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Efecto de la aplicación de aguas residuales industriales en las propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo

The extraction of pectin from mexican lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle] requires a high volume of water; the residual industrial water, after the extraction process, contains high concentrations of NO- 3 and Na+. In the state of Colima, México this water is applied to sandy soils planted with grass (Cynodon dactilon L.) and coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.). The objective of this research was to observe the physical and chemical changes of soil properties due to the use of this industrial effluent. Observations were made on four soil profiles named as Station: St 0, control soil without application of industrial water; St 1, industrial water occasionally applied; St 2, flooding irrigation; and St 3, spray irrigation with industrial water. Also, N-NO3 was also registered in monitoring wells (to a depth of 7.5 to 12.0 m). The N-NO3 concentration was above the critical values for human consumption on the monitoring well located in St 3. Also, a high accumulation of Na was registered in that soil profile, which was classified as saline sodic; this was in contrast with soil profile on St 0, where it was normal. The continued application (15 years) of industrial water killed the coconut palm plantation, changed the soil physical and chemical properties and contaminated the soil and the subsoil water. This situation is critical, since the soils of Colima’s coastal plains are sandy, from alluvial and marine origin, and are classified as a fragile environment.