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Sistema de Información Científica
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Rev. Int. Contam. Ambie. 30 (1) 43-50, 2014
HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION IN SOIL, PLANT, EARTHWORM AND LEACHATE FROM
POULTRY MANURE APPLIED TO AGRICULTURAL LAND
María del Mar DELGADO ARROYO
1
*, Rosario MIRALLES DE IMPERAL HORNEDO
1
,
Francisco ALONSO PERALTA
2
, Carmen RODRÍGUEZ ALMESTRE
1
and José Valero MARTÍN SÁNCHEZ
1
1
Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria
(INIA) Ctra. de la Coruña km. 7.5, Madrid, España
2
GI. Instalaciones Agroganaderas y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Ciudad
Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, España
* Corresponding author; delgado@inia.es
(Recibido octubre 2012, aceptado diciembre 2013)
Key words: contamination, organic residues, multi-species soil system
ABSTRACT
Heavy metals of livestock wastes (poultry manure) were studied. Heavy metals from
two types of poultry manure (sawdust and straw bed) may represent a potential en-
vironmental risk for surface and groundwater. The test was made using a terrestrial
microcosm, the Multi-Species Soil System (MS3) developed in the Instituto Nacional
de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA, National Institute for
Agricultural and Food Research and Technology). The results of heavy metals in soils
showed higher statistically signifcant diFFerences (p ≤ 0.001) For Zn and Cd in straw
and sawdust poultry manure amended soil. In the case of, Cd, Pb and Hg values were
increased also for straw and sawdust poultry manure but did not show statistically
signifcant diFFerences. The presence oF heavy metals, in the aerial parts oF the wheat
plant (
Triticum aestivum
), was studied and only Cu (sawdust poultry manure) and Hg
(straw poultry manure) showed statistically signifcant diFFerences (p ≤ 0.01 and p ≤ 0.05
respectively). The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg in earthworms showed sig-
nifcant diFFerences (p ≤ 0.01, p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.001 respectively). Cu concentration
showed signifcant diFFerences (p ≤ 0.01) For straw poultry manure only. ±inally,
regarding the presence of metals in the leachates, only zinc, copper and nickel at 0
and 12 days showed statistically signifcant diFFerences (p ≤ 0.0001) between control
and the different types of poultry manure. For copper and nickel also differences were
observed at 12 days.
Palabras clave: contaminación, residuos orgánicos, sistema suelo de multiespecies
RESUMEN
Se estudiaron los metales pesados de residuos avícolas (gallinaza) partiendo de dos
tipos de estiércol de aves de corral (cama de serrín y paja) ya que pueden representar
un potencial riesgo ambiental para aguas superfciales y subterráneas. El ensayo se
realizó utilizando un microcosmos terrestre, el sistema de suelo de múltiples especies
(MS3), desarrollado en el Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y
M.M. Delgado Arroyo
et al.
44
Alimentaria (INIA). Los resultados mostraron que los metales pesados que alcanza-
ron diferencias estadísticamente signiFcativas (p ≤ 0.001) fueron el Zn y el Cd en los
suelos enmendados tanto con gallinaza con cama de paja como con cama de serrín.
En el caso de, Cd, Pb y Hg hubo un incremento también en los suelos enmendados
con residuo de ave (paja y serrín), pero no mostraron diferencias signiFcativas. Con
respecto a la presencia de metales pesados, en las partes aéreas de la planta de trigo
(
Triticum aestivum
), se comprobó que sólo el Cu (gallinaza con cama de serrín) y el
Hg (estiércol de paja de aves de corral) mostraron diferencias signiFcativas (p ≤ 0.01
y p ≤ 0.05, respectivamente). Las concentraciones de Cd, Cu, Zn y Hg en las lombri
-
ces encontradas en suelos enmendados con gallinaza con cama de serrín mostraron
diferencias signiFcativas (p ≤ 0.01, p ≤ 0.05 y p ≤ 0.001, respectivamente) y solo se
encontró en el Cu diferencias signiFcativas (p ≤ 0.01) para las lombrices en gallinaza
con cama de paja. Por último, solamente los metales pesados cobre y níquel recogidos
en los lixiviados a los 0 y 12 días mostraron diferencias estadísticamente signiFcativas
(p ≤ 0.0001) entre el control y los diferentes tipos de estiércol de aves de corral. Para
cobre y níquel también se observaron diferencias a los 12 días.
INTRODUCTION
Excessive application of chemical fertilizer in
agricultural soil had caused serious environmental
problems, deterioration of soil physical structures,
nutrients unbalance of soil, and water eutrophica-
tion. Livestock and poultry manure can be an alter-
native source of fertilizer in organic farming, where
the use of anthropogenic chemicals is prohibited
(Wong
et al.
1999).
The utilization of poultry manure as an organic
fertilizer is essential for improving soil productivity
and crop production (Cooperband
et al.
2002, Dikinya
2010). However, several problems raised from applica-
tions of manure, including the salt toxicity of manure
to plants (Meek 1974) and accumulation of trace met-
als in plants may pose a health risk when humans or
livestock consume them (Diaz-Barrientos
et al.
2003).
So, further evaluation of application of manure,
especially from intensive farming, should be given.
However, it is not clear what the results are when
these manures containing high concentrations of
heavy metals are applied in agricultural soil, espe-
cially in a long term, because metal input through
application of manures to soil will have a different
behavior affecting soil chemistry and plant growth as
well as metal uptake from the metals picked in soil
as metal sulphate (Miyazawa
et al.
2002, Walker
et
al.
2003).
While the use of organic wastes as manure has
been in practice for centuries world-wide (Straub
1997) and in recent times (López Masquera
et al.
2008), there still exists a need to assess the potential
impacts of poultry manure on soil chemical properties
and leachates and in particular evaluating the critical
application levels (Delgado
et al.
2010).
The multi-species- soil system (MS3), from two
types of poultry manure (sawdust and straw bed), has
also proved to be functional for assessing effects on
earthworm, plants and microorganisms on an agri-
cultural land (Delgado
et al.
2012), and combined
pollutants in contaminated sites (Fernández
et al.
2005), MS3 can be used to monitor the mobility of
metals in relation to biota (Alonso
et al.
2006).
The aim of this study was to apply the multi-
species- soil system (MS3) for study the heavy met-
als on soil, organisms (plants and invertebrates), and
leachates after the application of two types of poultry
manure (sawdust or straw bed) on an agricultural land.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Multi-species-soil system
The MS3 is an artiFcial assemblage of soil macro-
organisms lying on homogeneous columns of sieved
natural soil (Fernández
et al.
2004, Boleas
et al.
2005)
that allows the assessment of its effects. In this ex-
periment PVC cylinders (20 cm inner diameter and
30 cm high) covered by a Fne nylon mesh at the bot
-
tom, to avoid soil loss, were used. The columns were
installed in a climate room with a light-dark cycle of
16-8 h (1200 lux ±13 % coefFcient of variation CV),
air conditioning (21±1 ºC) and 55-60 % humidity.
The MS3 columns were saturated with spring water.
After that, 30 plant seeds and 10 invertebrates were
introduced. During the exposure period, the MS3
was irrigated to simulate 1000 mm rainfall/year
(Carbonell
et al.
2009).
Soil, poultry manure and organisms
The soil used in this study was collected from an
HEAVY METALS IN SOIL, EARTHWORM AND LEACHATE FROM POULTRY MANURE
45
abandoned soil at “La Canaleja”, an experimental
plant that belongs to INIA (35 km east of Madrid
city) and was classifed as a Typic HaploxeralF Cal
-
ciorthid according to soil taxonomy criteria (Soil
Survey Staff, 2003). A soil sample (0-30 cm) was
air-dried, passed through a 2 mm sieve and analyzed
following the standard soil test laboratory procedures
of the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and
Food (MAPA 1994).
The main physicochemical characteristics of
the soil were: pH, 8.3±0.45; EC (dS/m), 0.21±0.02;
Kjeldahl nitrogen (%), 5.8±0.13; organic matter
(%) 17±4.3; Ca (mg/kg), 4058±2.5; Mg extractable
(mg/kg), 168±6.4; Na (mg/kg), 50±15.8; P (mg/kg),
1.7±0.13 and extractable K (mg/kg), 15±4.6.
Poultry manure was supplied by Castilla-León
farms located in the northeast of Spain. The physi-
cochemical characterization of the poultry manure
mixed with straw and sawdust shows a high organic
matter content (%) (59.2±18.5 and 62.4±18.3 re-
spectively), Kjeldahl nitrogen (%) (4.36±1.04 and
3.43±0.0 respectively). Neutral pH (7.32±0.35) for
straw and alkali pH (8.27± 0.45) for sawdust poultry
manure.
Table I
shows the heavy metals of the poultry
manure mixed with straw or sawdust poultry manure,
whose parameters were determined by Standard
Methods (APHA, AWWA, WPCF, 2005).
The terrestrial organisms used in the MS3 were
invertebrates and terrestrial plants.
Eisenia foetida
(maintained in culture for several generations in our
laboratory) was chosen because it plays a key role in
the maintenance of soil structure and in the regula-
tion of soil organic matter dynamics (Lavelle
et al.
1997). Certifed seeds oF the vascular plant Triticum
aestivum, was kindly supplied by the Spanish OFfce
of Plant Varieties. The species selected for this study
are recommended by the OECD (OECD 2004).
MS3 experimental protocols
Poultry manure was applied in two rates: 9 t/ ha
(poultry manure straw) and 10 t/ha (poultry manure
sawdust) in an attempt to cover agronomic require-
ments. Three MS3 were used, the frst one was flled
with 8 kg of the control soil and the remaining two were
flled with poultry manure-amended soil. The treat
-
ments and the control were performed in triplicate. The
MS3 was saturated (spring water; 730-940 mL/MS3)
and after 24 hours, 10 adult earthworms (
E. foetida
)
with an average weight of 250-300 mg were placed
on top of the soil. Finally, 10 wheat’s seeds (
T. aes-
tivum
L.) were introduced into each MS3. After the
earthworms were placed on the soil column, the MS3
was irrigated with 100 mL of spring water. Every
day, seeds germination was observed and MS3 was
irrigated (spring water 100 mL) 5 days a week. At
the end of the experimental period (21 days, cereal
germination period) the MS3 systems were opened;
top soil samples, aerial parts of developed plants, and
earthworms were taken for heavy metals analysis.
After 14 days, no leachates were produced yet and it
was decided to keep the irrigation, in ten MS3, for two
more days, until saturation (450 mL, spring water),
in order to obtain an acceptable amount of leachates.
Metals analysis in soil and leachates
The concentrations of metals in soils were deter-
mined following EPA method 3051 (USEPA 1994a).
A representative sample of 200 mg was digested in
8mL of HNO
3
: water (1:1) concentrated nitric acid for
10 min using a laboratory microwave unit (ETHOS
SEL Model, Milestone, Monroe, CT). High-purity
MQ-water (Millipore Milli-Q-system) and analytical
grade reagents were used. Standard metal solutions
were prepared from concentrated stock solutions
(Merck, Germany).
Leachates were acidifed up to pH 2 and analyzed
following EPA method 3015 (USEPA 1994b)
Metals analysis in plants and earthworms
Earthworms (
E. foetida
) were transferred to the
laboratory, rinsed in tap water and maintained in
plastic boxes with MQ-moistened flter paper For 24
h at constant darkness for depuration. The depurated
earthworms were individually weighed to know the
biomass increase/loss during the exposure period.
Plants were rinsed with MQ-water to remove
external metals contamination, placed on flter paper,
air dried and after that weighed.
Earthworms and plants were digested with 8 mL
HNO
3
/Milli-Q-water (1:1) using a laboratory mi-
crowave unit and analyzed using EPA method 3052
TABLE I.
HEAVY METALS OF THE POULTRY MANURES
USED IN THIS STUDY (mean ± standard deviation)
Heavy metals
(mg/kg)
Sawdust poultry
manure
Straw poultry
manure
Zn
196
± 6.21
287
± 6.27
Cr
6.37 ± 2.08
1.50 ± 0.13
Cu
109.41 ± 12.81
31.79 ± 2.58
Ni
4.50 ± 0.29
3.21 ± 0.11
Cd
0.174 ± 0.023
0.108 ± 0.013
Pb
1.054 ± 0.054
0.42 ± 0.130
Hg.10
–3
4.42 ± 0.30
5.28 ± 2.92
M.M. Delgado Arroyo
et al.
46
(USEPA 1996). Soils, plants, earthworm’s solutions
and the acidifed leachates were analyzed For metals
(Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) by atomic absorption spec-
trometry graphite Furnace AAS (G±-AAS) or ²ame
atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS), depending on
the concentration range, in a Perkin-Elmer Analyst 800
equipped with Zeeman-effect background correction.
Mercury analysis was carried out in a direct mercury
analyzer (DMA-80, Milestone Wesleyan Univer-
sity Middletown, CT, USA). Leachates were directly
analyzed, although the determination of mercury in
soil, plants and earthworms was done on the digested
samples used for analysis of other metals.
Statistical analyses
Statistical differences for chemical properties of
leachates, between poultry-manure amended soil treat-
ments and the control, were assessed by analyzing the
variance one-way ANOVA test and the least signifcant
diFFerence (LSD) multiple range test at confdence
levels of 95 % and 99 % (SAS Institute 2001).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Metals analysis in soils
The concentrations in soil for the seven selected
metals in this experiment are summarized in
Table II
.
The results were obtained at the end of the experi-
mental period (day 21).
The values for Cd, Pb and Hg showed an increase
in straw poultry manure amended soil (0.049 mg/kg,
8.0 mg/kg and 0.059 mg/kg
respectively) with respect
to the control values (0.039 mg/kg, 6.80 mg/kg and
0.05 mg/kg
respectively) but were not statistical dif-
ferences. The largest concentrations were observed
For Cr and Zn and signifcant diFFerences (p ≤ 0.001)
for straw and sawdust poultry manure were showed.
Regarding Cr, the results were similar for two types
of poultry manure amended (7.20 and 7.30 mg/kg
respectively) and fnally, Zn was higher in straw than
in sawdust poultry manure (25.0 and 21.0 mg/kg
respectively). Increased concentrations of Cu and Zn
in the surface horizons of soil receiving annual ap-
plications oF PL (poultry litter) have been identifed
(Kingery
et al.
1994). Copper and Zn concentrations
in the surFace oF a soil profle that had received PL
applications over 25 yr were higher than an un-
amended soil. Furthermore the results of this study
suggest that Zn is Fairly mobile in the profle. Using
sequential extraction techniques, Cu was found to be
mostly associated with the organic matter fraction in
soils that had a 25 yr history of PL application (Han
et al.
2000).
Nicholson
et al.
2003 studied the contribu-
tion of different animal types to selected total
metal (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) inputs to agricul-
tural land in livestock. Heavy metals inputs to
agricultural soils in England and Wales were:
1858 t/yr of Zn (47 % cattle, 27% pigs and 26
% poultry), 643 t/yr of Cu (33 % cattle, 55 %
pigs and 12 % poultry), 48 t/yr of Pb (71 % cattle,
13 % pigs and 16 % poultry) and 4.2 t/yr of Cd
(64 % cattle, 10% pigs and 26% poultry). Also
Lei
et al.
(2009), analyzed heavy metals inputs to
agricultural soils in China where livestock manures
accounted for approximately 55 %, 69 % and 51
% of the total Cd, Cu and Zn inputs, respectively.
Study to evaluate the soil arsenic (As), copper
(Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) enrichment
that could result from the long term effect of poultry
litter amendments and tillage practices on selected
soil properties at the Alabama Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, Belle Mina, AL, demonstrated that Cu
and Zn did accumulate in the surface soil after 10 an-
nual applications of poultry litter but not at phytotoxic
TABLE II.
HEAVY METALS IN SOILS (mean ± standard deviation)
Soils
Treatments
Heavy metals
(mg/kg)
Control
Sawdust Poultry
manure
Straw Poultry
manure
p
Zn
20.0
a
± 0.9
21.0
b
± 0.3
25.0
b
± 0.1
0.0004
Cr
6.5
a
± 0.6
7.2
b
± 0.0
7.3
b
± 0.0
0.0006
Cu
7.8
a
± 1.4
6.0
a
± 0.2
6.0
a
± 0.1
> 0.050
Ni
5.2
a
± 0.1
5.0
a
± 0.3
5.5
a
± 0.1
> 0.050
Cd
0.39
a
± 0.08
0.40
a
± 0.03
0.49
a
± 0.07
> 0.050
Pb
6.8
a
± 0.9
7.5
a
± 0.5
8.0
a
± 1.3
> 0.050
Hg
0.050
a
± 0.006
0.051
a
± 0.007
0.059
a
± 0.018
> 0.050
a,b
Means with diFFerent superscripts are signifcantly diFFerent (P < 0.050) LSD test.
p
= Probability values resulting from the analysis of variance
HEAVY METALS IN SOIL, EARTHWORM AND LEACHATE FROM POULTRY MANURE
47
levels in contrast to As, Pb, and Ni regardless of the
tillage practices (Ngowari
et al.
2013).
Metals analysis in plants
The metals concentrations in plants are shown in
Table III
. The results are on the same line as described
by Alloway and Jackson (1991). They concluded
that the metal uptake from soil to plant was very low
and explained that sludge-born organic matter can
introduce new binding sites to the soil and therefore
present fewer risk for plants, as compared to soils
without sludge addition. Uchimiya
et al.
(2012) and
Wuana
et al.
(2012) also describe similar effects with
soils amended with biocharts and biosolids of poul-
try manure. Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations in
the aerial parts of the wheat plants (
T. aestivum
L)
did not show statistically signifcant diFFerences at any
applied rate. Only the heavy metals Cu and Hg showed
statistically signifcant diFFerences. Copper concentra
-
tion in plants (13.0 mg/kg) that grew on sawdust poul-
try manure amended showed signifcant diFFerences
(p ≤ 0.01) and an increase versus control soil plants
(10.4 mg/kg). This metal is important to the metabo-
lism of the plants, given that the uptake of nutrients
is regulated byit. It was expected that essential metal
(Cu) presents a higher uptake, as it has been verifed
in other experiments (Miyazawa
et al.
2002). The Hg
concentration in plants that was lower on straw poultry
manure (0.028 mg/kg) amended, showed signifcant
diFFerences (p ≤ 0.05) and an increase versus control
soil plants (0.033 mg/kg). This could be related with
the fndings oF Alloway and Jackson (1991).
Metals analysis in earthworms
Table IV
shows heavy metals concentrations in
earthworms (
Eisenia foetida
). A statistically signif
-
cant increase For cadmium (p ≤ 0.01), zinc (p ≤ 0.05)
and mercury (p ≤ 0.001) in the earthworms exposed
to sawdust poultry manure was observed. This incre-
ment is extended to types, sawdust and straw, of poul-
try manure For copper (p ≤ 0.05). On the contrary the
chromium decreases in animals exposed to sawdust
poultry manure (0.50 mg/kg) and to straw poultry
manure (0.70 mg/kg), although no statistically signif
-
TABLE III.
HEAVY METALS IN PLANTS (mean ± standard deviation)
Plants
Treatments
Heavy metals
(mg/kg)
Control
Sawdust Poultry
manure
Straw Poultry
manure
p
Zn
50.0
a
± 3.1
47.0
a
± 6.0
52.0
a
± 1.6
> 0.050
Cr
-
-
-
-
Cu
10.4
a
± 1.1
13.0
b
± 1.2
11.0
a
± 0.6
< 0.001
Ni
2.8
a
± 1.2
1.7
a
± 0.4
1.0
a
± 0.3
> 0.050
Cd
0.10
a
± 0.03
0.08
a
± 0.03
0.08
a
± 0.03
> 0.050
Pb
-
-
-
-
Hg
0.033
b
± 0.005
0.030
b
± 0.003
0.028
a
± 0.000
< 0.050
a,b
Means with diFFerent superscripts are signifcantly diFFerent (P < 0.050) LSD test.
p = Probability values resulting from the analysis of variance
TABLE IV.
HEAVY METALS IN EARTHWORMS (mean ± standard deviation)
Earthworms
Treatments
Heavy metals
(mg/kg)
Control
Sawdust Poultry
manure
Straw Poultry
manure
p
Zn
119
a
± 3
140
b
± 9
117
a
± 5
< 0.050
Cr
1.0
a
± 0.2
0.5
a
± 0.3
0.7
a
± 0.2
> 0.050
Cu
9.8
a
± 1.2
15.0
b
± 0.8
14.8
b
± 0.9
< 0.050
Ni
-
-
-
-
Cd
0.8
a
± 0.3
1.2
b
± 0.4
1.0
a
± 0.2
< 0.010
Pb
-
-
-
-
Hg
0.12
a
± 0.01
0.15
b
± 0.04
0.12
a
± 0.02
< 0.001
a,b
Means with diFFerent superscripts are signifcantly diFFerent (P < 0.050) LSD test.
p = Probability values resulting from the analysis of variance
M.M. Delgado Arroyo
et al.
48
cant differences compared to the control (1.0 mg/kg)
were found. Studies with in situ contaminated soils
have confrmed that soil total metal concentration
was a poor predictor of earthworm metal accumula-
tion due to a number of modifying factors such as
pH, organic matter and clay size particle content
(Ma 1982). In order to avoid experimental constraints
inFuencing the earthworm’s response, Nahmani
et
al.
(2007) suggest the necessity o± per±orming feld
or terrestrial model ecosystem; bioaccumulation for
earthworms showed high values for cadmium and
mercury, and large differences when considering
control earthworms versus earthworms cultured on
poultry manure soil.
Metals analysis in leachates
Heavy metals concentrations in leachates are
shown in
Table V
. Presence of copper, nickel and
zinc, with 77.65 µg/L, 40.43 µg/L
and 14.90 µg/L in
leachates of straw poultry manure were observed,
even after 19 days. Similar presence was observed
regarding to zinc and nickel according to Gupta
et
al.
(1997). This indicates that these metals (Cu, Ni,
and Zn) may leach into groundwater. Trace elements
Ni, Cu, and As were found to be readily soluble from
PL (poultry litter). More than 70 % of Ni and Cu was
in the cationic form, or bound in relatively labile
complexes that dissociated to the cationic species.
Hence, trace metal cations from PL are expected to
be readily sorbed by soil mineral phases on land ap-
plication of PL (Jackson
et al.
2003).
In soils leached with PL leachate, Zn solubility
from a contaminated soil was increased; however, in
an uncontaminated soil, Zn from the PL leachate was
retained by the soil matrix (Li and Shuman 1997).
A poultry litter application was conducted to
examine feld scale release and transport o± trace
elements from poultry litter into the subsurface. Field
monitoring before and after litter application dem-
onstrated increases in major ion, nutrient, and trace
element concentrations in soil water after application,
but concentrations of trace elements were all below
regulatory standards. Using laboratory stepwise ex-
tractions of litter, calculated leaching rates of trace
elements are fastest for As, followed by Cu and Zn
(Oluyinka
et al.
2012).
One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for zinc,
copper and nickel at 0 and 12 days showed statisti-
cally signifcant di±±erences between the control
and each type o± poultry manure (p < 0.001). These
differences also could be seen in copper and nickel
at 12 days (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION
The soil microscosm reproduced the specific
conditions of agricultural arable land, such as MS3
TABLE V.
HEAVY METALS IN LEACHATES (mean ± standard deviation)
Leachate
Treatments
Heavy metals
(µg/L)
Days 0
Control
Sawdust Poultry
manure
Straw Poultry
manure
p
Zn
68.18
a
± 11.96
188.57
b
± 19.69
192.70
b
± 12.51
< 0.001
Cr
0.75
a
± 0.22
0.74
a
± 0.20
0.62
a
± 0.01
> 0.001
Cu
27.86
a
± 4.01
211.22
c
± 15.25
115.35
b
± 18.67
< 0.001
Ni
13.33
a
± 10.10
111.90
c
± 8.77
65.94
b
± 1.75
< 0.001
Cd
0.043
a
± 0.005
0.056
a
± 0.028
0.033
a
± 0.005
> 0.001
Pb
0.113
a
± 0.037
0.119
a
± 0.043
0.043
a
± 0.040
> 0.001
Hg
0.010
a
± 0.000
0.010
a
± 0.000
0.010
a
± 0.000
> 0.001
Heavy metals
(µg/L)
Days
12
Control
Sawdust Poultry
manure
Straw Poultry
manure
p
Zn
33.98
a
± 29.61
69.05
a
± 18.24
49.75
a
± 10.89
> 0.001
Cr
2.96
a
± 0.13
5.12
a
± 1.55
3.05
a
± 0.21
> 0.001
Cu
34.82
a
± 14.72
162.06
a
± 3.98
80.29
a
± 2.77
< 0.001
Ni
7.50
a
± 0.01
114.70
a
± 12.40
54.91
a
± 3.41
< 0.001
Pb
0.383
a
± 0.037
0.180
a
± 0.095
0.343
a
± 0.106
> 0.001
Cd
0.020
a
± 0.010
0.013
a
± 0.005
0.100
a
± 0.020
> 0.001
Hg
0.010
a
± 0.000
0.010
a
± 0.000
0.010
a
± 0.000
> 0.001
a,b
Means with di±±erent superscripts are signifcantly di±±erent (P < 0.001) LSD test.
p
= Probability values resulting from the analysis of variance
HEAVY METALS IN SOIL, EARTHWORM AND LEACHATE FROM POULTRY MANURE
49
system used in this experiment and offers a proper
alternative for the study of heavy metals that are
present in poultry manure residues.
The amended soil with poultry manure increased
the concentration of zinc and cadmium in soils, cop-
per in plants, and mercury in earthworms.
Finally, the presence of Zn, Cu and Ni in the
leachates, in soils amended with poultry manure, was
remarkable before 12 days.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are grateful to INIA-FEDER for funding this
study as part of the RTA2005-00120-CO2-01 and
RTA2009-00074-00-00 projects. The authors wish to
extend their sincere thanks to Ecotoxicology Labora-
tory for technical assistance.
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