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Dependencia científica y tecnologías campesinas. El caso de los productores de maíz del estado de Tlaxcala

The introduction of technology in agriculture in Mexico is subordinate to a scientific and technological dependence, given that the research strategy used by the National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture and Fishing (INIFAP) has been modeled following the frameworks of developed countries. The technological innovations generated by INIFAP are based on the example of agrochemicals and does not take into consideration rural technologies, and therefore its use is low with small producers. In field research undertaken in 2002 with a base of 1,884 corn producers in the State of Tlaxcala it was found, firstly, that the employment of modern technology was low. Secondly, that rural technology is essential for the management of corn, given that 92% of the producers plant mixed breed seed, 65 and 76% realize association and rotation of cultivation, 64% use distinct techniques of soil conservation, and 66% apply sterol. And finally, it was found that when the producers employ rural technologies they obtain better harvests per hectare.