This paper is a review of the way in which the Agreement of Nueva Imperial impacted in the
Chilean indigenous scenario, from the critical perception of the aymara leadership. The
protocol was signed in 1989, between the pre-Columbian groups (Mapuche, Rapa Nui, Kolla,
Atacameño and Aymara) and the political parties opposed against the dictatorship of Augusto
Pinochet Ugarte. According to the contents of the agreement, the indigenous movement was
obligated to support the presidential candidate Mr. Patricio Aylwin Azocar. In return, the candidate, if elected as President of the Republic, would attend the following indigenous
demands: First, to establish a legal structure for the economic development of these groups.
This point was accomplished with the Indigenous Law Nº 19,253, 5 of October of 1993.
Second, to recognize the indigenous groups in the Constitution; and third, to ratify the ILO
Convention 169 in the national territory. Points two and three in the Agreement of Nueva
Imperial are still pending to be accomplished, and there are not indicators nor intention from
the empowered elites to accomplish them.
Keywords: Citizenship, Ethnicity, Multiculturalism, Legal Pluralism, Interculturality, Chile.