication cases and the arising of new ones.
11) According to the pervailing winds,. the Paraguacú river drains
most airborne heavy metals released by industrial activity
around the Bay. How much Cd, Pb and Hg enter the Bay via the
particulate matter drained by this river?
The concentrations of mercury, cadmium, and lead in the
particulate matter of this river showed Hg <0.2-10, Cd c0.1-1.1,
and Pb <6-146 microg/g (dry basis) in suspended matter, and Hg 6-
35, Cd 10-100, and Pb 1,000-3,300 microg/kg (Tavares and Tavares,
1981a; 1983) in botton sediments.
D. Related
to
emissions
arsenic
(As)
Lamarao do Passe
Problem
The greatest copper metallurgy in Brazil, located at 6 km West
from the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, started up ope~ations
in
1982. Such kind of industry emit great quantities of copper,
arsenic, and S02 to the atmosphere.
Answered auestions
1) Which are the As levels in the atmosphere of Lamarao do Passe?
The As levels were around
5 ng As/m3, from which 85% were
present' on the form of fine particulates (<2 microns). Such
concentrations correspond to deposition in deep lung of 132 ng
As/day through breathing (Tavares et al., 1989b).
2) How such levels affected the population of Lamarao do PassB?
Two crosssectional studies of the population were carried out:
the first one in 1982, before the start-up of the industry, and
the second one in 1986, after 4 years of operation.
During this
period of 4 years, the average concentration of As in hair of
this population increased of 6.7 times (0.08 ppm in 1982 to 0.54
ppm in 1986). The average increase was 11 times.
However, on
individual basis, it was observed increases up to 92.5 times
(9.5% of the population suffered an increase of As levels between
20 to 92.5 times).
Factors such as biological
and social-
economic characteristics, personal habits, and location of
residence did not influence the As levels in hair. Only the
smoking habit favoured higher concentrations of this element
(Chaves et al., 1990).
E. Related
emissions
of
manaanese
Coteai~e
Since 1961, a metallurgy of Fe-Mn has operated on the east coast
of the .Recencavo with no abatments equipment for atmospheric
emissions. A population of 500 people live 1 km far from this
industry
.
Answered auestions
1) What were the effects of the Mn on this population?
The average content of Mn in hair of the population of Cotegipe
was equaled 11.7 ppm. However, no symptoms of intsxication by Mn
were observed.
No correlations were found between Mn
concentrations in hair and the age or time of residente in the
area. The smoking habit and the fact of belonging to the negro
race showed a tendency to favour higher Mn levels.
2) Which were the benefits introduced by the installation of
filters system in the metallurgy?
Without the filtration system the atmospheric average levels in
Cotegipe were of 0.56 micrograms/m3. After the installation, the
average levels decreased
only 14%, that is, to 0.48
micrograms/m3, with similar distribution of particle size. Such
levels correspond to deposition of 8.9 micrograms Mn/day in deep
lung of each inhabitant through breathing (Tavares et al., 1989b;
Carvalho et al., to be published).
F. Related
&Q
m
aualitv
of
m
Todos os Santos Bay
Problem
The fast development of the Recencavo imposed to the bay an
intense exploitation of its natural resources, possible change on
its fertility, and/or break of life cycles. This leads to a
lower productivity, besides the accumulation of industrial and
urban chemical products, by edible fauna, with possible transfer
to humans. There are no reference data for this bay before the
beginning of these ecological disturbances.
Answered auestions
1) Considering the edible bivalves as indicators of pollution of
the bay, how is its productivity in the beginning of the 80's
in relation to the future?
Two studies were performed giving the only biometric data of
nativa populations of marine fauna existing in this bay (Peso and
Tavares, 1980; Peso and Tavares, 1982).
As Anomalcardia brasiliana is the most frequent and dominant
species, its ecological condition was determined (Peso, 1980a,
1980b, 1980c; Peso and Verani, 1980a, 1980b).
A small museum was established contiining species from the bay
for comparison in future years.
The Medo Island was taken as indicator of environmental quality
of the bay and the malacofauna was described (Bivalvia and
Gastrovoda) (Peso, 1979) and Demosvoraia fauna (Peixinho and
Peso-Aguiar, 1982) in the muddy substrate of the Medo Island of
the intertidal zone. This island is probably the best indicator
of environmental quality of the Todos os Santos Bay, due to the
following factors: central position, total lack of habitation and
diversity marine fauna. Present and future data will be compared.
2) The Paraguacd River is the main contributor of nutrients of
the Todos os Santos Bay. How much silicate and phosphate enter
the Bay via this river?
The balance of silicate (Martins and Tavares, 1981), and
phosphate (Martins and Tavares, 1982) of this river proved that
there is an interna1 source of silicate in the river estuary and
that its phosphate balance is non-conservative.
3)
What industrial activity around the bay was responsible for a
catastrophic mortality of bivalves in the Itaparica Channel
between September and November of 1977 (continuing until
1980)
?
In the assessment of this rnortality, the afore-mentioned
biometric data were the only information available concerning
natural populations in the Bay. Furthermore, the curve of
population density for the Medo Island showed that this area was
unaffected, indicating that industrial activities in the north
(Suba&). and the northeast of the bay (CIA and Camacari Complex)
were, most probably, not the cause of the problem (Tavares et
al., 1978)
.
4) Which are the levels of the main organic pollutants in this
bay resulting from the industrial (including petroleum
refinery), harbours and agricultura1 activities developed
around the bay?
For the first time in South America, levels of aliphatic
hydrocarbons (origin: oil spills), PAHs, polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (origin: combustion), PCBs, polychlorinated bifenyls
(origin: transformers, capacitors, and hydraulic liquids), and
DDTs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (origin: pesticides) in shellfish
were simultaneously determined indicating the quality of the
Todos os Santos Bay. The levels of linear hydrocarbons ranged
form 0.1-6.1 ppm (wet basis 80% of H20) and those of aromatic
hydrocarbons ranged from 0.1-9.1 ng eq. criseno/g (wet basis).
The highest values were found in the vicinity of the refinery and
also near a palm oil plant. The estimated values of DDTs and PCBs
are relatively low (lower than 2.5 and 6.6 ng/g, wet basis), but
it is observed higher concentrations of DDT in SEO Francisco do
Conde and in Tainheiros Inlet, and of PCBs at the east coast of
the bay
.
G. Pelated
u
gtmos~heric
auality of the Recencavo
1) Which is the atmospheric destination of the sulphur dioxide,
nitrogen oxide and NH3? Does it exist acid rain in the
Recencavo?
The south half of the Recencavo, very ja'gged and with a large
extension of coast, presents very low levels of these gases in
atmosphere, except in exceptional occurrences (Tavares et al.,
1984; Tavares et al., 1985). In this region acid\
rain does not
exist, however its ionic content is highly influenced by sea
spray particles in atmospheric suspension, indicating that these
particles act as purifyers of the atmosphere for these chemical
species (Bruynseels et al., 1985). At the north half of the bay,
with less contact with the sea, there are acid rain events on the
limits of the Petrochemical Complex, probably due to wash-out
process (washing of gaseous pollutants when the rain falls) and
on the northwest direction of the Petrochemial Complex (Rocha et
al., 1985) In al1 Recencavo and even in the country side of the
state (270 km far east from Salvador) or in coastal ltremotell
areas there is an enrichment of nitrate in sea spray particulates
of between 0.5 and 5 um diameter, the origin of which has not
been yet identified (Nogueira et al., 1989).
2) How is the atmospheric chemical transformation and removal
processes of S02 and NOx in other Brazilian regions?
A study was proceeded on the destination of these pollutants in
an industrial area in the south of Brazil, in Araucária, Paraná.
It was verified that due to the proximity of the source of NH3 to
the sulphur and nitrogen oxides into ammonia sulphate and nitrate
in the f ine particulate mode, and, as final result, reaching the
population living in Araucária under this form. As the ammonia
sulphate is more toxic than S02, the population was right
concerning its complains and demands, even though the industries
argued they were not transgressing the law (the legislation only
determines limits for S02 and not for sulphate)
.
Such studies
showed that the legislation is not adequate (Tavares and Rocha,
1988; Tavares et al., 1989~).
3) The majority of the gaseous pollutants are chemically
transformed in the atmosphere by photochemical oxidation (S02,
for example, is transformed into sulphuric acid by reacting
with hydrogen peroxide). Which is the oxidizing capacity of
the atmosphere of the Recencavo?
Hydrogen peroxide H202 was used as indicator of the photochemical
activity. It was proved that the Recencavo presents H202
concentrations up to 20 times higher than that of the summer of
Central Europe (Jacob et al., 1987; Jacob et al., 1990) and that
Salvador's urban activities (specially the aldehydes resulting
from ethanol vehicular combustion) do not contribute in
significantly way for its increase. These H202 concentrations
meet the expected levels for these latitudes and the gradient
measured in the Atlantic Ocean from 50 N to 38 S (Jacob et al.,
1989). It was demostrated that H O is I9washed outw by the rain,
and in tropics, this proces2 'reaches a maximum with a
precipitation rate lower or. equal to 1 mm/h (Jacob et al., 1990).
4) The use ethanol as fuel produces aldehyde, formaldehydes and
acetaldehyde
vehicular
emissions.
Which are
the
concentrations of these substances in.Brazilian urban centers?
The aldehydes levels in Salvador were measured and compared to
those of Rio and Sao Paulo. The formaldehyde concentrations in
Salvador varied from 6 to 34 ppb and the acetaldehyde from 9.2 to
35 ppb, similar to the levels found in Rio and Sao Paulo. The
combustion of gasoline produces aldehydes, mainly formaldehyde as
secondary pollutants.
Even though the total aldehydes levels in
these Brazilian cities are of the same order of magnitude of
those
of cities such as
Los Angeles,
the
relation
aceltaldehyde/formaldehyde
is much higher in Brazil (Grosjean et
al., 1990)
.
PRESENT AND NEAR FUTURE STUDIES
-
Long range effect (kidney damage) of cadmium and lead in the
human population of Santo Amaro
-
Biomonitoring of arsenic in the human population of Lamarao do
Passe (3rd cross sectional study)
-
Development of sampling technique for gaseous cadmium and
arsenic in atmosphere and determination of its fractrion around
smelters.
-
Effects of ethanol and methanol combustion as vehicle fuel
-
Photochemical smog in the Recencavo
-
Brazilian contribution to greenhouse effect.
FINANCING AGENCIES
-Rockefeller Foundation (1976-1981)
-CNPq (1980-1897)
-German Agency for Technical Cooperation, GTZ (1983, 1986, 1990)
-Stiftung Volkswagenwerk (1983-1989)
-FINEP (1986-1988)
-COMCITEC (Government of State of Bahia) (1986-1988)
SENIOR RESEARCHERS OF PEER
Biology
:
-Marlene Peso-Aguiar (zoology)
Medicine:
-Fernando M. Carvalho (environmental health)
-Annibal M. Silvany Neto (environmental health)
Chemistry:
-Vania C. Rocha (chemical analysis)
-Tania M. Tavares (project coordinator)
PROJECT BEING ESTABLISHED
A project for graduated education in environmental sciences and
resources management shall be established in 1990 at UFBa, with
CRA colaboration. The project aims to integrate scientifically
the graduated teaching activities (specialization and master
degree) of UFBa and enlarge the focus on environment.
A
new
specialization course will be created in the environmental
chemistry area, aiming to comply with the demand for training and
updating of technicians of governmental and industrial agencies
of the north and northeast of the country. The foreseen
financing support will be given mainly by GTZ, Germany.
COORDINATORS
UFBa
:
Architecture (Urban Planing):
-
Paulo Rocha
Biology:
-
Ronan Brito (botany)
-
Marlene Peso-Aguiar (zoology)
Medicine:
-
Fernando M. Carvalho (environmental health)
-
Annibal Silvany Neto (environmental health)
Chemistry:
-
Vania C. Rocha (analytical chemistry)
-
Tania M. Tavares (project coordinator)
CRA:
-
Flora Cerqueira (environmental legislation and management)
-
Joao Augosto Sampaio (sanitary engineering)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
01. Brynsells, F.; Tavares, T.M., and Van Grieken, R.
(1985).
Characterization of Individual Particle Types in Coastal Air
by Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis. Intern. J. Envir. on Anal.
Chem.
,
23,
1-14.
02. Carvalho, F.M. (1980). Intoxicacao por Chumbo e ~ádmio
entre
Pescadores
da
Reqiao
Rio Subaé
de
Guaibim (área
controle). Dissertation for Master fegree, Universidade
Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Ba., 107 p.
03. Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Souza, S.P.; Linhares, P., and
Sinhb, B. (1979). Estudos bps Efeitos
EXDOS~C~Q
pescadores
&
Suba&
a
Chumbo
Cddmio. Relatório final de
Pesquisa, 107p., Bahia: CEPED: UFBa.
04. Carvalho, F.M.
&
TaVareS, T.M. (1980). Estudos
m
Efeitos
&
E!QUSW
EQX
Ghunh~
n
GWn.b
en
pescadores
en
!ama
o~ulacao
Infan
11.
Relatório Preliminar de Pesquisa, 18p.,
Salvador, Bahia, UFBa.
.
05. Carvalho, F.M. (1982). Anemia Amonast Brazilian Children. PhD
Thesis, London School of Hygiene andeTropical Medicine, 282p.
06. Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Linhares, P., and Souza, S.P.
(1983). Absorcao e Intoxicacao por Chumbo e Cddmio em
Pescadores da Regiao do Rio Suba&. Cien. Cult.,
z,
(3), 360-
366.
07. Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Linhares, P., and Souza, S.P.
(1984a). Lead and Cadmium Concentration in the Hair of
Fishermen from the Suba6 river Basin; Brazil. Environ.
Research, 33, 2, 300-306.
08. Carvalho, F.M.; Waldron, H.A.; Tavares, T.M.; Barreto, M.L.,
and Silvany-Neto, A.M. (1984b). Múltiple causes of anemia
amongst children living near a lead smelter in Brazil.
m
Sci. Total Envir., 31, 71-84.
09. Carvalho, F.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.C.; Mendes,
J.L.B.; Quaglia, G.M.C., and Tavares, T. M. (1984~).
Poluicdo
por Cádmio e Lesdo Renal em Habitantes de Santo Amaro da
Purificacdo, Bahia. Rev. Baiana de Saúde Pública. 11 (2/3),
116-122.
10. Carvalho, F.M.
;
Tavares, T.M., and Menezes, G.M. (1985a)
.
Mercury in a Brazilian Population Eating Large Quantities of
Shellfish. Cfen e Cult., 37 (12), 2063-2066.
11. Carvalho, F.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Lima,
M. E. C., and Waldron, H.A. (1985b)
.
Lead Poisoning Amongst
Children from Santo Amaro City, Brazil,
pulletin,
L9,
2,
165-75.
12. Carvalho, F.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.C.; Tavares,
T.M., and Alt, F. (1985~). Intoxicacdo por Chumbo e Cádmio
em Trabalhadores de Pequenos Estabelecimentos de Reforma em
Baterias em Salvador, Brasil. Revista
Saúde pública (S.
Paulo), 19, 411-420.
3
f.
13. Carvalho, F.M. and Tavares, T.M. (1985). Avaliacdo da
Situacao de Intoxicacdo por Chumbo nas Criancas Residindo
bl
Dentro de 900 m da COBRAC, 16pl Salvador, Bahia: UPBa.
$14.
Carvalho, F.M.
;
Tavares, T.M.
;
Silvany-Neto, A.M.
;
Lima,
'.
M.E.C., and Alt, F. (1986). Cadmium Concentrations in Blood
I
4
5
of Children Living Near a Lead Smelter in Bahia, Brazil,
Environ.
Rec.,
a,
437-449.
15. Carvalho, F.M. and Tavares, T.M. (1986). Simultaneous Cadmium
and Lead Exposure of Population of Bahia, Brazil: Abstacts
d
m
Workshor,
Carcinosenic and/or Mutasenic Neta1
Com~oundS.
Villars, Switzerland.
16. Carvalho, F.M.
&
Silvany-Neto, A.M. Lima, M.E.C.; Tavares,
T.M.; Azaro, M.G.a., and Quaglia, G.M.C. (1987). Chumbo e
Cádmio no Sangue e Estado Nutricional de Criancas de Santo
Amaro, Bahia. Rev. Sadde Pdblica (S. Paulo), 21, 44-50.
17. Carvalho, F.M., Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima,
M. E. C.
;
Melo, A. M. C.
;
Galvao, A. L.
,
and Tavares, T. M.
(1989). Chumbo e Cddmio em Cabelos de Criancas de Santo
Amaro, Bahia. Ciencia
e
Cultura, 41, (7), 646-651.
18. Carvalho, F.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Melo, A.M.C.; Chaves,
M. E. C.
;
Brandao, A. M.
,
and Tavares, T.M.
(
1989)
.
Cadmium in
Hair o£ Children Living Near a Lead Smelter in Brazil,
Sci.
Total Environ., 84, 119-128.
19. Chaves, M.E. (1989). Environmental exposition to arsenic in
residents of Lamarao do PassB: prevalence study in two points
in time (1982-1986). Master Degree Thesis, Faculdade de
Mediciqa, UFBa (in Portuguese)
.
20. Grosjean, D.
;
Miguel, A. H.
,
and Tavares, T. M.
(
1990)
.
Urban
Air Pollution in Brazil: Acetaldehyde and Other Carbonyls.
Atmos. Environ. 24B, 101-106.
21. Jacob, P.; Tavares, T.M., and Klockow, D. (1986). Methodology
for Determination o£ Gaseous Peroxide in Ambient Air.
Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem., 325, 359-364.
22. Jacob. P.
;
Bambauer, A.
;
Tavares, T.M., and Klockow, D.
(1987). Field Investigations of the Variability H202
Concentration in Atmospheric Gas Phase. Proceedinss
Fourth Eurowean Svmwosium
Physico-Chemical Behaviour
a
Atmoswheric Pollutants, Stresa (Italy), 1986, 258-270.
23. Jacob, P.; Tavares, T.M., and Klockow, D. (1989). Global
Aspects of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration Variations in the
Lower Troposphere.
19
International Svmwosium
of
Environmental ~nalvtica~~hemistrv,
Jekyll Island, Ga. USA
(May 22-24, 1989) and on the
m
ISM-International Svmwosium
of Microchemistrv, Wiesbaden, FRG (Aug. 28-Sept. 1, 1989).
-
24. Jacob, P.; Tavares, T.M.; Rocha, V. C., and Klockow, D.
(1990). Atmospheric H202 Field Measurements in a Tropical
Environment, Bahia, Brazil. Atmos. Environ. 24A, 377-382.
25. Klockow, D.; Niessner, R.; Tavares, T.M., and Rocha, V.C.
(1984). Pre-separation and Pre-concentration of Airborne
Reactive Trace Substances.
m
Jnternational Conference
of
bnalvtical Techniaue
Environmental chemistrv, Barcelona,
Spain.
26. Klockow, D.; Tavares, T.M.; Scbreiber, B., and Frei, R.W.
Glossary of Terms Related to Environmental Analytical
Methodology. Prepared for IUPAC Comission, V-3, 321.
28. Martins, D.J. and Tavares, T.M. (1983). Balanco de Fosfato
Solúvel Reativo no Estuario do Rio Paraguacú. Su~l. Cien.
Cult., 35: 499.
29. Peixinho, S. and Peso-Aguiar, M.C. (1982). Nota sobre a Fauna
Demosporgia da Ilha do Medo (Bala de Todos os Santos), Bahia:
Ocorrencia, Abundancia Relativa e diversidade. Suvl. Cikn.
cult., u:559.
30. Nogueira, E.M.; Rocha, V.C., and Tavares, T.M. (1989).
Nitrato. Sulfato e Cloreto
no Material Particulado
Atmosférico Fracionado por Tamanho no Recencavo Baiano.
Resumos do V
=:
Encontro Nacional de Química Analítica,
Salvador, Bahla, 12.
31. Peso, M.C. (1979). Contribuicao ao Conhecimento de
Malacofauna (Bivalvia e Gastropoda) na Ilha do Medo, Bahia,
Su~l.
Cien. Cult.
31:
688.
32. Peso, M.C. (1980a)
.
Bivalves Comestlveis
de Todos
Santos. Estudo Quantitativo com Especial Referencia a
momalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1971) (Bivalvia veneridae).
Master Degree Thesis. Universidade Federal do Paraná,
Curitiba, 107p.
33.
Peso, M.C. (1980 b). Estructura Espacial de
-a
brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791), (Bivalvia veneridae). Su~l.
Cien.
Cult.,.=: 328.
34. Peso, M. C. (1980~).
"Sex Ratio" e Tamanho da Primeira
Maturacdo Sexual (Lpm) de Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin,
1791), (Bivalvia veneridae) na Bata de Todos os Santos. Suvl.
cien. cult.,
x:
827.
35. Peso, M.C. and Tavares, T.M. (1980). Aspectos Quantitativos
das Comunidades de Bivalves Comestlveis em Tres Areas
Distintas da Bala de Todos os Santos. Suwl. Cien. Cult.,
32:515.
-
36. Peso, M.C. and Verani, J.R. (1980a). Determinacao das Curvas
de Crescimento em Comprimento e em Peso para Anomalocardia
brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Bivalvia veneridae). Suvl. Cien.
Cult., x:827.
37. Peso, M. C. and Verani, J.R. (1980b). Relacdo entre o Peso do
Corpo e o Comprimento de Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin,
1791) (Bivalvia veneridae) e Variacao do "Fator de C~ndicOes~~
em Funcao do Tempo, Suvl. Cien. Cult.,
x:
827.
38. Peso-Aguiar, M. C. (1982)
.
Determinacao do 'IFator de
Condicaow O de Lucina pectinata
(Gmelin, 1791) (Bivalvia
lucinidae) Através a Relacao entre o Peso do corpo e
Comprimento. Suvl. Cien. Cult.,
u:
837.
39. Peso-Aguiar, M. C. and Tavares, T.M. (1982). Caracterizacao
Fisico-Química Ambiental de Seis EstacOes na Baía de Todos os
Santos. Suvl. Cien. Cult.
o:
539.
40. Petersen, M.N.M.B. and Tavares, T.M. (1981); Chumbo e Cádmio
em Alimentos de Origem Vegetal do Município de Santo Amaro,
Bahia. Suvl. cien. Cult.,
32:
519.
41. Raymundo, C. C. and Tavares, T. M. (1980)
.
Variáveis no Pré-
Tratamento de Cabelo para Analise de Mercúrio. Suvl. cien.
w.,
32:
355.
42. Raymundo, C.
C. (1981). Variáveis
Análise
Mercúrio.
Cddmio e Chumbo em Amostras de Cabelo. Master Degree Thesis.
107p. Salvador, Universidade Federal de Bahia, Bahia.
43. Rocha, V. C.; Tavares, T. M., and Klockow, D. (1989). Acidez
da Chuva no Recencavo Baiano. Resumos
&
y
m:
Encontro
Nacional de Química Analítica, Salvador, Bahia, 137.
44. Santos, V. C. and Tavares, T. M. (1980). Efeitos de
Diferentes Métodos de Estocagem sobre a Concentracao de
Mercúrio em Bivalves. Suvl. Cien. Cult., x:356.
45. Santos, V. C., Spinola Costa, A. C.
&
Tavares, T. M. (1980).
Estudo Comparativo de Diversos Métodos de Determinacao de
Umidade em Bivalves. Suvl. Cien. Cult., -:355.
46. Santos, V. C. (1981). Estudo Comvarativo
dos
Efeitos
&
Diferentes Métodos
Secasem. Estocauem
e
Mineralizacao
em
Análise
Mercúrio
Moluscos. Dissertation for Master
Degree, Universidade Federal de Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, 117p.
47. Silva, A.M.B.S.
;
Tavares, T. M., and Landim, H. B. (1981).
Determinacao do Teor de Mercúrio nos Bivalves Comestlveis
Intertidais ao Longo do Tempo da Costa da Baía de Todos os
Santos, Suvl. cien. Cult., ~:519.
48. Silvany-Neto, A. M.; Carvalho, F.M.; Lima, M.E., and Tavares,
T.M. (1985). Determinacao por Chumbo em Criancas de Santo
Amaro, Bahia, Cien. Cult., 37 (lo), 1614-1625.
50. Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Carvalho, F. M.; Chaves, M.E.C.; Brandao,
A.M., and Tavares, T.M. (1989). Repeated Surveillance of Lead
Poisoning Among Children. Sci. Total Environ., 78, 179-186.
51. Souza, S.P.; Tavares, T.M., and Brandao, A. M. (1978).
Distribuicao de Chumbo, Cádmio e Zinco em Sedimentos no
Estuário do Rio Subaé, Bahia. Suwl. Cien. Cult. -:406.
52. Tavares, M.G.O. and Tavares, T.M. (1981a). Balanco de Pb no
Material Particulado do Rio Paraguacú, Bahia.
Suwl. Cien.
w.,
z:
574.
53. Tavares, M.G.O. and Tavares, T. M. (1981b). Procedimento para
subdivisao de Amostras de sedimentos Umidos para Análise de
Componenetes Voláteis. Suwl. Cien. Cult., =:340.
54. Tavares, M.G.O. (1982). Balancó de Pb.
e
Hq
Estuário
Paraauacú-Bahia. Master Degree Thesis, Salvador, Bahia, UFBa.
55. Tavares, M.G.O. (1983). Balanco de Metais Pesados (Cádmio e
Mercbrio) no Material em Suspensao do Rio Paraguacú, Bahia.
Suwl. Cien. Cult., 2:500.
56. Tavares, T.M.; Peso, M.C., and Souza, S.P. (1977). Estudo da
Distribuicao de Mercúrio na Agua, Sedimentos e Moluscos da
Ensenada dos Tainheiros, Suvl. Cien. Cult., =:544.
57. Tavares, T. M. (1978). Relatório Final
&
Subwroiecto
Análises Ambientais do Proiecto Intesrado Ambientes
Estuarionso do Estado dayahia. 189p. Salvador, Bahia. UFBa.
58. Tavares, T.M.; Brandao, A.M.; Spinola Costa, A.C.; Santos,
V.C.; Raymundo, C.; Petersen, M.N.; Sapúcaia, M.A.; Peso,
M.C.
;
Marques Cunha, M. C.
;
Tosta, S. S., and Silva, W.M.
(1978). ~rklises ~mbientais
m
~bservacoes
e
~ados.
sobre
Efeitos Referentes
Estuário
&
Jacuruna. Jasuariwe e Canal
-
de Itawarica. Relatórico Técnico para o CEPED, 67p. Salvador,
-
Babia, UFBa.
59. Tavares, T.M.; Peso, M.C., and Cunha, T.M. (1979). Estudo
Comparativo da Bioacumulacdo de Mercúrio por Diferentes
Espécies de Bilvalves. Suwl. Cien. Cult., =:434.
60. Tavares, T.M. and Peso, M.C. (1979). Avaliacao dos Riscos de
Intoxicacao por Mercúrio Através de Inqestdo de Bivalves de
Comestlveis da Ensenada dos ~ainheiros-. Suvl. Cien. Cult.,
31:434.
-
61. Tavares, T. M. and Santos, V.C. (1980). Estudo Comparativo de
Diferentes Métodos de Mineralizado de Amostras de Bivalves
para Análise de Mercúrio. Supl. Cien. Cult., =:356.
62. Tavares, T.M. and Kirkwood, D.S. (1981). Melhoramentos na
Determinado de Mercúrio por Absorcao Atomica de Vapores
Frios. Suvl. Cien. Cult., =:340.
63. Tavares, T. M. and Peso-Aguiar, M. C. (1982). Caracterizacdo
Ecológica de Bala de Tdos os Santos (Bahia-Brasil) sob
Impacto de Poluicao por Metais Pesados. Atlantica, Rio
Grande,
5
(2):116.
64. Tavares, T.M.; Carvalho, F.M., and Peso-Aguiar, M.C. (1983).
Mercury Lead and Cadmium Pollution in the Todos os Santos
Bay, Brazil, International conference Beaw Wetale
m
Fnvironment, Heidelberg, West Germany.
65. Tavares, T.M.; Rocha, V.C.; Carvalho, F.M.; Klockow, D., and
Niessner. R. (1984). Estudos Atmosfercios no Recencavo Baiano.
~uvl.
cien. cult., 36, 645.
66. Tavares, T.M.; Rocha, V.C.; Klockow, D., and Niessner, R.
(1985). Acidos Fortes e Seus Sais de Amonio na Atmosfera do
Recencavo Baiano. Resumos
&
lo.
Conaresso Brasileiro
&
QuImicq mbiental, Salvador, Bahia, A. 0-7, 24.
67. Tavares, T.M. and Rocha, V.C. (1988). pelatóri~ sobre
m
Transformacoes Atmosféricas
Araucaria
S
pedimensionamento
da pede de; mostraaem, Curitiba, Parana: SUREHMA, 218p.
-
68. Tavares, T.M.; Rocha, V.C.; Amorim, P., and Carvalho, F.M.
(1988). ETAA
Mn Determination for Evaluation of Atmospheric
Contamination and its Effects on Human Population. Abstrac-
of
the 1st Svmvosium
QQ
furnace Atomic Absorvtioq
Svectrometry, Rio de Janeiro (Sept. 19-23, 1988).
69. Tavares, T.M.
;
Rocha, V.C.
;
Porte, C.
;
Barcelo, D., and
Albaiges, J. (1988). Applications of the Mussel Watch
Concept of Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDTs in the Brazilian Bay
of Todos os Santos (Bahia). Marine pollution Bulletin, 19,
11, 575-578.
70. Tavares, T.M.; Brandao, A.M.; Chaves, M.E.C.; Silvany-Neto,
A.M., and Carvalho, F.M. (1989). Lead in Hair of Children
Exposed to Gross Environmental Pollution. Sntern. J.
of
Environm. Anal. Chem., 36, 221-230.
71. Tavares, T.M.; Rocha, V.C., and Carvalho, F.M. (1989).
Arsenic and Manganese in Human Population Exposed to Emission
from Metallurgy of the Recencavo of Bahia.
Workshov on
Metal Sveciatioq
Environment
,
Cesme, ~zmir/~ur~ui
(Oct. 9-20, 1989).
72. Tavares, T.M.; Rocha, V.C., and Puglieli, A. (1989). Sulphur
Chemical Speciation in an Industrial Area of Brazil.
19th
International
Svmvosium
of
Environmentak Analvtical
Chemistrv, Jekyll Island, Ga, USA (May 22-24, 1989).
73. Tavares, TM.; Rocha, V.C.; Porte, C.; Barcelo, D., and
Albaigés, J. (in print)
.
About the Use of the Mussel Watch
and Molecular Marker Concepts in Studies of Hydrocarbons in a
Tropical Bay (Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brazil). Arch.
Environm. Research.
74. Trindade, M.A.S. and Tavares, T.M. (1980). Balanco de
Silicato no Rio Paraguacú, Bahia, suvl. cien.
W.,
32:566.
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