Artículo en PDF
How to cite
Complete issue
More information about this article
Journal's homepage in redalyc.org
Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Rev. Int. Contam. Ambie. 28 (3) 259-263, 2012
RESPONSE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM PLANT TO ADDITION OF BROILER MANURE AS A
SUBSTITUTE FOR COMMERCIAL SUBSTRATE
Francisco ALONSO
1*
, Rosario MIRALLES DE IMPERIAL
2
, José Valero MARTÍN
2
,
Carmen RODRÍGUEZ
2
and María del Mar DELGADO
2
1
GI. Instalaciones Agroganaderas y Medioambiente. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria
s/n, 28040 Madrid, España.
2
Departamento de Medioambiente, INIA, Ctra. La Coruña Km 7.5, 28040 Madrid España.
*Corresponding author: paco.alonso.peralta@upm.es
(Recibido septiembre 2011, aceptado abril 2012)
Key words: poultry manure, substrate, chrysanthemum, growth
ABSTRACT
Two different broiler manure types mixed with bedding material (straw and sawdust)
were added at rates of 0 and 10% to two commercial peat substrates (black peat and
sphagnum peat) to study the chrysanthemum plant growth. In all cases, the quality and
size of the plants was better with the mixtures of black peat substrates. The number of
±owers per plant increased signi²cantly with the mixtures of black peat with broiler
manure, but the size of the plants did not improve. The addition of broiler manure to
sphagnum peat improved signi²cantly the studied growth parameters, because substrate
pH was more suitable for cultivation. There was no plant mortality with the mixtures
tested, but when the percentage of broiler manure in the substrate mixture increased
the plant mortality was remarkable.
Palabras clave: gallinaza, substrato, crisantemo, crecimiento
RESUMEN
Dos tipos diferentes de pollinaza mezclados con el material de cama (paja o serrín)
añadidas en tasas de 0 y 10% más dos substratos comerciales de turba (turba negra y
turba rubia) se usaron para estudiar el crecimiento de crisantemo en maceta. En todos
los casos, la calidad y el tamaño de las plantas fue mejor con las mezclas de substratos
de turba negra que con las mezclas de turba rubia. Con las mezclas de turba negra
con pollinaza hubo un aumento signi²cativo del número de ±ores sin que hubiese un
aumento en el tamaño de las plantas. También se pudo observar que con la adición
de pollinaza, el substrato de turba rubia mejoró signi²cativamente los parámetros de
crecimiento estudiados, esto fue debido a que el pH del substrato fue más adecuado
para el cultivo. Por último, no hubo mortalidad de plantas con las mezclas experimen-
tadas, pero cuando la cantidad de gallinaza aumentó en la mezcla fue más notable la
mortalidad de plantas.
SHORT COMUNICATION
F. Alonso
et al.
260
INTRODUCTION
The production of ornamental plants is a great
consumer of organic waste and many studies have
investigated the use of agricultural wastes (Evans
et al.
1996, Wang
et al.
1990) as substitutes for
peatmoss. Almost all these plants are grown and
marketed in containers, and more than 70 % of the
substrates contain mixtures with organic materials
(López
et al.
2006). The use of substrates with
lower content of peat adding poultry manure could
help to recycle these subproducts, due to their high
nutrient content.
Chrysanthemum (
Dendrathema grandiforum
(Ramat.) Kitam) cultivation as a potted plant is
one of the most important worldwide (AIPH 2006).
In Spain, its demand as seasonal gardening plant
has increased recently in last years. The amount
of broiler litter manure to manage is very high,
12 kg/broiler/year (European Commission 2004),
and traditionally have been applied to improve the
fertility of soils.
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate
the responses of pot plant chrysanthemum growth
by using of two separated types of peat substrates
growing media and mixed with by broiler litter
manure. Growing parameters studied were: stem
length (SL), ±ower numbers (FN) and dry weight
²nal biomass (DWG).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
The experiment was carried out with chrysanthe-
mum (
D. gandiforum
(Ramat.) Kitam) cv. Albanor
Yellow in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones
Agronómicas (National Institute for Agriculture
Research) in Madrid, Spain. It was carried out in
a greenhouse for seventeen weeks, under contro-
lled conditions of temperature and humidity. The
chrysanthemum plants were bought directly from
the producer; they were produced by in vitro culture
(Hodson
et al.
2008).
Plants were
homogeneous and had an average of 9
leaves and with a mean stalk length (from the neck of
the plant) of 5.70 cm. Plastic pots of 14 cm diameter
were used for the transplanting of chrysanthemum
and ²lled up with the different substrates according
with the treatments.
Six treatments with two types of broiler manure
with different bedding material (straw and sawdust)
at volumetric rates of 0 and 10 % mixed with two
commercial substrates (peat substrates) were tested.
Two treatments were performed with 100 % of
two commercial types of substrate and other four
treatments were mixtures with 90% of commercial
substrate and 10 % of broiler manure (
Table I
). The
uncomposted broiler manure was provided from two
farms located in Castilla y León (Spain).
The peat substrate 1 was a commercial substrate
which consisted of black peat and added nutrients,
and it is commonly used in gardening. The peat
substrate 2 was a sphagnum peat from the Baltic
regions, and it was fertilized to suit the requirements
of demanding gardening plants.
The broiler litter manure is a mixture of chicken
droppings, bedding, and other materials generated
during the broiler production (e.g. remaining food,
water and feathers). Bedding material is used to ab-
sorb excreta. Broiler growing period is about 45 days
long at the end of each period, broiler litter manure
with bedding material was removed and replaced by
another fresh bedding material. The most common
broiler bedding materials used in Spain are barley
straw and pine sawdust.
Chemical analyses
Before mixtures were performed, chemical analy-
ses were conducted on the two peat substrates and
TABLE I.
TREATMENTS OF PEAT SUBSTRATES 1 AND 2 AMENDED WITH BROILER
MANURE (V/V)
Treatments
Substrates
Broiler manure
Peat Substrate 1 (%)
Peat substrate 2 (%)
Straw (%)
Sawdust (%)
T1
100
0
0
0
T2
90
0
10
0
T3
90
0
0
10
T4
0
100
0
0
T5
0
90
10
0
T6
0
90
0
10
RESPONSE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM TO ADDITION OF BROILER MANURE
261
the two types broiler manure samples (
Table II
).
The following parameters were determined: pH
was measured in a 1:2.5 (w/v), substrate water
suspension with a glass electrode (pHmeter Ba-
sic20). The electrical conductivity was determined
in a 1:5.0 (w/v), substrate: water suspension with a
platinum electrode connected to a conductivimeter
(CDM3 Radiometer, Copenhagen) at a reference
temperature of 25 ºC. Total Kjedahl nitrogen was
determined by the Kjedahl method (Hesse, 1971)
and inorganic nitrogen (NH
+
4
–N and NO
3
–N) by
the Bremner method, using airstream distillation
(Bremner, 1965); P and K were extracted with acids
(McGrath and Cubliffe 1985) and their concentra-
tions determined using inductively coupled argon
plasma emission spectrometry (ICPES) (Sims and
Kline 1991).
The experiment lasted 119 days (17 weeks); it
ended when most of the ±owers were open. The fo-
llowing parameters were evaluated at the end of the
experiment: 1) ²nal stem length (FSL), 2) biomass
dry weight (BDW), 3) number of ±owers per plant
(FN) (open and unopened ±owers), 4) dry matter
content of the biomass (%DM), and 5) plant morta-
lity. Also the ratio between BDW and FSL (BDW/
FSL) was calculated.
Data analysis
Data obtained for the FSL, BDW, %DM, FN and
ratio between BDW and FSL (BDW/FSL) of the
plants were subjected to variance analysis by the
ANOVA procedure of the Statgraphics Centurion
(2010), after being subjected to the arcsine transfor-
mation (×/100)
0.5
to guarantee a normal distribution.
In all cases the variance analysis model included
the factor treatment (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6). The
averages were separated using the LSD test (P<0.05).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
There was no mortality of plants in any of the
studied treatments. When the percentage of broiler
manure increased in the mixture of substrate plant
mortality was higher (25 %, 50 %), therefore the
parameters of crop growth were not studied. This
may be because the electrical conductivity of the
substrate was not suitable for chrysanthemum culti-
vation (Sonnevel 2000).
Table III
shows the results
of quality and growth parameters in chrysanthemum.
In all cases, the results of growth and number of
±owers were better with substrate mixtures of black
peat than with mixtures of sphagnum peat substrate.
The addition of poultry manure to black peat substrate
did not improve signi²cantly the growth of plants,
but signi²cantly increased the number of ±owers per
plant. This could be related to the increasing of plant-
available nitrogen in the substrates with a mixture of
poultry manure (Bugarín
et al.
1998).
Plants grown in sphagnum peat substrate had
lower growth and only survived. This could be due
to the low pH of sphagnum peat substrate. This result
is similar to that obtained by EunJoo
et al.
(2000) for
chrysanthemum pot culture.
However, the growth and ±ower number of the
plants were signi²cantly increased with the addition
of poultry manure to sphagnum peat substrate. These
results are similar to those obtained by Carr
et al.
(1998); this might be due to increased substrate pH to
values close to the optimum for cropping and higher
amount plant-available nitrogen in the substrate.
Also, signi²cant differences in BDW were obser-
ved, and the best results were obtained for Treatment
1. As for other parameters, the addition of broiler ma-
nure in sphagnum peat substrate improved the quality
of the plant at the end of the growth season. Always
TABLE II.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE PEAT SUBSTRATES AND BROILER MANURE
Chemical composition
Substrates
Broiler manure
Peat substrate 1
Peat substrate 2
Straw
Sawdust
NH
+
4
–N (mg/kg)
58.93 (1.39)
61.26 (1.38)
8261 819.47 (381.62)
6 125.01 (696.26)
NO
3
–N (mg/kg)
1 602.82 (1.05)
1 311.58 (1.70)
235.58 (63.90)
203.50 (35.23)
Kjeldahl Nitrogen (%)
0.98 (0.33)
1.14 (0.34)
4.57 (0.86)
3.46 (0.03)
pH (H
2
O)
5.87 (0.12)
3.52 (0.07)
7.66 (0.23)
8.47 (0.10)
E.C. (dS/m)
0.95 (0.24)
0.37 (0.08)
11.21 (3.85)
8.59 (1.11)
OM (%)
48.55 (2.57)
39.22 (2.29)
61.58 (2.95)
62.01 (1.07)
Total P (mg/kg)
0.93 (0.41)
0.95 (0.31)
9 478.50 (135.83)
9 299.75 (558.18)
Total K (mg/kg)
1.96 (1.21)
2.17 (1.22)
19 147.50 (557.88)
20 135.30 (1 886.58)
Standard deviations are in parentheses
F. Alonso
et al.
262
the plants with mixtures of sphagnum peat substrate
were of lower quality because the stem was weaker
(the ratio between BDW and FSL was lower) (
Fig. 1
).
Plants grown with a mixture of black peat were
more compact, forming a hemisphere in the container
according to the desired quality in chrysanthemum
plant pot.
Therefore, using broiler manure as an additional
material to commercial substrate in chrysanthemum
plant production is an interesting option when it
is recycled avoiding it be an important source of
contamination, and also it could be a way to reduce
cultivation costs.
CONCLUSION
There was no plant mortality with the mixtures
tested, but when the percentage of broiler manure in
the substrate mixture increased, the plant mortality
was remarkable.
The number of ±owers per plant increased in all
treatments when poultry manure was added to the
substrate.
Plants grown with mixtures of sphagnum peat
substrate had lower quality
because the crown was
less compact.
Fig. 1. Chrysanthemum cultivation: plants grown with substrate mixtures of peat substrate 1 (left picture) vs plants
grown with substrate mixtures of peat substrate 2 (right picture)
TABLE III.
EFFECT OF TREATMENT TYPE ON GROWTH PARAMETERS AND QUALITY OF
CHRYSANTHEMUM CULTIVATION
Treatments
N
FSL (cm)
BDW (g)
% DM
FN
BDW / FSL
T1
4
29.200
a
13.247
a
19.395
a
26.00
b
0.4536
a
T2
4
29.125
a
11.430
b
16.785
b
30.00
a
0.3908
ab
T3
4
26.250
ab
11.325
b
16.602
b
32.00
a
0.4345
a
T4
4
9.875
c
3.467
d
11.745
d
02.25
d
0.3571
bc
T5
4
26.125
b
7.973
c
13.591
c
20.00
c
0.3070
c
T6
4
26.250
b
8.461
c
13.194
c
27.50
b
0.3114
c
SEM
0.87543
0.5224
0.4601
1.8549
0.02362
p
<0.0001
<0.0001
<0.0001
<0.0001
0.0010
N = Observations number.
FSL = Stem length.
BDW = Biomass dry weight.
% DM = Dry matter content of the biomass.
FN = Number of ±owers per plant
SEM = Standard error of mean.
p
= Probability values resulting from the analysis of variance
RESPONSE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM TO ADDITION OF BROILER MANURE
263
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was supported by the INIA-FEDER
RTA2005-00120-CO2-01 and RTA2009-00074-00-
00 projects. The authors wish to extend their sincere
thanks to Mr. Jesús L. García for the agricultural labor
and Mrs.Angela García and Mrs. Isabel González for
their help with analytical work.
REFERENCES
AIPH. (2006). International Flowers and Plants 2006
International Association of Horticultural Producers
and Union Fleurs. Florian Heinrichs. Institut für Gar-
tenbauökonomie der Leibniz Universität Honnover.
ISBN: 90.74486-15-0.
Bremner M.P., Paredes C., Sánchez-Monedero M.A., Ce-
garra J. (1965) Inorganic forms of nitrogen. Methods
of Soil. Analysis Part 2. Am. Soc. of Agro, Wis. 9. pp.
1179-1237.
Bugarín M., Baca G., Martínez J., Tirado J.L., Martínez
A. (1998). Amonio/nitrato y concentración iónica total
de la solución nutritiva en crisantemo. I Crecimiento y
±oración. Terra Latinoamericana 16, 113-124.
Carr L.E., Brodie H.L., Bouwkamp J.C., Ku C. (1998).
Poultry residual composts: Materials Balance and crop
response. Compost Sci. Util. 6, 36-43.
EunJoo H., JongHyang B., YongBeom L. (2000). Growth
and photosynthetic characteristics of chrysanthemum
plantlets as affected by pH and EC of the nutrient
solution in microponic culture. J. Korean Soc. Hort.
Sci. 41, 12-15.
European Commission. (2004) Prevención y Control
Integrado de la Contaminación (IPPC) Documento de
referencia de mejores técnicas Disponibles en la Cría
Intensiva de Aves de Corral y Cerdos. Documento
BREF ILF. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente. Madrid,
España.
Evans M.R., Konduru S., Stamps R.H. (1996). Source
variation in physical and chemical properties of co-
conut coir dust. HortScience 31, 965-967.
Hodson E., Forero A., Cancino G., Moreno A., Monsalve
L.E., Acero W. (2008). In vitro regeneration of three
chrysanthemum (
Dendrathema grandifora
) variet-
ies “via” organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.
Universitas Scientiarum 13, 118-127.
Hesse P.R. (1971).
A Textbook oF soil chemical analysis
,
John Murray, 1971, 520 p.
López M.C., Ruiz J., Masaguer A.
. (2006). Producción de
planta ornamental en contenedor con sustrato alterna-
tivos a la turba. Ensayos en la Comunidad de Madrid.
Consejería de Economía e Innovación Tecnológica.
Comunidad de Madrid. Colección de Investigación
8, p. 176.
McGrath S.P., Cubliffe C.H. (1985). A simpli²ed method
for the extraction of metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb ,
Cr, Co and Mn from soils and sewage sludges. J. Sci.
Food Agric. 36, 794-798.
Sims J.T. and Kline J.S. (1991). Chemical fractionation and
plant uptake of heavy metals in solids amended with co-
composted sewage sludge. J. Eviron. Qual. 20, 387-395.
Statgraphics Centurion (2010). StatPoint Technologies Inc.
Corporate Headquarters: 560 Broadview Ave. Suite
201 Warrenton, VA 20186, USA.
Sonneveld C. (2000). Effects of salinity on substrate
grown vegetables and ornamentals in greenhouse
horticulture. Ph. D. Thesis, Wageningen University,
Netherlands, p. 151.
Wang Y. and Blessington T.M. (1990) Growth of interior
performance of poinsettia in media containing com-
posted cotton burrs. HortScience. 25, 407-408.
logo_pie_uaemex.mx