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Yogabῑja: a Critical Transcription of a Text on a Haṭhayoga
Yogabīja: Transcripción crítica de un texto de haṭhayoga
Nova Tellvs, vol. 33, núm. 2, 2016
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas

Available in:
http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=59146029008


Received: 30 July 2015

Accepted: 29 February 2016

DOI: 10.19130/iifl.nt.2016.33.2.712

Abstract: The present paper offers an edited, critical transcription of an early, relevant text on haṭhayoga. The transcription is based on three different recenssions fom North and South India. One purpose is to overcome difficulties in the reading of the text, due to the discrepancies among different editions. It also seeks to foster further academic work (both philological and exegetical) from different scholars on this text as well as on the broader textual tradition of haṭhayoga.

Palabras clave: Haṭhayoga, Nāth yoguis, ediciones del Yogabīja, literatura sánscrita, religión en India.

Resumen: Este trabajo brinda una transcripción crítica de un texto temprano e importante en materia de haṭhayoga. La transcripción se basa en tres recensiones procedentes tanto del norte como del sur de India. Uno de los propósitos es tratar de solventar algunos problemas de interpretación causados por las discrepancias existentes entre diferentes ediciones del texto. Además, busca fomentar la labor académica, exegética y filológica, entre los estudiosos tanto en torno de este texto, como de la tradición textual del haṭhayoga.

Keywords: Haṭhayoga, Nāth Yogīs, Yogabīja Editions, Sanskrit Literature, Indian Religions.

This edited transcription of the Yogabīja was prompted by a recently published translation into Spanish (Muñoz 2014), as well as by the rather limited access to the text from within the Spanish-speaking world. The present article seeks to provide wider access to the text through a transliterated, edited version of the Yogabīja. It also seeks to foster further academic work (both philological and exegetical) from other scholars in Western languages (and not just in Spanish), on this text as well as on the broader textual tradition of Haṭhayoga. The transcript also belongs to an ongoing wider research project on the historiography, hagiography, and literature of the Nāth Yogis. Hence, the present work should not be deemed final, but only a humble contribution to the field.

Text in context

Judging by the large amount of both direct and indirect references to the followers of Haṭhayoga, we can safely state that this form of yoga became a widespread practice on the Indian subcontinent, especially between the 13th and the 15th centuries, and probably well onto the 17th. No doubt, it became a significant ascetic school with a strong influence in South Asian religious and cultural spheres. Gorakhnāth, the proverbial representative of this form of yoga, continues to play a crucial role in these spheres and his rather shadowy historicity is tantamount to the Nāth tradition's own fuzzy historicity. A good number of works have been attributed to Gorakh and allusions to him are available in a wide range of sources. Regardless of whether others cited Gorakh as an authorial figure, or instead attempted to ignore him (see e.g. Lorenzen and Thukral 2005), what remains clear is that Gorakhnāth -or a Gorakhrelated sect- was a key player in the game of religious groups and identities in pre-modern India.

As concerns the Yogabīja, one of the particularities of the text is the fact that its contents do not correspond completely to the topics dealt with by other reputed and later texts on Haṭha (e.g. the Haṭhapradīpikā and the Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā). This is despite the fact that the Yogabīja is purportedly an important Haṭha treatise. The Sanskrit bīja means "seed, semen, grain, or germ" and can imply an "origin" or "kernel". Thus "yoga-bīja" can be translated as "the seed of yoga". Accordingly the text claims to delve into the essence and core of yoga, and so it explains some practices for breath control, such as mudrās ("seals") and bandhas ("bonds, ligatures") such as jālandhara, mūlabandha, or uḍḍiyāna. It also describes different types of knowledge (passim), of ascetics (§34 ff.), of siddhis or powers (passim), or of yogas (§145-152), among other yogic items. It is also possible that the text belongs to a relatively early phase of Haṭha literature (circa 12th-15th cent.), a matter that is gaining increasing attention from specialists.

Both the Gorakṣaśataka and the Yogabīja (YB) are attributed to Gorakhnāth, the legendary founder of the Nāth Panth who, according to a colophon of the YB in one of the printed editions is also known as Maheśvara (vide infra). The exact location of the text's composition is uncertain, but Dasgupta (1995: 373) suggested Bengal as the probable place of origin for the YB and for kindred, Gorakh-related texts.

The yogic corpus including these texts, as well as the Amanaskayoga, the Siddhasiddhāntapaddhati, and others, probably belongs to the period 12th to 15th century in pre-modern India, more or less coinciding with the Delhi Sultanate. During this period there was a documented exchange between Sufis, fakirs, and yogis, a topic beyond the scope of the present article, yet of noteworthy attention. Some Haṭha-related texts have been focused upon by scholars, notably the Ṣaṭcakranirūpaṇa (Avalon 1959), the Amanaskayoga (Birch 2005), and the Khecarīvidyā (Mallinson 2007). There is also a group of some twenty so-called Yoga Upaniṣads which were likely composed and collected well into the 18th century which have been edited, translated, and discussed (see bibliography and Bouy 1994). Although some scholarly attention has been drawn toward the relationship between these Upaniṣads and other texts on Haṭha, there still remains a great deal of work to be done in order to fully comprehend the relationship between them.

The YB and the Yogaśikhā Upaniṣad (sometimes only Śikhā Upaniṣad) were discovered to share some verses by scholars such as Bouy (1994, p. 112) and Feuerstein (2001, p. 421) but no researcher has as yet attempted to establish the history and actual relationship between the two texts. The early Amanaskayoga was probably composed around the 12th-13th century but most certainly not after the 16th (White 2009, p. 46; Birch 2005, p. 4). On the other hand, the Haṭhapradīpikā, the Gherāṇḍasaṃhitā, and the Śivasaṃhitā date collectively to the period between the 15th and 17th centuries. In my translation of the YB, I stated that the probable dates of its composition were 1450-1500 CE (Muñoz 2014, p. 476). However, and bearing in mind that the Haṭhapradīpikā belongs to the 15th century and is very likely posterior to the YB (cf. Bouy 1994, pp. 81-86), we may place the YB slightly earlier chronologically, but still after the circa 1400 CE Gorakṣaśataka (Mallinson 2012, p. 263). If it is accepted that the Gorakṣaśataka does indeed belong to the very early 15th century and that the YB was composed soon thereafter, it appears possible that the YB was written between 1400 and 1450, some decades before the Haṭhapradīpikā, which seems to be a much more systematic and developed account of Haṭha practices. This latter text, therefore, seems to follow a (long?) line of previous texts upon which it draws.

Arrangement and printed versions

As far as I have been able to surmise, there are three versions of the YB which have been edited and published to date, all of which have been incorporated in my transcription. Gorakhpur's YB was edited by Rāmlāl Śrīvāstav and is composed of 190 verses, which amount to around 360 lines due to verse variations. I shall refer to it as either the Gorakhpur recension or Śrīvāstav's edition. As a whole, the YB presents recurrent grammatical irregularities and ambiguous lexicography, as in the other two recensions. Besides a Hindi introduction, this edition provides a commentary (tīkā) also in Hindi. The printing is not of a good quality and hence there are many instances in which vocalic matras have apparently faded out: notably, what many times looks like a long ā was presumably a prior, original o. Some confusion arises with the long ī too. Anusvāras as well as some avagrahas also tend to be either erased or not printed correctly and are therefore provided in the critical transcription according to the rules of Standard Sanskrit.

There are at least two publications of this version, one which was included in a periodical issued by the Gorakhnāth Temple, comprising also the Gorakṣaśataka, the Siddhasiddhāntapaddhati, the Vivekamārtaṇḍa and the Amaraughaprabodha, and an independent imprint, also published by the Gorakhnāth Temple (see bibliography). There are some orthographic and grammatical disagreements among them, which is intriguing since both editions were published under the supervision of Śrīvāstav. No remark on this has been made by the editors. Also, the Hindi tīkā differs between editions.

Unfortunately, Śrīvāstav does not mention which, and how many, manuscripts were utilized for his version. Judging from the obvious grammatical imperfections, it seems likely the he relied on hand-written manuscripts rather than on a printed edition, but this remains as yet to be confirmed. As noted above, though not extremely common, this recension does not commit wholly to regular ślokas (two-line verses), but has one-line verses (around eighteen) and three-line verses (two), whose distribution and/or numbering in most cases do not correspond with those found in the other two recensions. The title is indicated by a non-declined compound: "yogabīja".

Although not more than a mere conjecture, I am inclined to believe that this edition may coincide with a potential "earlier" version than the other two printed recensions at my disposal. In these two, there is an ostensible attempt to correct apparent mistakes in a conceivable "Gorakhpur recension" (yet, sometimes the amendment does not seem entirely correct).

A second edition was published in Delhi under the supervision of Brahmamitra Awasthi, heretofore labelled as either the Delhi recension or Awasthi's edition. This version is correctly labelled as "yogabījam". It apparently has two verses less than the Gorakhpur edition. However, apart from order changes and lexical discrepancies, it should be noted that Awasthi's edition presents a serious issue with verse numbering: after verse §16 (pp. 55-57), the numbering re-begins at §111, so that to what seems to be a whole of 182 verses we have to add six more; thus giving us a total of 188 verses approximately. A second issue then comes to light after we resume the numbering, at §120, where there is a long sequence of one-line verses (adding up to almost thirty). Moreover, after §132 the numbering inexplicably changes to §154 (later on, at least twice there seems to be some error when giving numbers for §170) and the again after §179 the numbering goes back to §140-41. All of this confusion gives one the feeling that this Delhi recension, with all its shifting and jumping of verse-numbers, tries to catch up with the Go-rakhpur recension after having failed to go on a par since the early stages of the text.

All in all, the verses follow almost faithfully the order in Śrīvāstav's edition, but sometimes the numbering and organization of individual lines do not match. For example: verses §5 and §6 are inverted in Awasthi's edition and Awasthi's verse §144 is not in Śrīvāstav's. Finally, in spite of being a bit shorter, Awasthi's edition manages to "include" almost all of the Gorakhpur recension. Another difference between them is that Awasthi's edition tends to bear recurrent sandhi blunders: e.g. yogāt candra instead of yogāc candra. Besides a free English translation, this edition is also accompanied by a Hindi paraphrase. Like Śrīvāstav, Awasthi gives no hint of his sources, but they seem to be altogether different from those in the Gorakhpur edition. The only thing Awasthi does in the footnotes is indicate similarities between the Yogaśikhā Upaniṣad and the YB ("tulanīya yogaṣikhopaniṣad...").

Lastly, there is the Yogaśikhā Upaniṣad (YŚU), included in the Yoga Upaniṣads. The edition I have used was prepared by Mahadeva Sastri in Madras. Consequently, it will be designated either the Madras recension or Sastri's edition. The text is divided in two parts, or adhyāyas; around 80% of the first adhyāya (178 verses in total) is basically comprised of the Yogabījā.

Unlike the other two recensions, the YŚU is very consistent in terms of its verse-structure, i.e. all of the verses are composed of two lines regardless of the metre. It is very probable that this upaniṣad is a late work, even later than the Haṭhapradīpikā and the Gherāṇḍasaṃhitā. It is also likely that the people behind the composition of the YŚU were not members or adherents of the Nāth order. This can be surmised from the fact that in some instances the text eliminates references to the nāthas (cf. YB §7, §136, §145, §189). In general terms, Sastri's edition of the Yoga Upaniṣads appears more carefully realized than the other two YB editions; this may well be in consonance with the nature of most recensions from south India of various texts. These tend to offer rather "purified" versions (Törzsök 1999, p. xxvii). Yet the apparent lack of mistakes in the YŚU does not necessarily imply a more "original" or "pure" reading of a hypothetical YB original text; these readings, on the contrary, can rather convey "corrections" stemming from ideological considerations, as is evident from the change of speakers in the dialogue.

Sastri's edition was based on five manuscripts located in the Adyar Library and a Bombay printed edition of the 108 upaniṣads, which was itself based on a South Indian ms. Sastri's edition has a Sanskrit commentary by Śrī Upaniṣad-brahmayogin, but no paraphrase or translation (an English translation of the Yoga Upaniṣads was later published independently). The recension's rendering of the text tends to coincide with some readings of the Delhi recension, though this is not always the case. At times Sastri gives variant readings from his sources, which may coincide with one reading in either D or G, but which for some reason were discarded. It needs to be stressed that nearly without exception the verses from the YB not repeated in the YŚU are, significantly, either Devī's speeches or Ῑśvara's replies to her. It also happens that a discourse by Devī becomes merged in the main body of the text (e.g. §24-25), and is, therefore, not singled out from the principal voice.

We know for sure that the sources for the YŚU were located in South India, but cannot be so certain about the sources for the Gorakhpur and the Delhi printed versions. It may be the case that both the Gorakhpur and the Delhi recensions were based on mss stored in locations such as Jodhpur, in Rajasthan, and Kathmandu, Nepal, where we know that there recension relied at least on one northern recension (arguably close to the Delhi recension). One could of course argue that it may very well be that the line of derivation moves in reverse; that is to say, one of the northern recensions was based on a southern one, but in this case I feel confident that it is not so because a) the Madras recension does seem to betray a clear intention of purging non-orthodox elements from the text while retaining most of the content and original order, and b) as Otto Shrader has proved the current, southern versions of the Yoga Upaniṣads are greatly indebted - and have expanded on- earlier northern, and sometimes shorter, recensions (Bouy 1994, p. 30). Moreover, I feel that what looks like grammatical correctness in the Madras version is an indication of a later, more polished recension.

There are at least two other editions: an 1899 edition from Kaunpur and a 1956 one from Mangalore, the second of which seems particularly close to the YŚU's first chapter (Bouy 1994, p. 105). Unfortunately I have not been able to consult either edition. Unlike the Gorakhpur edition, these appear to have 180 verses, which more or less coincide with Awasthi's edition. Hereafter recensions are identified by place of publication as follows: Śrīvāstav's YB edition (G); Awasthi's YB edition (D); M. Sastri's YŚU edition (M).

Meter and style

The YB's prosodic structure is that of vṛttapadyas, i.e. stanzas organized by the number of syllables in each pāda or hemistich. For the most part the text is composed in anuṣṭubh stanzas (eight syllables per pāda) shifting between forms. This is usually restricted, however, to the pathyā form (with a tendency for ya-gaṇa, or bacchius trochaic: ̮--; and ra-gaṇa: -̮-); also, the syllabic pattern at the end of the second and forth pāda of each stanza tends to be a regular iambic (̮-̮-). There are four verses in a different meter in the YB: §66, which is triṣṭubh (11 syllables in each pāda) in indravajrā meter; §101, a śakvarī (14 syllables) in vasantatilaka; §137 a jagatī (12 syllables) in a more or less vaṃśastha meter; and §138, again a triṣṭubh oscillating between indravajrā and upajāti.

The stylistic quality of the Sanskrit is allegedly poor in aesthetic terms, yet it is quite consistent with other kindred texts. In general terms, the grammatical and lexical irregularities are of the usual sort in this type of literature, which has been given various names. Some scholars have tended to call it Tantric Sanskrit, for its primary manifestation is found in Tantric and/or āgamic literature; others speak of Aiśa language because it is said to derive from God Śiva (i.e. Ῑśa), an idea first expounded by the 11th century philosopher Kṣemarāja. There are a number of specialists dealing with this linguistic phenomenon as well as with the prosody of said literature (see for example Goudriaan & Schoterman 1988, pp. 44-109; Törzsök 1999, pp. xxvi-lxix; Mallinson 2007, pp. 15-16). They have attempted to schematize a functional grammar of Aiśa language and have emphatically suggested that grammatical incongruities derive basically from prosodic concerns.

In terms of stanza division, we can also identify inconsistencies between the available versions. As noted before, for the most part the YB is in anuṣṭubh versification, but there are some departures. Besides the other verse forms, two recensions (G and D) have both one-line and three-line verses, which accounts in large part for the incongruence in numbering the verses. It is doubtful that three-line verses are meant to function as a form of the gāyatrī meter, but not impossible. Some examples of one-liner units in the transcription are §43, §59, §72, §109, §133; three-line verses are §152 and §163. M is definitely more consistent: it presents us with a constant series of couplets throughout the text; M also provides headings to indicate changes of topic, usually at the expense of the sequence of couplets. For example, more often than not a śloka is split in order to allow for a heading and change of topic.

Transcription and collation

My transcription is presented in the Roman alphabet, supported by diacritical marks as specified by the international transliteration system for Sanskrit (IAST). When two or more words in the original become blended due to graphic rules in the devanāgarῑ script, I have decided to write these words separately (e.g. devairapi ( devair api). When a union is due to nominal compounds (samāsa) or phonetic rules (sandhi), the coalition of words has been preserved (e.g. yogamārge, sarvadoṣavivarjitaḥ, tatrāsau).

The work undertaken for this partial critical transcription was based on the three "recensions" mentioned above, i.e. four printed versions. The significant variant readings between recensions have been indicated in the notes to the text. At some points, I have only indicated the alternative readings; at others, I have provided readings from all recensions. Sandhi deviations have not been indicated in the notes; neither have visarga or anusvāra omissions. Needless to say the "corrected" reading provided by this transcription may imply a rethinking of both the Spanish and English translations. Given the fact that habitually apparent inaccuracies in all existent transcriptions are due to metrical concerns, I have opted here to provide a semantically and grammatically accurate reading when possible. A particularly difficult passage is §79cd: the two key words there (rajjau>rajjuḥ>rajjvā / rajvī), in whatever form, seem to contradict the grammar or semantics of the rest of the pāda.1 Other passages in haṭha literature that deal with a rope (rajju) are Śivasaṃhitā 1.38 and 1.43 but are completely different from YB´s passage; Śivasaṃhitā deals with the standard analogy between rope and snake to explain the lack of true knowledge instead of the interweaving of mind and breath that the YB aims to.

Thus I somehow decided to artificially reconstruct the passage. That is to say that I have shown more concern for a "possible" correction rather than complying with phonetic constraints. In this sense, my transcription is closer to Birch's critical edition of the Amanaskayoga than, for example, Törzsök's edition of the Siddhayogeśvarīmata. I have also retained G's numbering of stanzas, even to the point of accepting the one- and three-line verse forms.

Although I have devoted a great deal of effort to comparing the different editions and, as far as possible, have attempted to amend incorrect readings and errata, the task is far from completed. It has to be stressed that this transcription is based solely on printed materials: a full critical edition will have to resort to extant manuscripts, as well as other possible printed editions as they become available. Access to these archives from Latin America is rather difficult because of time and financial issues, as well as for bureaucratic reasons (cf. Birch 2005, pp. 23-24). Even though a closer look at manuscripts will have to be made, we can accept that the printed versions consulted here were prepared from surviving manuscripts. Any later critical work will have to determine what actual sources were drawn upon in each of the printed recensions and suggest a more definite "standard" archetype.

Nevertheless, despite the possibility of misreadings from the editors, I deemed it viable to provide a more or less homogenous and reliable unified transcription from the four printed editions due to the high frequency of verses with which the same verses appear in the different recensions. As for lexical discrepancies, some of these stem from both obvious errata from scribes as well as compliance with metrical requirements, while some others demonstrate ideological dissent.2 Notably all references to a dialogue between Īśvara and Devī (YB) have been modified so as to present a conversation between Śaṅkara and Padmasaṃbhava (YŚU), apparently a more orthodox scheme for a religious colloquium. We musk ask ourselves, however, is this a teaching from Śiva (or the Advaitin philosopher) expounded to the reputed Buddhist teacher? If so, there may still be some underlying tantric undertones.

Inconsistencies among G and D suggest that they were based on different manuscripts, but these differences also reinforce the thesis that various early versions of the text did in fact offer a dialogue between Īśvara and Devī, not Śaṅkara and Padmasaṃbhava, which points toward a later "sanitization" of allegedly śākta elements in the text. It is also sensible to conclude that some YB recensions were earlier than a YŚU recension. G presents a total of 364 pādas, whereas D gives 379 or 373, depending on how we count verses in dispute (vide supra). Finally, M (included in the YŚU) contains 356 pādas, almost equal to G, although in principle M is shorter than either G or D due to its rejection of Devī´s speeches as I have indicated above. Among the recensions, there are 303 pādas shared by all three-which is also the number of half-verses shared by G and M. The number increases if we compare only G and D: 357 shared half-verses. This quantity decreases if we compare D with M: 312 half-verses, three of which are unique to these texts and absent in G. (These I have included in the appendix to the transcription.) The correspondence of M with G is roughly YŚU 1.1ab-1.69ab, and 1.79cd-1.164cd. The rest of the first adhyāya goes from 1.165ab through 1.178cd. The opening of M coincides with G 4ab. I have only rarely made mention of omitted passages from the recensions. In order to provide a more detailed account, a correspondence chart is under preparation.

I have adopted Śrīvāstav's two editions from Gorakhpur (G) as my starting point, on the assumption that they may very well represent an early stage of the YB. When needed, I have referred to these publications as either G1 (1982 edition) or G2 (1991 edition); if no distinction is made, it is because the two editions agree on the point under scrutiny. I have then compared this with both Awasthi's edition from Delhi (D) and the YŚU recension (M), which seems to be a more carefully executed version in editorial terms. When two sources agree, I have sometimes opted for the reading presented in these two works, unless the single independent reading comes from G and can be logically read and/or construed. When discrepancies prove difficult to reconcile, I have tried to look for recurrence in other texts, particularly the Haṭhapradīpikā. This is despite the fact that there aren't many shared verses among them; perhaps eighteen or less. Amendments not supported by either source are marked with the symbol º after the word in question. An asterisk (*) indicates the faulty numbered stanzas in D, which I have not attempted to correct. I hope to carry out a more thorough and comparative survey as soon as time permits.

References

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YOGABĪJA
śrī devy uvāca: namas te ādināthāya viśvanāthāya te namaḥ | namas te viśvarūpāya viśvātītāya te namaḥ | 1 | utpattisthitisaṃhārakāriṇe kleṣahāriṇe | namas te devadeveśa namas te paramātmane | 2 | yogamārgakṛte tubhyaṃ mahāyogeśvarāya te |3 namas te paripūrṇāya jagadānandahetave | 3 |4 sarve5 jīvāḥ sukhair duḥkhair māyājālena veṣṭitāḥ |6 teṣāṃ muktiḥ kathaṃ deva kṛpayā vada śaṅkara | 4 | nānāmārgās tvayā deva kathitās tu maheśvara | adhunā mokṣadaṃ mārgaṃ brūhi yogavidāṃvaram | 5 | īśvara uvāca: sarvasiddhikaro mārgo māyājālanikṛntakaḥ |7 janmamṛtyujarāvyādhināśakaḥ sukhado bhavet | 6 |8 baddhā yena vimucyante nāthamārgamataḥ param |9 tam ahaṃ kathayiṣyāmi tava prītyā10 sureśvari | 7 | nānāmārgais tu duṣprāpyaṃ kaivalyaṃ paramaṃ11 padam | siddhamārgeṇa labhyeta nānyathā śivabhāṣitam | 8 |12 anekaśatasaṃkhyābhis tarkavyākaraṇādibhiḥ | patitāḥ śāstrajāleṣu prajñayā te vimohitāḥ | 9 |13 anirvācyapadaṃ vaktuṃ na śakyate surair api | svātmaprakāśarūpaṃ tat kiṃ śāstreṇa prakāśyate | 10 |14 niśkalaṃ nirmalaṃ śāntaṃ sarvātītaṃ nirāmayam | tad etaj jīvarūpeṇa puṇyapāpaphalair vṛtam | 11 |15 devy uvāca: paramātmapadaṃ nityaṃ tat kathaṃ jīvatāṃ gatam | tattvātītaṃ mahādeva prasādāt kathayasva me | 12 |16 īśvara uvāca: sarvabhāvapadātītaṃ jñānarūpaṃ nirañjanam | vārivat sphuritaṃ svasmiṁs tatrāhaṅkṛtir utthitā | 13 |17 pañcātmakam abhūt piṇḍaṃ dhātubaddhaṃ guṇātmakam | sukhaduḥkhaiḥ sadā yuktaṃ jīvabhāvanayākulam | 14 |18 tena jīvābhidhā bhoktā19 viśuddhe paramātmani | kāmaḥ krodho bhayaṃ cintā lobho moho mado rujāḥ° | 15 | 20 jarā mṛtyuś ca kārpaṇyaṃ śoko nidrā kṣudhā tṛṣā |21 dveṣo lajjā sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ viṣādo harṣa eva ca | 16 |22 jāgrat svapnaḥ suṣuptiś ca śaṅkā garvas tathaiva ca | ebhir doṣair vinirmuktaḥ sa jīvaḥ śiva eva hi | 17 |223 tasmād doṣavināśārtham upāyaṃ kathayāmi te | jñānaṃ kecid vadanty atra kevalaṃ tan na siddhaye | 18 |24 yogahīnaṃ kathaṃ jñānaṃ mokṣadaṃ bhavatīśvari |25 yogo 'pi jñānahīnas tu na kṣamo mokṣakarmaṇi | 19 | devy uvāca: ajñānād eva saṃsāro jñāṇād eva vimucyate | yogenaiṣāṃ tu kiṃ kāryaṃ me prasannagirā vada | 20 | īśvara uvāca: satyam etat tvayoktaṃ te kathayāmi sureśvari | jñānasvarūpam evādau jñeyaṃ jñānaṃ ca sādhanam | 21 |26 ajñānaṃ kīdṛśaṃ ceti pravicāryaṃ vivekinā | jñātaṃ yena nijaṃ rūpaṃ kaivalyaṃ paramaṃ śivam | 22 |27 asau doṣair vimuktaḥ kiṃ kāmakrodhabhayādibhiḥ | sarvadoṣair vṛtto jīvaḥ kathaṃ jñānena mucyate | 23 |28 devy uvāca: svātmarūpaṃ yadā jñātaṃ pūrṇaṃ tad vyāpakaṃ tadā |29 kāmakrodhādidoṣāṇāṃ svarūpān nāsti bhinnatā | 24 | paścāt tasya vidhiḥ kaścin niṣedho 'pi kathaṃ bhavet |30 vivekī sarvadā muktaḥ saṃsārabhramavarjitaḥ | 25 | īśvara uvāca: paripūrṇasvarūpaṃ tat satyam etad varānane | sakalaṃ niṣkalaṃ caiva pūrṇatvāc ca tad eva hi | 26 |31 kalanāsphūrtirūpeṇā saṃsārabhramatāṃ gatam | etad rūpaṃ samāyātaṃ tat kathaṃ mohasāgare | 27 |32 niṣkalaṃ nirmalaṃ sākṣāt svarūpaṃ33 gaganopamam | utpattisthitisaṃhārasphūrtijñānavivarjitam | 28 | nimajjati varārohe34 tyaktvā vidyāṃ35 punaḥ punaḥ | sukhaduḥkhādimoheṣu yathā saṃsāriṇāṃ sthitiḥ | 29 | tathā jñānī yadā tiṣṭhed vāsanāvāsitas tadā | tayor nāsti viśeṣo 'tra samā saṃsārabhāvanā | 30 | jñānaṃ ced īdṛśaṃ jñātam ajñānaṃ36 kīdṛśa punaḥ | jñānaniṣṭho virakto 'pi dharmajño vijitendriyaḥ | 31 | vinā yogena devo 'pi no mokṣaṃ labhate priye | 32 |37 devy uvāca: anyat kiñcit parijñeyaṃ jñānināṃ nāsti śaṅkara | viraktātmakaniṣṭhānāṃ kathaṃ mokṣo bhaven na tu | 33 | īśvara uvāca: apakvāḥ paripakvāś ca dvividhāḥ dehinaḥ smṛtāḥ |38 apakvā yogahīnās tu pakvā yogena dehinaḥ | 34 | pakvo39 yogāgninā40 dehī hy ajaḍaḥ śokavarjitaḥ | jaḍas tat pārthivo jñeyo hy apakvo duḥkhado bhavet | 35 |41 dhyānastho 'sau tathāpy evam indriyair vivaśo bhavet | atigāḍhaṃ niyamyāpi tathāpy anyaiḥ prabodhyate | 36 |42 śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkhādyair vyādhibhir mānavais43 tathā | anyair nānāvidhair jīvaiḥ śastrāgnijalamārutaiḥ | 37 | sarīraṁ pīḍyate cāsya44 cittaṃ saṃkṣubhyate tataḥ | prāṇāpānavipattau tu kṣobham āyāti mārutaḥ | 38 |45 tato duḥkhaśatair vyāptaṃ cittaṃ lubdhaṃ bhaven nṛṇām | 39 |46 dehāvasānasamaye citte yad yad vibhāvayed | tat tad eva bhavej jīva ity evaṃ janmakāraṇam | 40 | dehānte kiṃ bhavej janma tan na jānanti mānavāḥ | tasmaj jñānaṃ na vairāgyaṃ japaḥ syāt kevalaḥ śramaḥ47 | 41 | pipīlikā yadā lagnā dehe dhyānād vimucyate | asau kiṃ vṛścikair daṣṭo48 dehānte vā kathaṃ49 sukhī | 42 | tasmān mūḍhā na jānanti mithyā tarkeṇa veṣṭitāḥ | 43 | ahaṅkṛtir yadā yasya naṣṭā bhavati tasya vai | dehaḥ sa tu bhaven naṣṭo vyādhayas tasya kiṃ punaḥ | 44 |50 jalāgniśastraghātādibādhā51 kasya bhaviṣyati | yathā yathā parikṣīṇā puṣṭā cāhaṅkṛtir bhavet | 45 |52 abhyāsenāsya naśyanti pravartante śamādayaḥ |53 kāraṇena vinā kāryaṃ na kadācana vidyate | 46 | ahaṅkāraṃ vinā tadvad dehe duḥkhaṃ kathaṃ bhavet | 47 | devy uvāca: yoginaḥ kathyamānās tu kiṃ te vyavaharanti na | taiḥ kathaṃ vyavahāras tu kriyate vada śaṅkara | 48 | īśvara uvāca: śarīreṇa jitāḥ sarve śarīraṃ yogibhir jitam | tat kathaṃ kurute teṣāṃ sukhaduḥkhādikaṃ phalam | 49 | indriyāṇi mano buddhiḥ kāmakrodhādikaṃ jitam | tenaiva vijitaṃ sarvaṃ nāsau kenāpi bādhyate | 50 | mahābhūtāni tattvāni saṃhṛtāni krameṇa ca |54 saptadhātumayo deho dagdho yogāgninā śanaiḥ | 51 |55 devair api na labhyeta56 yogadeho mahābalaḥ | chedabandhavimukto57 'sau nānāśaktidharaḥ paraḥ | 52 | yathākāśas tathā deha ākāśād api nirmalaḥ | sūkṣmāt sūkṣmataro dehaḥ sthūlat sthūlo jaḍāj jaḍaḥ | 53 |58 icchārūpo hi yogīndraḥ svatantras tv ajarāmaraḥ | krīḍati59 triṣu lokeṣu līlayā yatra kutracit | 54 | acintyaśaktimān yogī nānārūpāṇi dhārayet60 | saṃharec ca punas tāni svecchayā vijitendriyaḥ | 55 | maraṇaṃ tasya kiṃ devi pṛcchasīndusamānane | nāsau maraṇam āpnoti punar yogabalena tu | 56 | puraiva61 mṛta evāsau mṛtasya maraṇaṃ kutaḥ | maraṇaṃ yatra sarveṣāṃ tatrāsau sukhi jīvati | 57 |62 yatra jīvanti mūḍās tu tatrāsau mriyate sadā |63 kartavyaṃ naiva tasyāsti kṛtenāsau na lipyate | 58 | jīvanmuktaḥ sadā svasthaḥ64 sarvadoṣavivarjitaḥ | 59 | viraktā jñāninaś cānte65 dehena vijitāḥ sadā | te kathaṃ yogibhis tulyā māṃsapiṇḍāḥ kudehinaḥ | 60 | devy uvāca: jñāninas tu mṛtā ye vai66 teṣāṁ bhavati kīdṛśī | gatiḥ kathaya deveśa kāruṇyāmṛtavāridhe | 61 | īśvara uvāca: dehānte jñānibhiḥ67 puṇyāt pāpāc ca phalam āpyate | yādṛśaṃ tu bhavet tatra bhuktvā jñānī punar bhavet | 62 |68 puṇyāt69 puṇyena labhate siddhena saha saṅgatim | tataḥ siddhasya kṛpayā yogī bhavati nānyathā | 63 | tato naśyati saṃsāro nānyathā śivabhāṣitam | 64 | mahāviṣṇumaheśānāṃ pralayeṣv api yoginām | nāsti pāto layasthānāṃ mahātattve vivartinām | 65 | vedāntatarkoktibhir āgamaiś ca nānāvidhaiḥ śāstrakadambakaiś ca | dhyānādibhiḥ satkaraṇair na gamyaṃ cintāmaṇiṃ tv ekaguruṃ vihāya | 66 | devy uvāca: jñānād eva hi mokṣaṃ tu vadanti jñāninaḥ sadā | na kathaṃ sidhyati tato yogo 'sau mokṣado bhavet | 67 |70 īśvara uvāca: jñānenaiva hi mokṣo hi vākyaṃ teṣāntu nānyathā | sarve vadanti khaḍgena jayo bhavati tarhi kaḥ | 68 |71 vinā yuddhena vīryeṇa kathaṃ jayam avāpnuyāt | tathā yogena rahitaṃ jñānaṃ mokṣāya no bhavet | 69 | jñānenaiva vinā yogo na sidhyati kadācana | tasmād atra varārohe tayor bhedo na vidyate | 70 | janmāntaraiś ca bahubhir yogo jñānena labhyate | jñānaṃ tu janmanaikena yogād eva prajāyate | 71 tasmād yogāt parataro nāsti mārgas tu mokṣadaḥ | 72 | devy uvāca: bahubhir janmabhir jñānād yogaḥ samprāpyate katham | yogāt tu janmanaikena kathaṃ jñānam avāpyate | 73 | īśvara uvāca: pravicārya ciraṃ jñānān72 mukto 'ham iti manyate | kim asau mananād eva mukto bhavati tat kṣaṇāt | 74 | pumañ73 janmāntaraśatair yogād eva vimucyate | na tathā bhavato yogāj janmamṛtyū punaḥ punaḥ | 75 | prāṇāpānasamāyogāc candrasūryaikatā bhavet | saptadhātumayaṃ deham agninā pradahed budhaḥ | 76 |74 vyādhayas tasya naśyanti chedaghātādikā vyathāḥ |75 tathā 'sau paramākāśarūpo dehy avatiṣṭhate | 77 |76 kiṃ punar bahunoktena maraṇaṃ nāsti tasya vai | deho 'vadṛśyate loke dagdhakarpaṭavat svayam | 78 |77 cittaṃ prāṇena saṃnaddhaṃ sarvajīveṣu saṃsthitam |78 rajjur yadvat parībaddhā rajjvāº tadvad idaṃ manaḥ | 79 |79 nānā vidhair vicārais tu na sādhyaṃ80 jāyate manaḥ | tasmāt tasya jayopāyaḥ prāṇa eva hi nānyathā | 80 | tarkair jalpaiḥ śāstrajālair yuktibhir mantrabheṣajaiḥ | na vaśo jāyate prāṇaḥ siddhopāyaṃ vinā priye81 | 81 | upāyaṃ tasya vijñāya82 yogamārgo pravartate | khaṇḍajñānena tenaiva jāyate kleśabhāṅ naraḥ | 82 |83 ye 'jitvā pavanaṃ mohād yogam icchanti yoginaḥ |84 te 'pakvaṃ kumbham āruhya tartum icchanti sāgaram | 83 |85 yasya prāṇo vilīno 'tha sādhake sati jīvite |86 piṇḍo na patitas tasya cittadoṣaiḥ pramucyate | 84 |87 śuddhe cetasi tasyaiva svātmajñānaṃ prakāśate | tasmāj jñānaṃ88 bhaved yogāj janmanaikena pārvati89 | 85 | tasmād yogaṃ tam evādau sādhako nityam abhyaset | mumukṣubhiḥ prāṇajayaḥ kartavyo mokṣahetave | 86 | yogāt parataraṃ puṇyaṃ yogāt parataraṃ sukham | yogāt parataraṃ sūkṣmaṃ yogamārgāt paraṃ na hi | 87 |90 devy uvāca: yogaḥ ka ucyate deva yogābhyāso 'pi kīdṛśaḥ | yogena vā bhavet kiñcit91 tat sarvaṃ vada śaṅkara | 88 | īśvara uvāca: yo 'pānaprāṇayor yogaḥ svarajoretasos tathā |92 sūryācandramasor93 yogo jīvātmaparamātmanoḥ | 89 | evaṃ tu dvandajālasya saṃyogo yoga ucyate | adhunā saṃpravakṣyāmi yogābhyāsasya lakṣaṇām | 90 | marujjayo yasya siddhaḥ94 sevayet taṃ guruṃ sadā | guruvaktraprasādena kuryāt prāṇajayaṃ budhaḥ | 91 | vitastipramitaṃ dairghyaṃ95 vistāre caturaṅgulam |96 mṛdulaṃ dhavalaṃ proktaṃ veṣṭanāmbaralakṣaṇam | 92 | nirudhya mārutaṃ gāḍhaṃ śakticālanayuktitaḥ | aṣṭadhā kuṇḍalībhūtām ṛjuṃ kartuṃ tu kuṇḍalīm | 93 |97 bhānor ākuñcanaṃ kuryāt kuṇḍalīṃ cālayet tataḥ | 98 mṛtyuvaktragatasyāpi tasya mṛtyubhayaṃ kutaḥ | 94 | etad eva paraṃ guhyaṃ kathitaṃ tava pārvati |99 vajrāsanagato nityaṃ māsārdhaṃ tu samabhyaset | 95 |100 vāyunā jvalito vahniḥ kuṇḍalīm aniśaṃ dahet | saṃtaptā sāgninā nāḍī śaktis trailokyamohinī | 96 |101 praviśed vajradaṇḍe102 tu suṣumṇāvadanāntare | vayunā vahninā sārdhaṃ brahmagranthiṃ bhinatti sā | 97 | viṣṇugranthiṃ tato bhittvā rudragranthau ca tiṣṭhati | tatas tu kumbhakair gāḍḥaṃ pūrayitvā punaḥ punaḥ | 98 |103 tathā104 'bhyaset sūryabhedam ujjāyīṃ cāpi śītalīm | bhastrāṃ ca sahitaṃ nāma syāt kumbhakacatuṣṭayam | 99 |105 bandhatrayeṇa saṃyuktaḥ kevalaḥ prāptikārakaḥ |106 athāsya lakṣaṇaṃ samyak kathayāmi samāsataḥ | 100 | ekākinā samupagamya viviktadeśaṃ prāṇādirūpam amṛtaṃ107 paramārthatattvam | svalpāśinā dhṛtimatā paribhāvanīyaṃ108 saṃsārarogaharam auṣadham advitīyam | 101 | sūryanāḍyā samākṛṣya vāyum abhyāsayogataḥ |109 vidhivat kumbhakaṃ kṛtvā recayec chītaraśminā | 102 | udare vātadoṣaghnaṃ kaṇṭhadoṣaṃ nihanti ca |110 muhur muhur idaṃ kāryaṃ sūryabhedam udāhṛtam111 | 103 | nāḍībhyāṃ vāyum ākṛṣya kuṇḍalyāḥ pārśvayoḥ sudhīḥ112 | dhārayed udare yogī recayed iḍayā punaḥ | 104 |113 kaṇṭhe kaphādidoṣaghnaṃ śarīrāgnivivardhanam | śirojalodarādhātugatarogavināśanam | 105 |114 gacchatā tiṣṭhatā kāryam ujjāyyākhyaṃ tu kumbhakaṃ |115 mukhena vāyuṃ saṅgṛhya ghrāṇarandhreṇa recayet | 106 | śītalīkaraṇaṃ cedaṃ hanti pittaṃ tathā jvaram | 107 |116 stanayor atha bhastreva117 lohakārasya vegataḥ | recayet pūrayed vāyum āśramaṃ dehagaṃ dhiyā | 108 | yadā śramo bhaved dehe tadā sūryeṇa pūrayet | 109 |118 kaṇṭhasaṃkocanaṃ kṛtvā punaś candreṇa recayet | vātapitttaśleṣmaharaṃ śarīrāgnivivardhanam | 110 | kuṇḍalībodhakaṃ vakrabhāvaghnaṃ sukhadaṃ śubham |119 brahmanāḍīmukhe saṃsthaṃ kaphādyargalanāśanam | 111 |120 samyag gātrasamudbhūtaṃ121 granthitrayavibhedakam | viśeṣenaiva kartavyaṃ bhastrākhyaṃ kumbhakaṃ tv idam | 112 | bandhatrayam athedānīṃ pravakṣyāmi yathārthavat122 | nityaṃ kṛtena yenā 'sau vāyor jayam avāpnuyāt | 113 | caturṇām api bhedānāṃ kumbhake samupasthite | bandhatrayam idaṃ kāryaṃ vakṣyamāṇaṃ mayā sphuṭam123 | 114 | prathamo mūlabandhas tu dvitīya uḍḍiyānakaḥ |124 jālandharas tṛtīyas tu lakṣaṇaṃ kathayāmy aham | 115 | gudaṃ pārṣṇyā tu saṃpīḍya vāyum ākuñcayed balāt | vāraṃ vāraṃ tathā125 cordhaṃ samāyāti samīraṇaḥ | 116 | prāṇāpānau nādabindū mūlabandhena caikatām |126 gatvā yogasya saṃsiddhiṃ yacchato nātra saṃśayaḥ | 117 | kumbhakānte recakādau kartavyas tūḍḍiyānakaḥ |127 baddho yena suṣumṇāyāṃ prāṇas tūḍḍīyate yataḥ128 | 118 | tasmād uḍḍīyāṇākhyo 'yaṃ yogibhiḥ samudāhṛtaḥ | uḍḍīyānaṃ tu sahajaṃ guruṇā kathitaṃ sadā | 119 | abhyaset satataṃ yas tu vṛddho 'pi taruṇāyate | nābher urdhvam adhaś cāpi prāṇaṃ kuryāt prayatnataḥ | 120 | ṣaṇmāsam abhyasen mṛtyuṃ jayaty eva na saṃśayaḥ | pūrakānte 'pi kartavyo bandho jālandharābhidhaḥ | 121 | kaṇṭhasaṃkocarūpo 'sau vāyur mārganirodhakaḥ | kaṇṭham ākuñcya hṛdaye sthāpayed dṛḍham icchayā129 | 122 | bandho jālandharākhyo 'yaṃ amṛto vyayakārakaḥ130 | adhastāt kuñcanenāśu kaṇṭhasaṃkocanena ca131 | 123 | madhyamābhramaṇena132 syāt prāṇo brahmanāḍigaḥ | 124 | vajrāsanasthito yogi cālayitvā tu kuṇḍalīm | kuryād anantaraṃ bhastrāṃ133 kuṇḍalīm āśu bodhayet | 125 | bhidyante granthayo vaṃśe taptalohaśalākayā134 | tathaiva pṛṣṭhavaṃśe syād granthibhedas tu vāyunā135 | 126 | pipīlikā yathā lagnā kaṇḍūs tatra pravartate |136 suṣumṇāyāṃ tathā 'bhyāsāt satataṃ vāyunā bhavet | 127 |137 rudragranthiṃ tato bhittvā saivāyāti śivātmakam |138 candrasūryau samau kṛtvā tayor yogaḥ pravartate | 128 |139 guṇatrayād atītaḥ syād granthitrayavibhedakaḥ |140 śivaśaktisamāyogāj141 jāyate paramā sthitiḥ | 129 | yathā karī kareṇaiva pānīyaṃ prapibet sadā142 | suṣumṇāvaktranalinaṃ pavamānaṃ graset tathā | 130 |143 vajradaṇḍena144 sambhūtā maṇayaś caikaviṃśatiḥ | suṣumṇāyāṃ sthitāḥ sarve sūtre maṇigaṇā iva | 131 | mokṣamārge prasiddhā sā suṣumṇā viśvadhāriṇī |145 yatra vai nirjitaḥ146 kālaś candrasūryanibandhanāt | 132 | āpūrya kumbhito vāyur bahir no yāti sādhakaiḥ147 | 133 | punaḥ punas tadvad etat paścimadvāralakṣaṇam | pūritas tu navadvārair īṣat kumbhakatāṃ gataḥ | 134 |148 praviśet sarvagātreṣu vāyuḥ paścimamārgataḥ | recake kṣīṇatāṃ yāte pūrakaṃ śoṣayet sadā | 135 |149 sa eva nāthasaṃketaḥ siddhasaṃketalakṣaṇaḥ | 136 | guruprasādān marud eva sādhitas150 tenaiva cittaṃ pavanena sādhitam | sa eva yogī sa jitendriyaḥ sukhī | mūḍhā na jānanti kutar kavādinaḥ | 137 | cittaṃ hi naṣṭaṃ yadi mārute syāt151 tatra pratīto maruto 'pi nāśaḥ | na ced idaṃ syān na152 tu tasya śāstraṃ nātmapratītir153 na gurur na mokṣaḥ | 138 | tumbikā rodhitā yadvad balād ākarṣati dhruvam |154 brahmanāḍī tathā dhātūn santatābhyāsayogataḥ | 139 | anenābhyāsayogena nityam āsanabandhataḥ | cittaṃ vilīnatām eti bindur no yāty adhas tathā | 140 | recakaṃ pūrakaṃ kṛtvā vāyunā sthīyate ciram |155 nānānādāḥ pravartante saṃsravec candramaṇḍalam | 141 | naśyanti kṣutpipāsādyāḥ sarvadoṣās tathā sadā | svarūpe saccidānande sthitim āpnoti kevalam | 142 | kathitaṃ tu tava prītyā etad abhyāsalakṣaṇam | mantro haṭho layo rājayogāntarbhūmikāḥ156 kramāt | 143 | eka eva caturdho 'yam mahāyogo 'bhidhīyate | 144 | śrī devy uvāca: kathayedaṃ mahādeva yogatattvaṃ caturvidham | bhūmikāṃ siddhasiddhāntāṃ°157 yathābhūtāṃ kramān mama | 145 | īśvara uvāca: hakāreṇa bahir yāti sakāreṇa viśen marut158 | haṃsa haṃseti mantro 'yam sarvajīvā japanti tam | 146 |159 guruvākyāt suṣumṇāyāṃ viparīto bhavej japaḥ | so 'haṃ so 'ham iti prāpto160 mantrayogaḥ sa ucyate | 147 | pratītir vāyuyogāc ca jāyate paścime pathi | hakāreṇa tu sūryo 'sau ṭhakāreṇendur ucyate | 148 |161 sūryācandramasor aikyaṃ haṭha ity abhidīyate |162 haṭhena grasyate163 jāḍyaṃ sarvadoṣasamudbhavam | 149 | kṣetrajñaparamātmānau tayor aikyaṃ yadā bhavet |164 tadaikye sādhite devi165 cittaṃ yāti vilīnatām | 150 | pavanaḥ sthairyam āyāti layayogodaye sati | layāt samprāpyate saukhyaṃ svātmānandaṃ paraṃ padam | 151 | aṇimādipade prāpte rājate rājayogataḥ |166 prāṇāpānasamāyoge jñeyaṃ yogacatuṣṭayam | saṃkṣepāt kathitaṃ devi167 nānyathā śivabhāṣitam | 152 | śrī devy uvāca: kathaya tvaṃ mahādeva kākamarkaṭayor matam | anyagranthe tvayoktaṃ tu katham168 ekā dvayor gatiḥ | 153 | īśvara uvāca: satyam etat tvayoktaṃ te kathayāmi sureśvari | ādināthamahāmārga eka eva hi nānyathā | 154 | dvidheva sampratīyeta taj janmāntarabhedataḥ169 | 155 | krameṇa prāpyate prāpyam abhyāsād170 eva nānyathā | 156 | ekenaiva śarīreṇa yogābhyāsāc171 chanaiḥ śanaiḥ | cirāt samprāpyate siddhir°172 markaṭakrama eva saḥ | 157 | yogasiddhiṃ vinā dehaḥ pramādād yadi naśyati173 | pūrvavāsanayā yuktaḥ śarīraṃ cānyad āpnuyāt | 158 | tataḥ puṇyavaśāt siddhir guruṇā saha saṅgatiḥ |174 paścimadvāramārgeṇa jāyate tvaritaṃ phalam | 159 | pūrvajanmakṛtābhyāsāt satvaraṃ phalam aśnute | etad eva hi vijñeyaṃ tat kākamatam ucyate | 160 | tasmāt kākamatān nāsti175 tv abhyāsākhyamataḥ param | na karmaṇā vinā devi yogasiddhiḥ prajāyate | 161 | jñānaṃ vā svargabhogo vā puṇyahīnair na labhyate | tasmāt kāryaṃ tad evaṃ yad yasya yasya hi sādhanam | 162 | tenaiva prāpyate siddhir176 nānyathā śivabhāṣitam | nānāvidhāḥ kramāḥ kāṣṭhāḥ sahajā vā layādikāḥ | 177 na tu tan mokṣamārge syāt prasiddhaṃ paścimaṃ vinā | 163 |178 abhyāsasya phalaṃ devi kathayāmy adhunā sphuṭam | ādau rogāḥ praṇaśyanti paścāj jāḍyaṃ śarīrajam179 | 164 | tataḥ samaraso bhūtvā candro varṣaty anāratam | dhātūṃś ca180 saṃgrased vahniḥ pavanena samantataḥ | 165 | nānānādāḥ pravartante mārdavaṃ syāt kalevare181 | 166 | jitvā pṛthvyādikaṃ jāḍyaṃ khecaraḥ prasaret pumān |182 sarvajño183 'sau bhavet kāmarūpaḥ pavanavegavān | 167 | krīḍati184 triṣu lokeṣu jāyante siddhayo 'khilāḥ | karpūre līyamāne kiṃ185 kāṭhinyaṃ tatra vidyate | 168 | ahaṅkāralaye tatra186 dehe kaṭhinatā kutaḥ | sarvajñaḥ sarvakartā ca svatantro viśvarūpavān | 169 |187 jīvanmukto bhaved yogī svecchayā bhuvane bhramet | 170 |188 śrī devy uvāca: yat kiñcit kalanājālaṃ189 na tan mokṣāya śaṅkara | siddhayaḥ kiṃ kariṣyanti nirvikalpe cidātmani | 171 | evaṃ me saṃśayaṃ nātha190 chettum arhasi pāvana191 | 172 | īśvara uvāca: satyam etat tvayoktaṃ te vadāmi śṛṇu sundari192 | dvividhāḥ siddhayo loke193 kalpitākalpitāḥ śive194 | 173 | rasauṣadhikriyākālamantrakṣetrādisādhanāt |195 siddhyanti siddhayo yās tu kalpitās tāḥ prakīrtitāḥ | 174 | anityā alpavīryās tāḥ siddhayaḥ sādhanodbhavāḥ | sādhanena vināpyevaṃ jāyante svata eva hi | 175 | svātmayogaikaniṣṭhe tu svātantryād īśvaras tataḥ |196 prabhūtāḥ siddhayo yās tāḥ kalpanārahitāḥ smṛtāḥ | 176 | siddhā nityā mahāvīryā icchārūpāś ca yogajāḥ |197 cirakālāt prajāyante vāsanārahiteṣu ca | 177 | tāḥ śubhā yā198 mahāyogāt paramātmapade 'vyaye | vinā kāryaṃ sadā dīptaṃ° yogasiddhasya lakṣaṇam | 178 |199 yathā kāśīṃ200 samudṛśya gacchadbhiḥ pathikaiḥ pathi | nānātīrthāni dṛśyante tathā mokṣe tu siddhayaḥ | 179 |201 svayam eva prajāyante lābhālābhavivarjite | yogamārge tathaivedaṃ siddhijālaṃ pravartate | 180 | parīkṣakaiḥ svarṇakārair hema samprocyate yathā | siddhibhir lakṣayet siddhaṃ jīvanmuktaṃ tathaiva ca | 181 | alaukikaguṇas tasya kadācid dṛsyate dhruvam | ity etat kathitaṃ devi yogasiddhasya lakṣaṇam202 | 182 | siddhibhiḥ parihīnaṃ tu naraṃ baddhaṃ hi lakṣayet203 | ajarāmarapiṇḍo yo jīvanmuktaḥ sa eva hi | 183 | ye śvakukkuṭakīṭādyā204 mṛtiṃ samprāpnuvanti te | teṣāṃ kiṃ piṇḍapātena muktir bhavati sundari205 | 184 | na bahiḥ prāṇa āyāti piṇḍasya patanaṃ kutaḥ | piṇḍapātena yā muktiḥ sā muktis tu na kathyate | 185 |206 deho brahmatvam āyāti207 jalatāṃ saindhavaṃ yathā | ananyatāṃ yadā yāti tadā muktaḥ sa ucyate | 186 | cinmayāni śarīrāṇi indriyāṇi tathaiva ca | ananyatāṃ yadā yāti208 tadā muktaḥ sa ucyate | 187 | etat te kathitaṃ devi tava prītyā sureśvari | gopanīyaṃ prayatnena krūre dhūrtte śaṭhe khale | 188 | dātavyaṃ śivabhakteṣu nāthamārgapareṣu209 ca | yogabījaṃ mahāguhyaṃ210 yan mayā prakaṭīkṛtam | 189 | śrī devy uvāca: gato me saṃśayo nātha kṛpayā tava śaṅkara | namas te yogarājāya sarvajñāya namo namaḥ | 190 | iti śrīmaheśvarāparaparyāyabhagavad gorakṣanāthod bhāvitayogabījaṃ pūrṇam ||
APPENDIX

A. Verses only in D

dehāvasānam athavā teṣāṃ bhavati kīdṛśam /46 ab/

ati guhyaṃ ca saṃketaṃ tava prītyā prakāśitam // 157* //

jīvaḥ kṣetra iti khyātaḥ kṣetrajñaḥ parameśvaraḥ /

kṣetrakṣetrajñayor aikyaṃ layayogo 'bhidhīyate // 142*//

yayā brahmatvam āpannaṃ yathaivājyaghanatvavat / 189cd* //

B. Verses only in D and M

yonimadhye mahākṣetre japābandhūkasannibham / D 144ab* =M 136ab /

rajo vasati jantūnāṃ devītattvaṃ samāvṛitam // D 144cd*=M 137ab /

rajaso retaso yogāt rājayoga iti smṛtaḥ / D 145ab*=M 137cd /

C. Verses only in M211

yatraiva jātam sakalebaraṃ manas

tatraiva līnaṃ kurute sa yogāt /

sa eva mukto nirahaṃkṛtiḥ sukhī

mūḍā na jānanti hi piṇḍapātinaḥ // 123 //

brahma dehatvam āpannaṃ vāri buṭbudatām iva /165ab//

Notes

1 For a similar, difficult case concerning rajvī, see Kubjikāmatatantra 18.116, where the word is construed as ṛjvī (Goudriaan & Schoterman 1988, p. 368). Although this option doesn't seem relevant for YB §79cd, it is worth mentioning. I thank Óscar Figueroa for pointing it to me.

2 It should be noted that "it is often difficult to distinguish inaccuracies, mistakes, scribal errors or by whatever term one may wish to call them, from what should be admitted into the grammar of Tantric Sanskrit as real sandhi features" (Goudriaan & Schoterman 1988, p. 52).

3 3ab only in G.

4 G 3cd=D 3ab.

5 G1: sarveṃ

6 G: māyājālenaveṣṭhitā; D & M: māyājālena veṣṭhitāḥ

7 M 2a: -karaṃ mārgaṃ / G 6b: -nikṛntanaḥ; D 5b: -nikṛntakaḥ; M 1.2b: -nikṛntanam

8 D 5d: -nāśakaḥ sukhado vada; M 2d: -nāśanaṃ sukhadaṃ vada

9 G1 7b: nāthamārgaṃgataḥ

10 G1 7d: protyā / G2 7d & D 7d: prītyā

11 G1 8b : param padam / G 8d & D 8b & M 3d: paramaṃ padam

12 M 4b: labhate / D 8d: śivabhāṣiyam; M 4b: padmasaṃbhava

13 G 9a: -saṃkhyākais / G 9d: prajñayā te vimohitāḥ; D 9d: prajñayā 'to vimohitāḥ; M 4b: prajñayā tena mohitāḥ

14 G2 10b: śakyataṃ; D 10ab: anirvācyaṃ padaṃ... śakyate na / D 10d: prakāśate

15 D 11a & M 5c: niṣkalaṃ / D 11c & M 11a: tad eva

16 D 12 a: paramātmapadāt / M 7b: kathayeśvara

17 M 8a: vāyuvat sphuritaṃ / G 13b: ahaṅkāra

18 D14c: sadāyuktaṃ; M 9a: samāyuktaṃ / M 14b: -bhāvanayā kuru

19 D 15a & M 9c: proktā

20 G1 15d: bhaya lobhamohamadā rujaḥ; G2 15d: bhayaś cintālobhamohamadaḥ; D 15d: lobho moho mado rujaḥ; M 10ab: kāmakrodhabhayaṃ cāpi mohalobhamatho rajaḥ

21 M 10cd: janma...śokas tandrā

22 M 11a: tṛṣṇā lajjā bhayaṃ duḥkhaṃ

23 M 11d: śiva ucyate

24 D 18d: tatra siddhaye

25 M 13b: bhavatīha bho

26 M 14d:jñānaikasādhanam

27 G1 22b: pravicārya / M 15b: mumukṣuṇā / M 15d: paramaṃ padam

28 M 16a: vinirmuktaḥ / D 13c: sarvair doṣair

29 G 14ab: yadā...tathā; D 14ab: yadā...tadā; M 17ab: yathā...tathā

30 D 25a: kiñ ca; M 28a: kiṃ na

31 M 19b: satyaṃ kamalasaṃbhava / D 16d: pūrṇatā tu

32 M 20a: kalinā / D 27cd: rūpaḥ samāyataḥ sa; M 21cd: rūpaṃ samāyataḥ sa

33 M 20d: sakalaṃ

34 M 22a: mahābāho

35 D 29b: vidhiṃ

36 G1 31ab: jātam ajñāna; G2 31ab & D 31ab: jātam ajñānaṃ

37 M 25ab: vinā deho 'pi yogena na mokṣaṃ labhate vidhe

38 M 26b: dehino dvividhāḥ

39 M 26c: sarvo

40 G 35a: yogāgniā

41 G 35cd: jaḍas tat... jñeyaś ca; D 35cd & M 27ab: jaḍas tu... jñeyo hy

42 D 36cd: nātigāḍaṃ nipatyāpi...pravāpyate; M 28ab: tāni gāḍaṃ niyāmyāpi... prabādhyate

43 M 28d: mānasais

44 G 29c: tais taiś

45 M 30a: tathā prāṇavipattau

46 D 38d: saṃkṣubhyate nṝṇām; M 30d: kṣubdhaṃ bhaven nṛṇām

47 D 40d: kevalaṃ bhramaḥ; M 32d: kevalaṃ śramaḥ

48 G 42c: daṣṭā; D 41c: daṣṭau

49 D 41d: bhavet

50 D 42cd: dehaḥ svayaṃ...viṣayais teṣāṃ ca...; M 35ab: dehas tv api...vyādhayaś cāsya..

51 G1 45a: -āgniśāstraghātā-; D 42e: -ādiśastraghātā-; M 35a: -āgniśastrakhātā-

52 G 45a: yathā yathā pariśchinnā; D 43a: yathā yathā parikṣīṇā; M 36a: yadā yadā parikṣīṇā

53 M 36cd: tam anenāsya...rugādayaḥ

54 G 51b: sambhūtāni krameṇa tu; D 50b: saṃgṛhītāni ca kramāt; M 40b: saṃhṛtāni krameṇa ca

55 D 50cd: -maye dehe dagdhe

56 M 41 ab: lakṣyeta yogideho

57 D 51c: deha-; M 41c: bhedabandhavinirmukto

58 M 42cd: dṛśyaḥ sthulāsthulo jaḍājaḍaḥ

59 M 43c: krīḍate

60 G 55b: dhārayan

61 M 45c: haṭhena

62 G 57d: sakhi; M 46a: parijīvati

63 D 57b: mriyate tadā; 46b: mṛta eva vai

64 M 47c: svacchaḥ

65 D 58c: cātha; M 48a: cānye

66 D 59a: mṛtā eva

67 G 62a: jñāninaḥ

68 M 49c: īdṛśaṃ tu bhavet tat tad / G 62d: mukto jñānī

69 M 50a: paścāt

70 G 67b: vadati...sadā; D 63b: vadanti...tadā / D 63d: yogaś ca

71 D 64a: mokṣo 'sti; 64c: khaṅgena

72 M 54a: jñānaṃ; D 67ab jñānād yogaḥ samprāpyate katham

73 M 55a: paścāt

74 D 70d: jārayed; M 56D: rañjayed dhruvam

75 D 71b & M 57d: kā kathā

76 M 57cd: tad asau...avatiṣṭhati

77 D 72c: dehaś ca dṛśyate; M 58cd: dehavid dṛśyate...-karpūravat

78 D 73a: ciraṃ prāṇanasambandhaḥ; M 59a: saṃbaddhaṃ

79 G 79cd: rajjau yadvat parībaddhā rajvī tadvad ime mate; D 73cd: rajjuḥ yadvat parībaddhā rajvī tadvad idaṃ matam; M 59cd: rajjvā yadvat susaṃbaddhaḥ pakṣī tadvad idaṃ manaḥ. For waverings between -ā and -ī, see Goudriaan & Schoterman 1988, p. 68.

80 M 70b: bādhyaṃ

81 M 61d: vidhe

82 D 76a & M 62a: tam avijñāya

83 M 62cd: sahasā jāyate kleśavat taraḥ

84 D 77ab: yo...icchati yoginaḥ; M 63ab: yo...icchati yoginām

85 D 77cd & M 63cd: so...sāgaraṃ tartum icchati

86 G 84ab: vilīyante...sati jīvati; D 78ab: vilīno 'tha...jīvite sati; M 64ab: vilīno 'ntaḥ...jīvite sati

87 G 84d & M64D: cittaṃ; D 78cd: piṇḍaṃ...patitaṃ; M 64cd: piṇḍo...patitas... cittaṃ doṣaiḥ prabādhate

88 D 79c: hānaṃ

89 M 65d: padmaja

90 D 81b: sthiram; M 67b: śivam / D 81d & M 67d: yogāt parataraṃ na hi

91 D 82b: kiñca

92 M 68ab: aikyaṃ rajaso retasas

93 D 83c: sūryacandra

94 G 91a: siddhayet; D 85c: siddho

95 M 81a: dairdhyaṃ

96 G 92b: vistare; M 81b: caturaṅgulavistṛtam

97 G 93cd & D 87d: ṛjuṃ kartuṃ tu kuṇḍalīm; M 82d: ṛjvīṃ kuryāt tu kuṇḍalīm

98 M 83 ab: panor...tadā

99 D 89b & M 84b: tu mayā tava

100 M 84d: ūrdhvākuñcanam abhyaset

101 D 91a: saptamāsāgninā jīva-; M 85b: saṃtaptā sāgninā jīvā

102 M 86a: candradaṇḍe

103 G 98c: kumbhake gāḍe; D 93a: gārḍiṃ

104 M 88a: athā

105 D 93ef: bhastrī ca sahito...catuṣṭaya kumbhakam; M 88cd: bhastrāṃ sahito... catuṣṭayakumbhakaḥ

106 D 94b & M 89b: kevalaprāpti-

107 D 95b: apṛtaṃ

108 D 95c: ladhvāsinā...paribhāvitavyam; M 89c: ladhvāśinā...paribhāvitavyam

109 D 96b & M 91B: abhyāsayoginā

110 M 92ab: udare bahurogāghnaṃ krimidoṣaṃ hihanti ca

111 G 103d: uttamam

112 D 98b: naraḥ; M 93b: kṣipet

113 D 98cd: pūrayed udare so 'pi recayed iḍayā sudhīḥ; M 93cd: dhārayed udare paścāt recayed iḍayā sudhīḥ

114 D 99c: śiro jalodarān dhātu-; M 94b: nāḍījalāpahaṃ dhātu-

115 G 106b: ujjāyākhyas tu kumbhakaḥ; D 99ef: gacchataḥ tiṣṭhataḥ...ujjāyyākhyaṃ tu kumbhakam; M 95ab: gacchatas tiṣṭhataḥ...ujjāyyākhyaṃ tu kumbhakam

116 M 96b: kṣudhāṃ tṛṣam

117 G 108a: bhastreṇa

118 D 102ab & m 97cd: yathā...tathā

119 D 103 cd: cakraṃ bhāvaghnaṃ; M 99ab: vaktradoṣaghnaṃ śubhadaṃ sukham

120 G 111cd: brahmanāḍīmukhesaṃsthakaphādyargalanāśanam; M 99cd: brahmanāḍī mukhāntaḥsthakaphādyargalanāśanam

121 M 100a: bandhasamudbhūtaṃ

122 D 106b: yathārthataḥ; M 101b: yathākramam

123 M 102d: hi tat

124 D 108b: dvitīyas tūḍḍiyāṇakaḥ; M 103b: dvitīyoḍḍīyaṇābhidhaḥ

125 M 104c: yathā

126 G 117a: prāṇāpānaṃ nādavinduḥ

127 G 118a: kumbhakādau recakānte

128 G 118d: tataḥ, D 111d: tathā

129 D 115b: dṛḍhaniścayaḥ

130 G2 123b: amṛtāvyayakārakaḥ; D 115d: amṛtavyayakārakaḥ; M 111b: amṛtāpyāyakārakaḥ

131 M 111d: saṃkocane kṛte

132 D115c & M 112a: madhye maścimatāṇena

133 D 118c & M 113a: bhastrīṃ

134 D 119ab: bhidyante granthayaś cāsya tadā loha-

135 D 119d: vā punaḥ

136 D 120b: prajāyate / M 114c: pipīlikāyāṃ lagnāyāṃ

137 D 121a & M 115a: suṣumnāyāṃ / D 121b: vā punar bhavet

138 G1 128b: śivātkam / D 122b: saivāyāti; M 115d: tato yāti

139 D 123ab: samaṃ... tato yogaḥ

140 D 124 a: -atītasya / M 116ab: guṇatrayaṃ atītaṃ syād granthitrayavibhedanāt

141 M 117a: samāyoge

142 G 130b: tathā

143 M 118a: suṣumnāvajranālena / D 127b: yatamānaṃ / G 130d: sadā

144 D 128a: vajradaṇḍe tu; M 118b: vajradaṇḍasaṃbhutā

145 M 119cd: pratiṣṭhānā...viṣvarūpiṇī

146 D 130a: yatraiva / M 120a: yathaiva niścitaḥ

147 D 131b & M 120d: sādhake

148 M 121c: ...tu sa tad dvārai / D 154b*: gatam

149 M 122 cd: recitaḥ...yāti ... pūritaḥ poṣayet tataḥ / D 155d*: yadā

150 D 158ª*: sādhyate

151 M 124a: ...vinaṣṭaṃ yadi bhāsitaṃ...

152 D 161a*: na ced yadi syād natu / M 124c: na ced yadi

153 D 161b*: nātmānam eti

154 D 162a*: rudhiraṃ / M 125ab: jambhoko rudhiraṃ... ākṛṣyati svayam

155 M 127ab: muktvā...sthiram

156 D 171b*: -yogas tad / M 129b: -yogāntā

157 D 174a*: bhūmikā śāstrasāreṇa; G 145c siddhasiddhāntānāṃ

158 D 175b* & M 130d: punaḥ

159 D 176b*: jīvo japati sarvadā / M 131b: sarvair jīvaiś ca japyate

160 M 132a: yaḥ syān

161 M 133ab: sūryaḥ syāt sakāreṇendur

162 G 149ab: yogād haṭhayogo 'bhidīyate

163 M 134a: gṛhyate

164 M 134cd: kṣetrajñaḥ paramātmā ca...yadā

165 M 135a: brahmaṃś

166 D 145c* & M 138a: aṇimādipadaṃ prāpya

167 M 139a: brahman

168 G 153d: ekam

169 D 149b*: janmāntaravibhedataḥ

170 G 156a: prāṇo so 'bhyāsād

171 D 150b*: yogābhyāsaiḥ

172 G 157c & D 150c*: siddhiḥ; M 140c: muktir

173 G 158b: pramādādhi vinaśyati

174 D 152ab* & M 142ab: siddho...saṅgataḥ

175 M 144a : nāsti kākamatād anyad

176 M 144c: muktir

177 D 156cd*: nānāvidyāḥ...sahajaṃ...layādikam / M 145ab: haṭhayogakramāt kāṣṭhā saha jīvalayādikam

178 D 156e*: mokṣamārgaṃ / M 145c: nākṛtaṃ mokṣamārgaṃ

179 G 164d: śarīragam

180 G 165c: dhātuṃ sva

181 M 157d: kalebaram

182 D 159d*: khecaran prasaren naraḥ / M 148cd: vṛṣṭyādikaṃ...khecaraḥ saḥ bhaven naraḥ

183 D 160a: sarvato

184 D 160c* & M 149a: krīḍate

185 D 161a*: hi

186 D 161c*: ahaṃkārajaye tadvad / M 150a: ahaṃkārakṣaye tadvad

187 M 150c: yogīndraḥ svatantro 'nantarūpavān

188 D 162cd* & M 151ab: mahāyogī jāyate nātra saṃśayaḥ

189 D 163a*: kalpanā jālaṃ

190 G 172a: nāthac

191 D 164d*: bhāvana

192 D 165b*: surasundari

193 D 165c*: yās tu

194 M 151d: tathā

195 M 152a:-kriyājālamantra-

196 D 168ab* & M 154ab: -niṣṭheṣu... -īśvarapriyāḥ

197 M 155b: icchārūpāḥ svayogajāḥ

198 D 170a*: tāsu cānyā / M 156a: tās tu gopyā

199 G 178cd: dīptā yogasiddhasya/ M 156cd: guptaṃ yogasiddhasya / D 170cd*: dīptam etat siddhasya

200 M 157a: yathākāśaṃ

201 D 170d*: mokṣo 'pi / M 157d: nānāmārgās tu siddhayaḥ

202 G 182d: lakṣayet

203 G 183b: lakṣaṇam

204 D 175a* & M161c: paśukukkuṭa- / M 161d: saṃprāpnuvanti vai

205 M 162b: padmaja

206 D 176d*: sā muktir na tu kathyate / M 163b: sā muktir na tu hanyate

207 D 178c*: brahmadehatvam āyāti/ M 163c: dehe brahmatvam āyāte

208 G 187c: yānti

209 D 191b*: sadācārapareṣu

210 D 191c*: mahāguptaṃ

211 Of course, this is highly hypothetical, since the YB is embedded in a larger text; therefore how much of the YŚU's 1st chapter accounts for a "YB recension" is rather hard to tell.



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