Artículo en PDF
How to cite
Complete issue
More information about this article
Journal's homepage in redalyc.org
Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Rev. Int. Contam. Ambient. 22 (4) 165-172, 2006
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF OZONE-FORMING POTENTIAL FROM EXHAUST EMISSIONS
OF VEHICLES FUELED WITH REFORMULATED GASOLINE IN MÉXICO CITY
J. Luis JAIMES-LÓPEZ
1*
, Julio SANDOVAL-FERNÁNDEZ
2
, Emmanuel GONZÁLEZ-ORTÍZ
1
,
Angel ZAMBRANO-GARCÍA
1
, Martín LLANOS-PLATA
3
and Uriel GONZÁLEZ-MACÍAS
1
1
Dirección Ejecutiva de Investigación y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central Norte Lázaro
Cárdenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan 07730 México City, México. *Corresponding author. Tel.:
(55) 7195-6756; fax: (55) 9175-6599. E-mail address: jjaimes@imp.mx
2
Instituto Politécnico Nacional. ESIQIE-SEPI. U.P. Adolfo López Mateos, Edif. 8, 2o. piso
3
General Motors de México, S. de R.L. de C.V. , Industria Minería No. 700, Col. Zona Industrial, Toluca 50000
Edo. de México
(Recibido diciembre 2005, aceptado octubre 2006)
Key words: smog chamber, exhaust emission, reformulated gasoline, ozone-forming potential
ABSTRACT
Several experiments using outdoor smog chambers were carried out to determine
the ozone-forming potential from exhaust emissions of reformulated gasolines com-
pared with a reference gasoline. The objective of this experimental study is to select
a reformulated gasoline which has the lowest impact on ozone formation, by using
automobiles equipped with technology that complies with the Euro4 regulation. This
gasoline will substitute the one used in vehicles technologically equipped to comply
with the Tier 1 regulation in México City. The smog chamber method showed that the
reformulated gasoline with the lowest impact on ozone formation, in automobiles that
comply with Tier 1, was F3, and the one for Euro4 vehicles, was F5. These gasolines
have lower benzene and sulfur concentrations than the reference gasoline used in the
experiments. Also, after 9 runs carried out in a dynamometer and using the reference
gasoline in both types of automobiles, the one equipped to comply with Euro4 emitted
less pollutants (mg/km) and toxic species to the atmosphere, than the one equipped to
comply with Tier 1. This is a preliminary study, and it is necessary to carry out further
tests with these fuels using representative vehicles of the MCMA, with and without
catalytic converter.
Palabras clave: cámaras de esmog, emisiones de escape, gasolina reformulada, potencial de formación de
ozono
RESUMEN
Se llevaron a cabo experimentos usando cámaras de esmog exteriores para determinar
el potencial de formación de ozono de emisiones de escape de gasolinas reformuladas,
comparándolas con una gasolina de referencia. El propósito de este estudio experimental
se enfoca a seleccionar una gasolina reformulada con el más bajo impacto sobre la
formación de ozono, utilizando automóviles equipados con tecnología para cumplir con
la regulación Euro4, la cual sustituirá a los equipados para cumplir con la regulación
J.L. Jaimes-López
et al.
166
Tier 1 en la ciudad de México. El método de cámaras de esmog mostró que la gaso-
lina reformulada con el menor impacto sobre la formación de ozono en automóviles
con Tier 1, fue la gasolina 3 (F3) y para el vehículo con Euro4 fue la gasolina 5 (F5).
Dichas gasolinas tienen menor concentración de benceno y azufre que la gasolina de
referencia utilizada en los experimentos. También, después de 9 corridas llevadas a
cabo en un dinamómetro y utilizando gasolina de referencia en ambos tipos de auto-
móviles, el equipado para cumplir con Euro4 emitió menos contaminantes (mg/km) y
especies tóxicas a la atmósfera que el equipado para cumplir con Tier 1
.
Este estudio es
preliminar y es necesario llevar a cabo una mayor cantidad de pruebas con los mejores
combustibles, utilizando vehículos representativos del Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad
de México (AMCM) con y sin convertidor catalítico.
INTRODUCTION
Air pollution has become a problem in the main
urban cities of the world, as due to energy demand
of transportation and the satisfaction of population’s
needs. In addition, a lot of forest or agricultural areas
have been dedicated to urban use, thus breaking up
the ecological balance with disastrous consequences
in some regions of the planet.
México is included in this environmental problem.
Main cities and industrial areas continuously produce
dangerous air pollutants. This is the case of México
City’s Metropolitan Area (MCMA), Guadalajara and
Monterrey. Due to this problem, in 1986, the gov-
ernment of México City began the construction of a
network for atmospheric monitoring throughout the
MCMA, to record the ozone levels and those of other
pollutants (PICCA 1990). This allowed to defne the
real level of ozone contamination affecting the popu-
lation. During the winter of 1990 and the spring of
1992, the worst days of environmental contingency
were registered (PROAIRE 1996).
In the last two decades, among all polluting
sources, automobiles have had the highest impact.
They contribute with 75 % of total emissions (PRO-
AIRE 1996). Therefore, pollution from vehicles is
a serious and complex problem due to its several
causes: the automotive technology, the total amount
of circulating vehicles, the quantity and type of fuel
utilized, the average circulation speed, the average
distance covered per day, the mechanical condition
of vehicles, the different types of vehicles, and the
driving ways, among others (Díaz-Gutiérrez 2002,
Shifter
et al.
2003). In order to improve the air qual-
ity, a standard that establishes the properties of liquid
and gas fuels utilized in MCMA, was issued in 1994
(INE 1994).
The reduction of ozone levels by replacing cur-
rent fuels, is one of several plans made to continu-
ously decrease pollution. This replacement includes
reformulated gasolines to improve air quality by
reducing ozone-generating emissions. But the ex-
haust emissions of a vehicle are directly related to
the composition of the fuel it burns (Schuetzle
et al.
1994). Therefore, it is necessary to experimentally
evaluate the emissions of reformulated gasolines
to assure that their marketing does not represent a
more serious threat for the environment than those
commercially available. However, there is another
problem to consider besides of reducing emissions.
Every substance emitted after fuel combustion has a
different reactivity toward secondary pollutants, as
ozone (Carter 1994). Therefore, it is necessary to be
aware of what is emitted to the atmosphere, and to
determine its relation with the fuel used.
In order to select the fuels that produce emissions
with the lowest reactivity, the reactivity factors of
each one of the more relevant species were deter-
mined based on the photochemical reactions they
undergo (CARB 1991). These reactions occur when
volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen
oxides (NOx) are emitted to the atmosphere and ir-
radiated by the natural light of the sun during the day,
giving place to ozone formation in the troposphere.
Particularly, in México City high contents of ozone
are related to the intensive use of gasoline vehicles.
Despite the strong efforts of local and federal au-
thorities, oriented to reduce the emission of VOC
and NOx from new and in-use vehicles, ozone levels
are still high (Isaac Schifter
et al.
2000). This fact
has an important relationship not only with the total
hydrocarbon mass emitted by vehicles, but also with
the specifc reactivity oF Fuels.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Reactivity using smog chambers
Recently, diFFerent methods are used to defne
the reactivity for ozone-forming potential from
OZONE-FORMING POTENTIAL FROM VEHICLES FUELED WITH REFORMULATED GASOLINE IN MEXICO CITY
167
non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions. The
method of incremental reactivity (IR) is among them
(Carter and Atkinson 1989). IR was defned as the
additional ozone formed,
O3, that each volatile
organic compound (VOC) tested forms when added
to a base urban mixture of VOC and NOx, divided
by the amount of the test VOC,
VOC. Thus, IR is
defned by the Following equation:
IR =
O
3
/
VOC
(1)
Carter's IR factors provide a simple method to
determine reactivities in exhaust mixtures. How-
ever, another method can be used to characterize the
photochemical process that occurs during reactivity
experiments. It is called smog produced (SP) (John-
son 1984) and is defned by:
SP = O
3
(t) + NO(0) - NO(t)
(2)
where O
3
(t) and NO(t) are the respective concen-
trations of O
3
and NO at the time t, and NO(0) the
initial NO. The variable SP includes the NO oxi-
dation and ozone formation from the atmospheric
oxidation processes. This method is the one used
in this paper.
Exhaust emissions
In order to select the reformulated gasoline with
the lowest impact on ozone formation compared
with a reference gasoline, some reformulated gaso-
lines were evaluated.
Table I
shows the formula-
tion of each one of them. To evaluate the potential,
Carter’s IR factors were applied to the species of
exhaust emission of the test automobiles and the
SP in the smog chambers designed for this work.
The vehicles used were provided by GM: a vehicle
equipped to comply with Tier 1 regulation, which
is being used in México, and another one equipped
to comply with Euro4 regulation, that will be intro-
duced in the near future. The characteristics of both
vehicles are shown in
table II
. These automobiles
were subjected to similar tests of FTP-75 cycle. The
test cycle is called Urban-Mex, and it was designed
by the Mexican Petroleum Institute (MPI) accord-
ing to the driving conditions of México City. The
parameters of the Urban-Mex cycle and the graphic
comparison with the FTP-75 cycle, are shown in
fgure 1
.
Testing of each fuel was carried out in two days.
The frst day, a vehicle was evaluated with the test
fuel and the other vehicle with the reference fuel.
The next day, the same cars were used, but fuels
were exchanged. In this way, information of the
exhaust emissions from each vehicle was gathered,
both with test fuel and reference fuel. Constant
volume sampling (CVS) tests were carried out in
a dynamometer Horiba of 48 inches, model LDV-
46-86-125HP-AC, using the Urban-Mex cycle.
Before carrying out each CVS test, the vehicles
were conditioned according to the NMX-AA-11-
1993-SCFI (DGN 1993) standard “Test method for
the evaluation of exhaust emissions of new vehicles
that use gasoline as a fuel.”
TABLE I.
REFORMULATED
GASOLINES
Fuel
RF
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
Sulfur (ppm)
720
440
400
420
370
415
Aromatics (Vol %)
28
17.2
19
19.9
18
22.6
Olefns (Vol %)
13
7.2
6.6
6.9
7.2
15.2
RVP (psi)
8.8
6.8
6.6
8.3
10.7
10.8
O
2
(W %)
0.3
0
2
(MTBE)
1
(MTBE)
1
(MTBE)
1
(MTBE)
T
90
(°C)
172
163
164
163
164
164
Note: T
90
represents the temperature related to 90 % distilla-
tion, as a result, it has a strong relationship with fuel econ-
omy after engine warm-up and minimal fuel dilution in oil
crankcase, at the same time, T
90
is adjusted to reduce volatile
organic compounds (VOC) exhaust emissions, and to avoid
engine deposits
TABLE II.
CHARACTERISTICS OF EURO 4 AND TIER 1 VEHICLES
Euro 4
Tier 1
Engine
4 cylinders. Dual overhead
cam
4 cylinders. Dual overhead
cam
Displacement
2.0 l
1.8 l
Fuel management system
Multiport fuel injection
Multiport fuel injection
Power
150 hp
125 hp
Compression ratio
9.1 to 1
9.0 to 1
Catalytic converter
TWC, close coupled
Palladium-Rhodium
TWC, under-body
Platinum-Rhodium
Metal total charge
2.5081
1.5585
Metal ratio (Pt/Pd/Rh)
0/6.5/1
5/0/1
J.L. Jaimes-López
et al.
168
During the CVS tests, an exhaust sample was taken
in a tefon bag oF fuorinated ethylene propylene (±EP).
This bag was covered with a black plastic material
to prevent the content to contact light. Then, the bag
was brought to the place where the experimental
system of smog chambers was located, which was
200 meters away.
Experimental chambers
The experiments were carried out in tefon bags
FEP type A, with a thickness of 0.051 mm and a
capacity oF 600 liters. Each bag was ²tted with two
tefon connections oF 0.635 cm; one oF them had ²ll
and evacuation functions, the other was used to take
the samples to the analyzers. The bags were linked,
through Tefon lines, to a 2 liter Pyrex bulb.
For NOx and O
3
measuring, Thermo Environ-
mental analyzers models 42 and 49 were used. The
analyzer model 42 was calibrated several times
throughout the study by using a dynamic calibrator
coupled to a clean air generator (EPA gas protocol).
This system allowed to make dilutions of gas with
a precision of
±
1%. The ozone analyzer was cali-
brated with an ozone photometry calibrator Thermo
Environmental model 49-PS. The solar radiation was
measured with an Eppley radiometer, which had been
previously calibrated in the Centro de Ciencias de la
Atmósfera of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma
de México. The radiometer was installed close to the
experimental test rig. The temperature of the control
bag was measured with a thermocouple Type “J”,
calibrated in the Metrology Laboratory of the MPI;
which has the T-14 accreditation of the National
System of Calibration.
Figure 2
shows a scheme of the experimental sys-
tem. Six bags were used to carry out the experiments,
and bag 7 was used as a control. All six bags were
linked, through Tefon lines, to an automatic system
oF valves lodged in a device to open a speci²c valve
of each bag to be analyzed. The chamber’s operation
was described by Jaimes-López
et al.
(2003).
The electric signals from the analyzers, the tem-
perature sensor, and the radiometer, were sent to a
data acquisition equipment in order to capture data.
Experimental procedures
The experiments began in the morning at 6.00
100
URBAN-MEX
FTP-75
80
60
40
20
0
1
100 199 298
496
397
596 694 793 892 991 1090 1189 1288
Ve
locity km/h
Time, seconds
PARAMETERS
MCMA
8.8
1360
23.4
73.6
5.3
38.0
31.4
24.7
2.3
AVERAGE VELOCITY (km/h)
MAX VELOCITY (km/h)
CONSTANT VELOCITY (% time)
ACELERATION (%)
DEACELERATION (%)
MIN MARCH (%)
STOPS (km)
LENGTH (km)
TIME (sec)
Fig. 1. Urban-Mex vs FTP-75 Cycle
A N A L Y Z E R S
P Y R E X B U L B
A U T O M A T I C
V A L V E
S E L E C T O R
C O
N O x
O 3
D A T A
L O G G E R
P Y R E X B U L B
S A M P L E R
T H E R M O M E T E R
V A C U U M
P U M P
A I R
C O M P R E S S O R
C O N T R O L B A G
Fig. 2.
Experimental system of outdoor smog chambers
OZONE-FORMING POTENTIAL FROM VEHICLES FUELED WITH REFORMULATED GASOLINE IN MEXICO CITY
169
o’clock, just before sunrise. First, the bags were
emptied and flled with 500 liters oF ultra-pure air to
±ush them. Then, all bags were flled with 500 liters
ultra-pure air. Bags 1, 2 and 3 were injected a volume
of the exhaust emission from the Tier 1 automobile,
adjusting the injection to obtain 0.400 ppmC of VOC
in each one of the bags. This same operation was
repeated for bags 4, 5 and 6, except that these bags
were injected with the exhaust emissions from Euro4
the vehicle. Finally, the bags were exposed to natural
solar irradiation. During the day, samples of gas were
taken from the bags every hour to follow the ozone
Formation. Once the experiments were fnished, the
bags were evacuated and ±ushed with ultra-pure air,
to avoid masking the next day’s results.
Ozone-formation potential
Potentials of ozone formation from vehicular
emissions were calculated by using the maximum
incremental reactivity (MIR) determined by Carter
(1994), and the data from smog chambers. To evalu-
ate the reactivity of the fuels, MIR was calculated
as follows:
n
R
MIR
=
(MIR)
i
F
i
(3)
i
where MIR
i
is the MIR for the species i (mg O
3
/mg
HC
i
), and Fi the fraction of the species i in the ve-
hicular emission (mg HC
i
/km). Therefore, equation
3 determines the reactivity of the test fuels and the
reference fuel, in mg O
3
/km. In this way, when the
reactivity of the test fuel is related to the reference
fuel, the relative potential of the reformulated fuel
is determined by
R
MIR(Test fuel)
P =
___________________
(4)
R
MIR(Reference fuel)
The reactivity from smog chambers data was
calculated by using the concept of smog produced
given by equation 2. It was obtained from the
maximal slop of the curve of ozone concentration
versus time.
Figure 3
shows one example of that
kind of curve.
The relative potential of ozone formation, was
calculated from chambers data by
SP(test fuel)
P =
___________________
(5)
SP(reference fuel)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Since the experimental methodology includes the
comparison of each tested gasoline with the reference
gasoline, the number of repetitions carried out with
this gasoline allowed to calculate the average of total
exhaust emissions, which are showed in
table III
. It
shows the emission composition of the automobiles
equipped to comply with Tier 1 and Euro4 regula-
tions. The data correspond to the average of nine
tests carried out in a dynamometer with the reference
gasoline in each one of the automobiles. Generally,
the results show that the emissions of hydrocarbons,
carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and methane, are
higher for Tier 1 than for Euro4. But Euro4 emits a
quantity lightly higher of carbon monoxide. How-
ever, this automobile’s emissions of NOx showed to
be substantially lower. The reduction of this pollutant
will be a good beneft For the air quality when Euro4
automobiles are marketed in México City.
These tests also allowed to compare the emission
of some toxic compounds in both types of automo-
biles.
Figure 4
shows the average emissions. The
graph shows that there is a higher emission of most
of the toxic compounds in the automobile equipped
to comply with Tier 1 when compared to Euro4. Al-
though benzene emission has a contrary behavior, it
would not be a problem when Euro4 is introduced in
México City. The reference gasoline used in the tests
TABLE III.
EURO 4 VS TIER 1 AVERAGE EMISSIONS
Emissions
TIER1
(g/km)
EURO 4
(g/km)
THC
0.218
0.131
CO
1.739
1.893
CO
2
240.757
207.956
NOx
0.264
0.084
CH
4
0.020
0.016
400
300
SP
[ppb]
200
100
0
8
9
10
11
12
Time, h.
13
14
15
16
17
Fuel 5
Fig. 3.
Measuring of the smog produced in Euro4 versus ir-
radiation time
J.L. Jaimes-López
et al.
170
of this study will not be for sale, and the Fve refor
-
mulated gasolines did not have a benzene emission
higher than 1 mg/km in the automobile equipped to
comply with Euro4 regulation (EPA 1994).
Figures 5
and
6
show the results of ozone potentials
for Euro4 and Tier 1 during the tests. The calculations
were carried out with the data obtained in the smog
chambers, by applying equation 5. These results were
compared with the potential calculated by equation 4
using the Carter’s factors. The order of distribution of
ozone potentials of each reformulated gasoline with
both methodologies were similar. However, the order
for fuels was different in each one of the automobiles.
Based on ozone potentials, the order for Euro4 was
found to be F5 > F1 > F4 > F3 > F2, while for Tier 1
the result was F3 > F5 > F2 > F1.
Sulfur concentration of F5, F3 and F1 was similar
(430 ppm). This value can be considered high, and
sulfur level in gasoline can signiFcantly damage the
emission control devices of vehicles, never the less,
the Palladium–Rodium close coupled TWC from
Euro4 vehicle can support better the poisoning than
the Platinum–Rodium from the Tier 1 vehicle. Sulfur
blocks sites on the catalyst were designed to store the
oxygen necessary for a highly efFcient NOx conver
-
sion reactions.
The Mexican standard NOM-086-SEMAR-SEN-
ER-SC±I-05 (SEMARNAP 1996), “SpeciFcations of
Fuels for the Environmental Protection”, establishes
the sulfur limits for the Mexican gasolines. Related
to México City, the premium gasoline
has 250 ppm
average limit and a maximum of 300 ppm. In Magna
gasoline, the average sulfur content is 300 ppm with
a 500 ppm maximum. Sulfur in gasoline inhibits the
emission control performance of catalytic convert-
ers, but a variety of factors establishes the degree of
impact and the reversibility of this impact. Factors
include the catalyst composition and location, engine
calibration, fuel metering technology and the way a
vehicle is driven. Related to the precious metal charge
in the catalytic converter, during years, platinum base
was selected like the most efFcient metal. However,
it´s inconvenience is the price and its susceptibility
to be inhibited by sulfur. In the other hand, the pal-
ladium base catalytic converter has more resistance
to deterioration with high sulfur levels.
The Euro4 vehicle use close coupled TWC technol-
ogy for better light off catalyst performance focused in
1.6
1.6
1
0.6
0.4
[(mg O3 Fuel)/(m
g O3 Reference fuel)]
0.2
0
F5
F1
F4
F3
F2
F5
F1
F4
F3
Carter´s factors
Threshold
Smog chambers
F2
0.8
1.6
Fig. 5.
Ozone potential from reformulated gasolines tested in Euro 4
25.00
20.00
EURO 4
TIER 1
15.00
Propylene
Butene-1
1,3 Butadiene
Benzene
To
luene
Etylbenzene
M-xylene
P-Xylene
O-Xylene
Formaldehyde
10.00
Acetaldehyde
5.00
0.00
Fig. 4.
Toxic compounds emitted by the reference fuel
OZONE-FORMING POTENTIAL FROM VEHICLES FUELED WITH REFORMULATED GASOLINE IN MEXICO CITY
171
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
[(mg O3 Fuel)/(mg O3 Reference fuel)]
0.4
0.2
0
F3
F5
F2
F1
Smog Chambers
Threshold
Carter´s factors
F3
F5
F2
F1
Fig. 6.
Ozone potential from reformulated gasolines tested in Tier 1
lower THC emissions. Additionally, the Euro4 vehicle
uses Palladium-Rhodium catalytic converter with
higher metal contents than Tier 1 vehicle, generally
focused in strong NOx emissions control. For these
two vehicles it is possible to contemplate a reduction
in catalyst activity by means of sulfur level in gasoline,
but the regeneration is possible by means of hot cycle
in rich calibration. The Tier 1 vehicle looks more sen-
sible to sulfur level in gasoline than the Euro4.
CONCLUSIONS
These results allowed the selection of the formula-
tion with the lowest impact on ozone formation. In
the case of the automobile equipped to comply with
Euro4, the reformulated gasoline F5 showed the
lowest ozone potential. For Tier 1, the reformulated
gasoline F3 was found to have the lowest potential.
On the other hand, if both types of automobiles shall
circulate in México City, the reformulated gasoline
F5 would be the choice.
The introduction of the automobile equipped to
comply Euro4 regulation in México City will help
to improve the air quality, as its emissions are lower
than to those of Tier 1.
The method of smog chambers employed allows
the selection of the reformulated gasoline with the low-
est impact on ozone formation. Formulation F5 had the
lowest potential for Euro4 regulation, and formulation
F3 for Tier 1. However, formulation F5 may be used in
both automobiles to decrease the impact of ozone.
Due to the discrepancy of ozone potential found
between smog chambers and Carter’s factors, it is
necessary to carry out further experimental work, in
order to improve the smog chamber method and to
fnd a correlation between both methods.
This is a preliminary study, and it is necessary to
carry out more repetitions with the fuels that showed
the best performance, with the aim of increasing the
statistical validity. We also recommend to carry out
more tests with these fuels utilizing MCMA represen-
tative vehicles, with and without catalytic converter,
in order to evaluate its emissions and their possible
impact on air quality.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
For providing Euro4 and Tier 1 vehicles, we gra-
tefully acknowledge General Motors Company.
REFERENCES
CARB (1991). Proposed reactivity adjustment factors for
transitional low-emissions vehicles-Staff report and
technical support document. California Air Resources
Board. Sacramento. CA. 27, September.
Carter W.P.L. and Atkinson R. (1989). Computer modeling
study of incremental hydrocarbon reactivity. Environ.
Sci. Technol. 23, 864-880.
J.L. Jaimes-López
et al.
172
Carter W.P.L. (1994). Development of ozone reactivity
scales for volatile organic compounds. J. Air & Waste
Manag. Assoc. 44, 881-889.
DGN (1993). NMX-AA-11-1993-SCFI, Métodos de
prueba para evaluación de emisiones de escape de
vehículos automotores nuevos en planta, los cuales
usan gasolina como combustible, Dirección General
de Normas, Secretar+ia de Comercio y Fomento In-
dustrial, México.
Díaz-Gutiérrez L. (2002). Estimación de factores de emis-
ión para vehículos automotores de gasolina. Tesis de
Maestría. IPN. México, 135 p.
EPA (1994). Air Toxics from motor vehycles. EPA400-F-
92-004 (Environmental Protection Agency).
INE (1994). NOM-086-ECOL-1994. Norma Oficial
Mexicana que establece las especifcaciones sobre pro
-
tección ambiental que deben reunir los combustibles
fósiles líquidos y gaseosos que se usan en las fuentes
fjas y móviles (Instituto Nacional de Ecología).
Schifter I., Díaz L., Ávalos S., Vera M., Barrera A. and
López Salinas E. (2000). Effect of methyl tertiary
butyl ether concentrations on exhaust emissions form
gasoline used in the Metropolitan Area of México
City. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 50, 488-494.
Jaimes-López J.L., Sandoval-Fernández J., González-
Macías U. and González-Ortiz E. (2003). Liquifed
petroleum gas effect on ozone formation in México
City. Atmos. Environ. 37, 2327-2335.
Johnson G.M. (1984). A simple model for predicting the
ozone concentration of ambient air. Proceedings of
the 8
th
International Clean Air Conference. Melbourne
Australia, p. 715.
PICCA (1990). Programa integral contra la contaminación
atmosférica de la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de
México, Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecología,
22-31.
PROAIRE (1996). Programa para mejorar la calidad del
aire en el Valle de México. 1995-2000. Departamento
del Distrito Federal, Gobierno del Estado de México,
SEMARNAP y Secretaría de Salud.
Schuetzle D., Siegl W.O., Jensen T.E., Dearth M.A., Kaiser
E.W., Gorse R., Krecher W. and Kulit E. (1994). The
relationship between gasoline composition and vehicle
hydrocarbon emissions: review of current studies and
future research need. Environ. Health Persp. Supple-
ment 4, 102, 3-12.
SEMARNAP (1996). NOM-086-SEMAR-SENER-SCFI-
05, “Specifcations oF ±uels For the Environmental
Protection”.
Shifter I., Díaz L., Guzmán E., Chávez O. and López-
Salinas E. (2003). Remote sensing study of emission
from motor vehicles in Metropolitan Area of México
City. Environ. Sci. & Technol. 37, 395-401.
logo_pie_uaemex.mx