Focusing bakhtinean studies about popular culture and carnivalesque ideology, the paper analyses the permanence and sophistication of some Marxists topics that nourished his first works as well as his colleagues´ (Voloshinov-Medvedev), against the analysis that assumes the progressive abandonment of this theoretical influence after the´30s, as the result of the Stalinist purges. For that reason, the first part of the paper analyses the renewal of the Marxist
concepts of consciousness, ideology and class struggle, exploring their analytical potential with
the notions of sign, theme, social accent and refraction. Therefore, with the focus putted in the concept of cronothope, the paper analyses the connection developed by Bakhtin between discursive genre and literary genre in the study of popular culture (Rabelais´s work)
emphasizing the function of parody and irony as particular expressions of the operation of ideology condensed by literature in the limit of official and non-official culture.
Keywords: Bakhtin, parody, carnival, ideology, irony, Marxism, literature.