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ISSN electrónico: 0717-554X
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Universidad de Chile
Chile

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Redalyc 3.0 versión beta.
La versión estable de Redalyc 3.0 se libera en febrero de 2017. En la actualidad, se muestran los resultados de la marcación de artículos científicos mediante la herramienta gratuita Marcalyc, liberada en su primera versión el 1ro de septiembre de 2016 y que está pensada como un elemento central en la construcción y consolidación de un modelo de AA sustentable para Iberoamérica.
en: The emergence of life in our societies stablishes one of the fundamental dimensions to understand our contemporary world. Biomedicine, biosecurity, biotechnology and bioterrorism are just some of the new concepts that appear due to this phenomenon. In this sense, this article will introduce one of the main current theories that aim to analyse this reconceptualization of life: posthumanism. Specifically, we will work on the proposals made by the Italian‐Australian philosopher Rosi Braidotti and the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk. Simultaneously, a project of radical allokhronía will be proposed towards drift in evolution. This is made in order to overcome the persistence of the anthropocentric view that remains the main problem of both proposals for improvement of humanism.>>>
en: The notion of social mechanisms has experienced an increasing use in the social sciences as an alternative explanatory framework to the logic of co‐variation present in multivariate analyses, emphasizing the causal explanation of social phenomena over their mere description. This paper seeks two goals. In the one hand, summarise recent literature on social mechanisms in order to clarify their meanings, different modes of use and their contribution to empirical research. In the other hand, we will shed some light onto the relation between social mechanisms and the micro‐macro problem in social sciences. We argue that the search for social mechanisms and reductionism in social sciences correspond to two interrelated but analytically distinguishable questions: while the first one seeks to define intermediary processes and causal connections between causes and effects, the second question asks for the different levels of reality in which the relation between initial conditions and effects shall be understood. Following Daniel Little´s methodological localism, we will suggest that social mechanisms can well take place at the supra individual level, and that the reduction of social phenomena to their micro‐foundations is not a methodological prescription, but rather depends on the state of art of specific fields of inquiry.>>>
Felipe González
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en: The article presents a theoretical discussion and sociological analysis about the tensions in the building of social sex/gender relationships that are at the basis of the exclusion of women within the political field. It shows contents in dispute in the production of politics, considering the weight that categories play in the relations at a global level and in the school, the attributions inside the system sex/gender, the significations in politics, and the modes in which it is subjectified, resisted and confront different logics to understand life and politics, considering the conceptual distinctions between Bíos and Zoé. This discussion allows the analysis of the imaginary institution within systematic difficulties and obstacles of political and legal kind during the post dictatorship in Chile, where based on arguments about the sex/gender system, the exclusion of women from the political field is established, limiting the development of politics that valorizes cultural diversity and human rights, accentuating discrimination and social exclusion. These shape the discussion over the modes in which the political field for women is configured, recovering the possibilities of conflict as an opening of that horizon.>>>
Leticia Arancibia
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Andrea González
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en: Luhmann’s theory has been commonly considered as a radical overcoming of the traditional philosophy. The interpreters often refer to the non-ontological background of the theory as the criticism of the conscience's centrality, the emphasis in conflict and distinction and the influence of sciences as cybernetic, biology and mathematics. In the present paper we try to demonstrate that there is also an important philosophical heritage in the Luhmann’s sociological work: the Hegelian heritage. We refer to four main points: the congruence of being and thought; the being as the unity of unity/distinction; the rationality as auto-reference and the congruence between theory and society. The focus of our analysis is on the complications of the system theory when it tries to eliminate the idea of spirit. Key words: Luhmann, Hegel, system theory, dialectical philosophy, sociology.>>>
Mauricio Casanova
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en: The article proposes that the objects of study in the social sciences are built into routines of interactions that we named interpretative communities. These adopt different qualities from those of an interview, because they are beyond the negotiations and agreements established by individuals to point out their positions in the development of knowledge. Moreover, from the perspective of interpretive communities, it becomes possible to identify biases that occur in the absence of epistemological vigilance in the task of specifying the theoretical objects to achieve interpretive models, and promotes the use of reflexivity in community processes that report ontological security and reintegrate daily life. To develop these arguments a narrative axis is presented of the social scientist movements from a methodical solipsism towards a collective construction of knowledge. On this trajectory, life story helps to broaden the interview, also the dialogue facilitates the recognition of operational consensus that secures a sense of belonging and opens up the possibility to review the community appropriation by two perspectives, one of the subject co-producer of knowledge and one of the operating groups.>>>
Nicolás Exequel
Universidad Central de Chile
Chile
en: The methodology of this paper is documentary, compiling textbooks and scientific articles related to Argentine scientific history, mainly referring to CONICET. The purpose is to show that a complete epistemological study cannot be done without giving an account of its sociological and historical context, in this case, specifically referred to the management of science. The perspective of this paper is more philosophical than historical, doing discourse analysis and interpretation. Management, a sociological element, has a close relationship with science, and its study is part of epistemology. So, first, we must be careful to use the classification of basic and applied science in order to prioritize the latter with funding. Secondly, science should be autonomous but not independent from society and the market in which it is embedded, and the private sector should be harmonized with the public sector as regards scientific production. Third, betting on scientific production by Argentina helps demystify the classification of developed and underdeveloped countries, or the first and the third world. Fourth, in the management of science, university plays a key role, so management of university and the centralized management of the scientific bodies should be harmonized. Fifth, regarding the strengthening of the human component, subsidies offering should be balanced with the professionalization of research based on dedication.>>>
en: The purpose of this paper aims to unravel the ideological strategy that rises from the well-celebrated epistemic rigor of neoclassical economic thought. From the Economics Nobel Price Paul Krugman’s popularized connotation naming to “freshwater” economists as those fervent followers of the most orthodox academic creed, we will expose the logical inconsistency and empirical implausibility of such thought’s underlying assumptions: perfect competence and equilibrium’s approaching. From a critical analysis that will be conducted from each of those mentioned assumptions, we will argued that the neoclassical thought is an ideological strategy subverting reality’s principles, overcoming “artificially” those relevant deficiencies and limitations of its theoretical approach.>>>
Manuel Antonio Jiménez-Castillo
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en: Is there a distinction between social theory and sociology? Perhaps one of the most general features in sociological thinking is that it is an inquiry to develop holistic explanations for social reality. In this sense, there is a kind of universality of social knowledge in its scientific and philosophical dimensions, and is one of its main purposes for the operation of sociology as a “science of modernity”. Next, I will develop a brief reconstruction of meaning which is attributed to science in the modern world, followed by the emergence of an specialized explanation of social reality under the name of social theory, as a result of philosophical conclusions that finish it with Hegel on the one side, and it focuses on a differentiated scientific knowledge as a product of modernity itself, on the other hand. Finally, and following this, I will establish the specific role played by sociology and social theory in this context, by considering that the first describes itself as a science of society-modernity and the second has a critical direction to sociability answers and is specifically linked with political-normative approaches.>>>
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