La tierra en armas (1926) constitutes for many reasons- an enigmatic text, in spite of its celebrity it is the most famous play of Saltas literature- and its apparent transparency in the representation of historic facts relative to Güemes heroic deed. The first enigma is the authorship problem, since La tierra en armas is written by Juan Carlos Dávalos in collaboration with Ramón Serrano, but at the moment of the publication (1935) will appear only Dávalos name on the cover. The fact that the publishing house omitted the second authors name in that first publication is decisive in Serranos theatrical future, who disappears from Saltas theatrical scene. The second matter arises from the category to which belongs La tierra en armas: it is a historical drama. The fictionalization of a historical character implies to deal with the complex relations established between the dramatic discourse and the historical one. After outlining Güemes heroic deed briefly, the paper presents a description of the dramatic action and the fundamental discursive procedures, as the connection between the principal plot (historic) and the second one (sentimental), the mise en abyme of the Ilolays flower legend and the theatrical visualization of the text. The third matter includes the production, circulation and reception context referred to the theater of that time, as well as the ideological level, without which it would be impossible to make an interpretation of Dávalos and Serranos text as an individual and collective strategy to strenghen identity.