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Problems in the regulation of carcinogenic chemicals in an international perspective III. Criticai assessment of regulatory approaches

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The real or perceived risk for cancer caused by man-made chemicals has had a major impact on over-al1 risk assessment as well as on risk management. Unfortunately, there is a lack of consensus on the intemational leve1 with respect to the choice of appropriate methodology for quantitative risk assessment of carcinogens for regulatory purposes. In this article the approaches used in different countries are critically reviewed, both with respect to hazard labeling of chemical products as well as regarding risk assessment of emissions to the environment from point sources. The rnain difference between on one hand U.S. and the Nordic countries, and on the other the countries of the European Union (EU) and Canada, is that the responsible government agencies in the last mentioned group of nations take mechanistic considerations as well as type of tumor into account when extrapolating the findings from experimental animals to man. U.S. and the Nordic countries have used a more generalized, or generic approach, which is complemented by a quantitative estimation of risk. In risk management there is a need for simplified approaches for the purpose of screening large numbers of chemicals, as well as methodologies which aim at an indepth analysis of single compounds. The complexities involved in applying quantitative cancer risk assessment to complex mixtures is illustrated by its practica] use for assessing abandoned sites for deposition of hazardous chemical waste. In setting rational priorities for risk reduction, the irnportance of making relevant riskrisk comparisons is underlined. This is illustrated by citing some examples of overreaction to negligible cancer risks from chemicals. The dificulties in bridging the information gap between countries, as well as the special problems associated with the export of carcinogenic chemicals to developing countries are briefly discussed.
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Sistema de Información Científica Redalyc
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México
Versión 2.2 beta | 2015
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