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Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Rev. Int. Contam. Ambie. 27(3) 181-190, 2011
METAL CONTENT AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF PARTICLES IN COHESIVE
SEDIMENTS OF THE LERMA RIVER, MÉXICO
Graciela ZARAZÚA, Samuel TEJEDA, Pedro ÁVILA-PÉREZ, Leticia CARAPIA,
Carmen CARREÑO and Miguel BALCÁZAR
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027,
México D.F., C.P. 11801, México. e-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.mx
(Recibido junio 2009, aceptado mayo 2011)
Keys words: heavy metals, X-ray fuorescence, scanning electronic microscopy, river sediments
ABSTRACT
The concentration o± Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb, enrichment ±actors and the elemental
composition, morphology and relative abundance o± particles were evaluated in co-
hesive sediments o± the upper course o± the Lerma River, México. The heavy metal
concentration in the cohesive sediments decreased in the ±ollowing sequence: Fe >
Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb. The results o± enrichment ±actors show that Fe and Mn are
conservative, Cu, Cr and Pb are lightly enriched and Zn is moderately enriched. Gen-
erally, the particle groups decrease in the ±ollow sequence: aluminosilicate > silica >
iron > sul±ur > metals > calcium carbonate > calcium/phosphorus > manganese. The
Fe and Mn concentrations in cohesive sediments are produced principally by natural
contributions, whereas Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations are produced mainly by
anthropic contributions.
Palabras clave: metales pesados, fuorescencia de rayos X, microscopía electrónica de barrido, sedimentos de río
RESUMEN
En el presente trabajo se evaluó la concentración de los metales Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn y
Pb, los ±actores de enriquecimiento y la composición elemental, mor±ología y abun-
dancia relativa de las partículas presentes en los sedimentos cohesivos del curso alto
del río Lerma (CARL), México. La concentración de los metales analizados presentó
el siguiente comportamiento: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb. Los resultados de los
±actores de enriquecimiento indican que, en estos sedimentos, Fe y Mn pueden consi-
derarse como conservdores, Cu, Cr y Pb ligeramente enriquecidos y Zn moderadamente
enriquecido. En general los grupos de partículas analizadas presentan la siguiente
tendencia: aluminosilicatos > silicio > hierro > azu±re > metales > carbonatos de calcio
> calcio/±ós±oro > manganeso. La presencia de Fe y Mn en los sedimentos cohesivos
del CARL se debe mayormente a contribuciones naturales, mientras que el origen del
Cr, Cu, Zn y Pb es principalmente antrópico.
G. Zarazúa
et al.
182
INTRODUCTION
The determination of trace metals in recently
deposited sediments is a useful tool in the assess-
ment of the status of environmental pollution as the
cohesive sediments are potentially good indicators
of the quality of overlaying waters (Berrow 1991).
Once trace elements are discharged into body waters,
they rapidly become associated with particles and are
incorporated in bottom sediments (Förstner and Wit-
tmann 1979, Hansen
et al
. 1995). The trace metals as-
sociated with sediments are not essentially sheltered
permanently, and under changing conditions, pH,
dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, etc.,
they may be released to the water column by various
processes of remobilization (Vaithiyanathan
et al
.
1993, Buf±e and De Vitre 1994). Thus, in the aquatic
system, cohesive sediments can be a carrier and a
possible source of metals (Förstner and Wittmann
1979, Droppo and Jaskot 1995, Hansen
et al
. 1995).
The upper course of the Lerma River (UCLR)
(
Fig.1
) giving rise to the Upper Basin of the Lerma
River is located in the State of México, comprising
approximately 50 km from the Almoloya lagoons to
9 km downstream from the J. A. Alzate Dam (GEM
2000). This area is the lifeline of the Toluca city, the
capital of the State of México, with approximately 1.5
million inhabitants living in the metropolitan zone.
The Lerma River originates from the Lerma
lagoons near Almoloya del Río, on a plateau more
than 2600 meters above sea level, and 24 km south-
east of Toluca city. The river ±ows northwestward
through the State of México. This water body is not
navigable by water craft, but it is critical to regional
agricultural irrigation and it is also receptor of re-
sidual waters from 30 towns, 10 industrial zones, 12
industrial parks and 4 water treatment plants of the
municipal water supply in the Toluca metropolitan
zone (GEM 2000). The present research focuses on
the determination and relative abundance of trace
metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the super²-
cial cohesive sediments of the UCLR. The results
are very important in order to identify the origin of
metals and the main point sources of pollution of
the Lerma River.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental
Eight sampling sites were selected along the
UCLR considering the impact of anthropogenic
wastewaters and its tributaries, based on the monitor-
ing network of the Comisión Nacional del Agua (Na-
tional Water Commission) (
Fig. 1
). Four sampling
campaigns were carried out every three months dur-
ing one hydrological cycle, two sampling campaigns
in the dry season, February and May, another one
during the rainy season in August and ²nally, at the
end of the rainy season, in November.
2160000
2160000
420000
420000
4
4
0
8
NEVADO DE
VOLCANO
TOLUCA
METEPEC
TOLUCA
ALMOLOYA
LAGOON
ALZATE DAM
LERMA
MÉXICO
USA
2
3
4
5
7
8
1
6
Fig. 1
. Location of the upper course of the Lerma River, México, and the sampling sites
METAL CONTENT IN SEDIMENTS OF A MEXICAN RIVER
183
Bottom river bed sediments were sampled by a
Ponar dredge. Three sediment samples were obtained
on each site in the banks and in the center of the
river, less than 15 cm of depth. Approximately a 5
kg sample (each) was placed inside a polyethylene
bag and was transported at 4 ºC to the laboratory for
processing (Ávila-Perez
et al
. 1999).
X-ray fuorescence analysis
Each sample was carefully mixed and dried at
room temperature for 120 hours. Clay/silt sediment
fraction was separated by wet sieving (63 µm, 300
mesh). Subsamples of the clay/silt sediment fraction
(1 g) were homogenized and 1 cm diameter pellets
were prepared for elemental analysis (Vaithiya-
nathan
et al
. 1993, Dekov
et al
. 1997, 1998). The
solid samples (pellets) were analyzed in triplicate
by means of an Ital Structures X-ray Fluorescence
Spectrometer TX 2000 with a Si(Li) detector and
a resolution of 140 eV (Mn-Kα). The analysis was
carried out using energy dispersive mode (EDXRF),
molybdenum tube (40 kV - 30 mA) and an acquisition
time of 1000 seconds.
The analysis of the spectra was performed using
the EDXRF32
®
program; the quanti±cation of the
metals was carried out using the Compton correc-
tion method with external standard, Soil-5 (SL-5,
Certi±ed Reference Material IAEA). The certi±ed
standard Lake Sediment SL-1 (Certi±ed Reference
Material IAEA) was processed and analyzed, under
the same conditions as the samples for internal qual-
ity assurance.
Sediment enrichment factors (SEF) were also
investigated. This factor estimates the enrichment
of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb by cultural effects us-
ing equation 1. Aluminum is commonly chosen as a
“conservative” element. However, this element has
a high detection limit by EDXRF. For convenience,
rubidium was selected as conservative element
(Dekov
et al
. 1998, Enguix
et al
. 2000, Vasallo
et
al
. 2001). Values of sediments coming from igneous
rocks were considered as reference values (Turekian
and Wedepohl 1961, Salomons and Förstner 1984).
(M
s
/ Rb
s
)
sample values
(M
o
/ Rb
o
)
reference values
SEF=
(1)
Where, SEF: sediment enrichment factor; M
s
:
concentration of metal “x” in the sample; Rb
s
: con-
centration of conservative reference element (Rb)
in the sample; M
o
: concentration of metal “x” in
sediments coming from igneous rocks and Rb
o
: con-
centration of conservative reference element (Rb) in
sediments coming from igneous rocks.
In order to know the enrichment level by metals,
several criteria were considered, as it appears in
table I
. (Sinex and Wright 1988, Grant and Middle-
ton 1990, Hansen
et al
. 1995, Soto and Páez 2001).
Scanning electron microscopy analysis
In order to obtain an homogenous and uniform
sample for its analysis by SEM, an aliquot of 0.5 g
of each solid sediment sample was mixed with 20
mL of water; it was later ±ltered using a 0.45 μm
Millipore system, then the ±lter was dried at room
temperature. 1 cm
2
was cut out and mounted on an
aluminium holder stage with carbon tape for observa-
tion and analysis; the sample was then coated with
gold by sputtering for 40 s at 25 μA.
A Philips scanning electron microscope (SEM)
XL-30 was used to observe 1 mm
2
areas of the surface
on each of the samples at a magni±cation between
500x and 10 000x and 25 kV acceleration voltage;
in addition a coupled EDAX probe was used for
elemental chemical analysis by energy dispersive
X-ray spectrometry (EDS) at a resolution of 140 eV.
A random analysis of 100 particles was carried out
at 1500 cps and counting times of 60 seconds.
The
DX-4i (ZAF) software was used to determine the
elemental chemical content as a percentage in weight
for the corresponding oxide forms, except for sulfur
and phosphorus, which were determined as element.
Finally the relative abundance of the particles was
estimated on the basis of the Dekov
et al
. (1997) cri-
teria, classifying the data into eight groups (
Table II
)
(Ávila-Pérez
et al
. 2007, Zarazúa 2008).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Maximum, minimum and medians of the ana-
lyzed metals in the cohesive sediments are given
in
table III
. Fe and Mn are elements considered as
terrigenous, which showed concentrations ranging
TABLE I.
ENRICHMENT LEVEL CRITERIA*
Sediment enrichment factor
Enrichment level
≤ 2
Conservative
3 – 5
Slightly enriched
6 – 9
Moderately enriched
≥ 10
Highly enriched
* Sinex and Wright 1988, Grant and Middleton 1990, Hansen
et
al.
1995, Soto and Páez 2001
G. Zarazúa
et al.
184
from 19 443 to 84 771 mg/kg and from 278 to 2020
mg/kg, respectively.
Concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, considered
as toxic metals in aquatic environments, varied be-
tween 13 and 3384 mg/kg, Zn being the highest and
Pb the lowest.
Figure 2
shows the distribution of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu,
Zn and Pb in cohesive sediments along the different
sampling sites. Statistical differences (α≤0.05) in the
metal concentrations, between samples taken among
the course river (spatial variation) were observed.
However, it was not observed, between samples taken
in the different sampling periods (seasonal variation).
This spatial variation is due to changes in the
contributions of the different discharges and the hy-
drological conditions in the sampling sites. The ±rst
section of the river, where sites 2 to 5 are dominated
by industrial discharges and the average annual ²ow
are between 2.2 and 5.4 m
3
/s presents important sedi-
mentation zones, while the second section, sites 6 to
8, where the mainly contributions are coming from
rivers and the average annual ²ow are between 4.5
and 10.5 m
3
/s (Hinojosa 2006). The pH seems not to
play an important role in this behavior since values
in both water and sediment were similar, close to
neutrality (
Table III
) (Förstner and Wittmann 1979,
GEM 2000, Tejeda 2006).
The concentrations of Fe and Mn show signi±-
cant statistical differences (α≤0.05) among all sites.
The highest concentrations can be observed toward
the end of the section of the river, sites 6 to 8. This
TABLE II.
GROUPS USED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF PARTICLES IN THE COHESIVE
SEDIMENTS OF THE UPPER COURSE OF THE LERMA RIVER*
Group
Criteria
Aluminosilicates (Al-Si)
Aluminosilicate particles, where ∑ SiO + Al
2
O
3
≥ 50%
Silicon (Si)
Particles SiO ≥ 70 % or ≥ a 50% do not have Al and they do not ful±ll other criteria
Sulfur (S)
Particles are composed mainly of sulfur compounds
∑ S + CaO, Fe
2
O
3
or BaO ≥ 70 %
Calcium carbonate (CO
3
)
Particles are composed mainly of calcium carbonate
CaO ≥ 90%
Calcium/Phosphorus (Ca/P)
Particles where the presence of Ca and/or P is the most important CaO or P ≥ 40 %
Iron (Fe)
Particles of iron oxides and/or oxyhydroxides
Fe
2
O
3
≥ 40%
Manganese (Mn)
Particles rich in manganese
MnO ≥ 40 %
Metals (Metals)
Particles rich in transition metals, except Fe and Mn ≥ 40 %
*Basis of the Dekov
et al
. (1997) criteria
TABLE III
. pH VALUES IN WATER AND COHESIVE SE-
DIMENTS OF THE UPPER COURSE OF THE
LERMA RIVER
Sample site
Median water pH
Median sediment pH
1
8.6
8.0
2
7.1
7.1
3
7.3
7.2
4
7.5
7.3
5
7.5
7.7
6
7.5
7.2
7
7.6
7.3
8
7.7
7.2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
500
1000
1500
mg/kg
Fe mg/kg
2000
Mn
Cu
Zn
Cr
Pb
Fe
Fig. 2
. Downstream distribution of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the cohesive sediments of
the upper course of the Lerma River. Median concentrations in mg/kg
METAL CONTENT IN SEDIMENTS OF A MEXICAN RIVER
185
increase can be due to fuvial dragging o± soil and
sediments ±rom the tributaries Zolotepec, Ocoyo-
acac, Xonacatlán, Santa Catarina, Verdiguel and
San Lorenzo. This would lead to believe that the
observed concentrations o± iron and manganese in
the surveyed area are mainly due to natural causes
(Dekov
et al
. 1998).
In general the highest concentrations o± Cu, Zn,
Cr and Pb were ±ound at sites 3 and 4, which receive
the greatest industrial and urban runo±±s, including
wastewaters ±rom thirty towns, ten industrial zones,
twelve industrial parks and ±our water treatment
plants (Ávila-Pérez
et al
. 1999, GEM 2000). This ±act
clearly shows the presence o± anthropic sources o±
these contaminants, domestic sewage and industrial
e±fuents, in the surrounding area o± the sampling
sites, causing the Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb accumulation in
the sediments (Hansen
et al
. 1995, Antón and Díaz-
Delgado 2002).
In addition, the concentration o± these metals in
site 4 presented signi²cantly higher values (α≤0.05),
which could be related to the presence in this site
o± aquatic hyacinth (
Eichhornia crassipes
). The
aquatic hyacinth may work as a physical barrier,
producing the reduction in the water fow and ±avor-
ing the sedimentation processes; thus, this site can
be considered as the main zone o± Cu, Zn, Cr and
Pb accumulation.
Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb presented similar behavioural
trend with location (positive correlation r≥0.7, α ≤
0.05); Fe and Mn also had a signi²cant positive cor-
relation (r=0.9, α≤0.05). The signi²cant and separate
correlations between: a) iron and manganese and
b) copper, zinc, chromium and lead in the cohesive
sediments show that they were associated to material
o± di±±erent origin, probably parental and anthropic
material, respectively.
Table IV
shows the re±erence or guide values
±or river sediments given by the U.S. Army Corps
o± Engineers
(USACE 1976) and Ontario Ministry
o± the Environment (OME 1976).
For both re±erence
values, in the Lerma River sediments Cr exceeds
them by up to ten times, ±ollowed by Fe ≈ Cu > Zn
> Mn > Pb. Considering the criteria ±or the aquatic
li±e protection (OME 1976), only Cr could cause
severe e±±ects and Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn slight e±±ects
on the aquatic biota.
Table V
shows the cohesive sediment enrichment
±actors ±or Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb.
Applying the criteria o± Soto and Páez (2001)
(
Table I
), sediments can be considered conservative
(SEF ≤ 2) ±or Mn and Fe; slightly enriched (SEF=
3-5) ±or Cr, Cu and Pb and moderately enriched
(SEF= 6-9) ±or Zn. These results support that the
main source o± Fe and Mn is natural or terrigenous
and ±or the other metals is mainly anthropic.
The predominant groups in all sites are alumino-
silicates (49 %) and silica (19 %) (
Fig. 3
). In general,
the particle groups in the cohesive sediments o± the
UCLR are present in the ±ollowing order: alumino-
silicates > silica > iron > sul±ur > metals > calcium
carbonates > calcium/phosphorus > manganese. The
metals group was the highest in site 4 (9 %); this
analysis by SEM-EDS concurs with the analytical
results obtained by EDXRF.
Grain size analysis o± the UCRL sediments indi-
TABLE IV
. CONTENT OF Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn AND Pb IN THE COHESIVE SEDIMENTS OF THE UPPER COURSE
OF THE LERMA RIVER AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH INTERNATIONAL CRITERIA. CONCEN-
TRATION IN mg/kg
Cr
Mn
Fe
Cu
Zn
Pb
Minimum value
103
278
19443
23
78
13
Maximum value
661
2020
84771
905
3384
116
Median
250
711
44045
109
350
33
USACE
75
500
25000
50
200
60
OME
1
(dredged disposal)
25
1625
10000
25
100
50
OME
2
(aquatic live protection)
26*
>110+
460*
>1100+ 20000* 40000+
16*
>110+
120*
>820+
31*
250+
Ratio: Median
value/USACE value
3.3
1.4
1.7
2.2
1.7
0.5
Ratio: Median
value/OME
1
value
10.0
0.4
4.6
4.3
3.5
0.6
Ratio: Median
value/OME
2
value
9.6*
2.3+
1.5*
0.6+
2.2*
1.1+
6.8*
0.9+
3.0*
0.4+
1.0*
0.1+
USACE: U.S. Army Corps o± Engineers (USACE 1976); OME: Ontario Ministry o± the Environment and Energy (OME
1976); * LE: Lowest e±±ect; + SE: Severe e±±ect
G. Zarazúa
et al.
186
cates that the clay/silt fraction (<63 µm) is as large as
28 %. The aluminosilicates belong to the groups of
quartz, feldspars, kaolinites and amphiboles (Tejeda
2006). These groups of particles were observed by
scanning electron microscopy (
Figs. 4
and
5
) and
their analysis showed content of O, Al, Si, Ca, Na,
Fe, Mg, K and Ti, among others.
In site 1, Almoloya lagoon, the groups that dis-
played the highest relative abundance were alumino-
silicates (41 %), silicon (32 %) and sulfur (21 %). The
particles of the Almoloya lagoon showed the highest
sulfur abundance relative to those of the other seven
TABLE V
. SEDIMENT ENRICHMENT FACTORS FOR Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn AND Pb IN THE COHESIVE SEDIMENTS OF
THE UPPER COURSE OF THE LERMA RIVER. CONCENTRATION IN mg/kg
Cr
Mn
Fe
Cu
Zn
Pb
Rb
Median
250
711
44045
109
350
33
52
Reference value igneous rocks
100
950
50000
55
70
13
90
Sample ratio Metal/Rubidium
4.8
13.67
847.02
2.10
4.8
0.63
Reference ratio Metal/Rubidium
1.1
10.55
555.55
0.61
0.77
0.14
Sediment enrichment factor
4.3
1.3
1.5
3.4
6.2
4.5
0
20
40
60
80
100
%
1
Si-Al
Si
S
CO
3
Ca/P
Fe
Mn
Metals
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Sampling sites
Fig. 3
. Relative abundance by groups in the cohesive sediments
from the upper course of the Lerma River as determined
by SEM-EDS analysis. Classi±cation according to Dekov
et al.
(1997)
KeV
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
O
Na
Al
Si
Ca
Ca
c
p
s
Fig. 4
. Scanning electron micrograph at 800x of an irregular particle composed of Al, Si, O, Na and Ca (feldspar group: albite or
anortite)
KeV
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
O
Mg
Al
Si
Ca
Ca Ti
Ti
Fe
Fe
c
p
s
Fig. 5
. Scanning electron micrograph at 800x, of a cylindrical particle composed of Al, Si, O, Mg, Ca, Fe and Ti (amphibole group:
magnesiohornoblende)
METAL CONTENT IN SEDIMENTS OF A MEXICAN RIVER
187
sampling sites (
Fig. 3
). This difference is caused by
the abundance of phytoplankton and aquatic plants in
the area, which contribute with signi±cant amounts of
iron sulphides of biological origin (
Fig. 6
) (Dekov
et
al
. 1997, Sullivan
et al
. 2001, Huerta 2005, Laluraj
and Nair 2006).
Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows
that in all sampling sites, particles with a high metal
content (>40 %) of Ag, Al, Bi, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sn, Zn and
Zr were observed (
Fig. 7
). In all the sites, particles
rich in Cr, Fe and Ni, with similar composition to steel
(ASTM 2001), were also observed (
Fig.8
). Although
elements as Ag, Al, Ni, Hg, etc., were detected by
SEM in sediment particles, their concentration were
below to the detection limit by XRF. The presence
of elements of typically anthropic origin in the inter-
mediate sites of the testing zone is probably due to
industrial and urban discharges from the surrounding
area (Fuhrer
et al
. 1996, Vasallo
et al
. 2001, Casper
et al
. 2004, Tejeda 2006).
KeV
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
O
Si
S
Fe
Fe
c
p
s
Fig. 6
. Scanning electron micrograph at 4000x of polygonal particles in an agglomerate array composed mainly of S and Fe
KeV
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
O
Cu
Cu
Cu
Cu
Pb
Pb
Pb
Pb
Pb
Pb
Pb
Pb
Si
Al
S
Fe
Fe
c
p
s
10.00
11.00
12.00
Fig. 7
. Scanning electron micrograph at 4000x of a particle composed of S, Fe, Cu, Pb and O
Fig. 8
. Scanning electron micrograph at 5000x of several irregular particles composed mainly of Fe, Cr and Ni
KeV
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
O
Mn
Ni
Ni
Fe
Al
Fe
Si
S
Ca
Cr
c
p
s
G. Zarazúa
et al.
188
Particles of the Fe group were associated with Ti-O
(
Fig. 9
) and O (
Fig. 10
). Fe-TiO particles were more
abundant in the sites 5-8 of the river. This behavior
must be due to the discharges of the tributary rivers
of the second section of the river, which introduce
iron particles associated to Ti and O coming from
the soils of the surrounding area (Dekov
et al
. 1997,
Huerta 2005).
CONCLUSIONS
The heavy metal concentration in the cohesive
sediments decreased in the following sequence: Fe
> Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb.
With the exception of lead, metal concentrations
in sediments exceeded the guide or reference values
given by USACE and MOE for dredged sediments.
Bed sediments in the upper course of the Lerma
River can be considered enriched with Cr, Cu, Zn
and Pb.
Iron and manganese present in the cohesive sedi-
ments of the upper course of the Lerma River come
mainly from natural sources, while chromium, cop-
per, zinc and lead are associated with anthropic con-
tributions (domestic sewage and industrial ef±uents).
Sampling site 6, was the mainy accumulation
zone for Mn and Fe, in±uenced by tributary rivers
whereas sampling site 4, was the mainy accumula-
tion zone for the other metals, corresponding to the
main industrial area.
The particle groups in the cohesive sediments of
the upper course of the Lerma River were present in
the following order: aluminosilicates > silica > iron
> sulfur > metals > calcium carbonates > calcium/
phosphorus > manganese.
It is important to work continuously in studies
that contribute to the control and regulation of the
sources of pollution. In the near future, research on
speciation could be useful in the evaluation of risk
when sediments are applied to agricultural soils.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors thank Fernanda Astivia Segura and Tech.
Sergio Arredondo Huitrón, who assisted them in the
sampling work.
KeV
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
O
Fe
Al
Fe
Si
Mg
Ti
Ti
c
p
s
Fig. 9
. Scanning electron micrograph at 800x of a particle composed of Fe, Ti and O
Fig. 10
. Scanning electron micrograph at 8000x of a rectangular particle composed mainly of Fe and O
KeV
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
O
Fe
Al
Fe
Si
c
p
s
METAL CONTENT IN SEDIMENTS OF A MEXICAN RIVER
189
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