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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Zn accumulation in the metallophytic plant Viola calaminaria (Gingins.) Lej.
O. Fernández-Fernández, R. Carrillo-González, J. Vangrosveld, M. C. González-Chávez;
REVISTA CHAPINGO SERIE HORTICULTURA 2008 14(3)
Resumen
Inglés Español
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in metal tolerance of their host plant, but their effects on metallophyte plants are not well known. The objectives of this research were to determine the level of mycotrophy in Viola calaminaria (Gingins.) Lej., a plant endemic to metal-enriched soils, and to investigate the effect of AMF on Zn accumulation. Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment (3 months long) was carried out in pots containing inoculated and non-inoculated plants grown in river sand as substrate under non Zn -polluted conditions. The second used plants from the first experiment; these were grown for 15 days under hydroponic conditions with different levels of Zn+2 (50, 200, 300 and 400 mg.liter-1). The AMF were Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe isolates BEG-132 and BEG-25 originating from soils polluted or non-polluted by metals, respectively. Experiment 1 indicated that V. calaminaria was colonized by both fungi but did not benefit from being colonized. Dry mass, root volume and P - Zn contents in inoculated plants were not different from that in non inoculated plants. Experiment 2 showed that total Zn content per plant increased when colonized by AMF and that accumulation was higher in plants colonized by the fungus from unpolluted soil (BEG-25). Fungal root colonization was not affected by Zn content. It remains to be determined whether AMF adapted to soils with high metal contents confer a growth and survival advantage on metallophyte plants in the field.

Palabras clave: Phytoremediation, heavy metals, mycorrhizal symbiosis, polluted soils.
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Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México
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