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La topografía y el hidroperíodo: dos factores que condicionan la restauración de los humedales costeros

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Abstract: Coastal wetlands are composed of several communities located along topographic gradients, where variations in salinity and flooding result in different floristic compositions and dynamics. The topographic profile in the wetlands north of La Mancha Lagoon, Veracruz, Mexico, exemplifies this variety. The temporality and intensity of tides and freshwater fluxes, or a raise in the water table, determine the hidroperiod, defining the salinity and the soil redox conditions, thus characterizing the type of wetland. Restoration practices should take microtopography as well as the resulting hidroperiod into account. The use of topographic information for selecting the mangrove species to be used in reforestation of altered mangroves and in recently created artificial habitats, is demonstrated here. The relevance of the hidroperiod for the establishment of freshwater native species is also shown, as well as how its modification favors the entry and dominance of invasive species.