This text approaches the relationship between socioeconomic exclusion and violence based on one specific case: Brazil. It draws a picture of violence's the most recent characteristics and trends. It also examines three causes that emerge in public debate: the changes in violence and crime patterns; the crisis in the criminal justice system; and social inequality and urban segregation. Specifically regarding the latter aspect, it seeks to make a general comment on the central "theses" that sustain or challenge the so-called structural violence.
Keywords: Violence, human rights, justice, democracy, social rights.