redalyc.org
logo de institución
Interdisciplinaria
Revista Activa *
ISSN: 0325-8203 ISSN electrónico: 1668-7027
Semestral
Psicología
Centro Interamericano de Investigaciones Psicológicas y Ciencias Afines
Argentina

Revista en DOAJ


Normas para autores

Página de la revista
Sitio web de la institución editora


Contacto
Redalyc 3.0 versión beta.
La versión estable de Redalyc 3.0 se libera en febrero de 2017. En la actualidad, se muestran los resultados de la marcación de artículos científicos mediante la herramienta gratuita Marcalyc, liberada en su primera versión el 1ro de septiembre de 2016 y que está pensada como un elemento central en la construcción y consolidación de un modelo de AA sustentable para Iberoamérica.
es: Se presentan algunas ventajas y limitaciones de las narrativas conversacionales como estrategia de investigación para el trabajo con familias y docentes de niños con discapacidad. La narración realizada por muchas voces, como sucede en una conversación, privilegia la relación y el discurso entre las personas como fuente de construcción consensuada de significados. La interacción triádica entre familia, inclusión educativa y salud orientó los encuentros conversacionales con padres, acudientes y profesores de estos niños en la ciudad de Manizales (Colombia). Los participantes conformaron equipos conversacionales y equipos reflexivos y conversaron sobre preguntas propuestas, previamente elaboradas. Con este ejercicio investigativo se resalta el valor interaccional de esta estrategia desde tres ámbitos: entre los par ticipantes, con el investigador y con el contexto situacional. Se argumenta que la reflexividad está más relacionada con el hacer que con el ser y el sentir de las personas, las cuales no necesariamente se transforman en la narrativa...>>>en: In this article, some advantages and limitations of conversational narratives as a research strategy are shown for the work performed with families and teachers of children with disabilities. Some methodological considerations about research in disability and some of the accomplishments and difficulties that are part of the research conducted with families of people with disabilities are presented. These families seek to realize the po tential that this methodology may have for the research outcomes regarding family and disability, particular ly, making emphasis in the emotional aspects and the daily experiences of each of the family members. The conversational narratives give mean ing to the feelings and experiences of people that interact daily with children with disabilities. They are an excellent option to articulate the view of the social researcher with the experiences of teachers and members of the families with children with disabilities. The interaction that takes place during conversational narratives not just allows the transformation of people, but also helps the researcher to widely comprehend the reality they live. The narration performed by many voices, as it is the case during a conversation, privileges the relationship and the discourse between people as a source of con struction of consensual meaning. The triadic interaction between family, inclusive education, and health, oriented the conversational encounters with parents, guardians, and teachers of these children from the city of Manizales, Colombia...>>>
NORA ANETH PAVA-RIPOLL
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
es: El estudio de los valores sociales, la ideología política y la confianza política, como orientaciones que cumplen la función de organizar las mediaciones cognitivas y afectivas de los miembros que componen la elite política, se vuelve relevante a la hora de aproximarnos a la comprensión de los grupos de poder que median entre los intereses y demandas ciudadanas. Por ello, la investigación realizada tuvo como objetivo principal examinar comparativamente las variables confianza política, valores e ideología política en grupos conformados por integrantes de los tres poderes del Estado provincial, sindicatos, univer sidad pública e instituciones religiosas. El estudio se realizó con un muestreo no probabilístico de 75 casos típicos. Para evaluar la confianza política se valoró el nivel de confianza institucional atribuido por los miembros de la elite a distintos actores sociales y políticos. Se administraron la Escala de Clima Socio-emocional (Páez, Ruiz, Gailly, Kornblit, Wiesenfeld & Vidal, 1996), el Cuestionario de Valores Sociales (Gouveia, 1998) y la Escala de Ideología Política (Bru ssino, Rabbia, Imhoff & Paz García, 2011). Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis de variancia de un solo factor con grupos de tamaños desiguales y comparaciones post-hoc con tests de Bonferroni. Asimismo, considerando la baja cantidad de casos en algunos grupos, se realizaron análisis no paramétricos para corroborar la consistencia de los mismos. Si bien se trata de un estudio exploratorio, los resultados obtenidos permiten la comprensión de estos grupos de poder en cuanto a las orientaciones ideológicas y actitudinales que prioriza cada sector en el proceso de influencia social.>>>en: The study of social values, political ideology and political trust, in forms of orientations wich serves to the function of organizing the cognitive and affective mediations from the members of the political elite, becomes relevant to the approach of understanding the power groups, who mediate between the interests and the citizens’ demands. Therefore, the aim of this research was mainly to comparatively examine the variables of political trust, social values and political ideology in groups formed by members of the three branches of the provincial government, unions, public university and religious institutions. This study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 75 typical cases. To assess the political trust, institutional trust levels were measured attributed to the members of the elite of different social and political actors, and the Socioemotional Climate Scale (Páez, Ruiz, Gailly, Kornblit, & Wiesenfeld, 1996). Besides the Social Values Questionnaire (Gouveia, 1998) and the Political Ideology Scale (Brussino, Rabbia, Imhoff, & Paz García, 2011) were administered. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA single factor with groups of unequal size, and post-hoc comparisons with the Bonferroni´s Test. This test is the most conservative because it singles out fewer differences from those, which really exists among data. The probability of error Type I was set as < .05. Although the bibliography suggests that the test is long enough to be applied even when the assumptions do not occur, in this case non-parametric analysis were conducted to corroborate the consistency of the results...>>>
SILVINA BRUSSINO
MARÍA INÉS ACUÑA
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
es: Existen múltiples factores que pueden afectar la consolidación de la memoria de los eventos emocionales, fortaleciendo o deteriorando los recuerdos. Distintas investigaciones en neurociencia han demostrado que el nivel de arousal puede tener un efecto determinante en el almacenamiento y consolidación de la memoria. Además, las investigaciones señalan que la exposición a diferentes piezas musicales puede modular la memoria, ya sea aumentándola o disminuyéndola; sin embargo, no se encuentran estudios realizados has ta el momento con adultos mayores. El objetivo del trabajo realizado fue evaluar cómo diferentes estímulos auditivos, piezas musicales activantes y relajantes, así como ruido blanco como condición control, modulaban la consolidación de la memoria en adultos mayores. Participaron 27 sujetos, divididos en tres grupos experimentales, quienes observaron imágenes emocionales o neutras y evaluaron el grado de activación / emocionalidad que les producían. De manera inmediata y de acuerdo al grupo de tratamiento asignado, fueron expuestos a diferentes estímulos musicales: música activante y relajante para los grupos experimentales y ruido blanco para el grupo control. Luego se realizaron pruebas de recuerdo libre y reconocimiento de las imágenes, de forma inmediata y diferida (una semana después). Los resultados muestran que los sujetos expuestos a música relajante tuvieron un menor recuerdo y reconocimiento, mientras los que estuvieron expuestos a música activante mostraron un mejor rendimiento. Los hallazgos permiten concluir que la música modula la consolidación de la memoria emocional visual en adultos mayores, siendo la música una herramienta de gran utilidad para la estimulación de la memoria en poblaciones con o sin disfunciones mnésicas.>>>en: In the last decades, different neuroscientific investigations have shown that emotions can be determinant in memory storage and consolidation. Events with emotional content are remembered more easily than neutral events. There are several factors that could affect memory consolidation for emotional events, strengthening or deteriorating them. Stress is one of them, since investigations indicate that moderate levels of stress improve the memory of emotional events, while high or low levels have the opposite effect (Justel, Psyrdellis, & Ruetti, 2013, 2014). Multiple studies showed that the exposition to different musical pieces could modulate memory. Activating music, both positive and negative valence, increases de levels of arousal and strengthen memory consolidation (Judde & Rickard, 2010), while relaxing music has the opposite effect and deteriorate the capacity of emotional memory (Rickard, Wing Wong, & Velik, 2012). However, there are not studies with older adults. The goal of this study was to evaluate how different musical pieces, arousing and relaxing ones, modulate memory consolidation in older adults. 27 participants were included, divided in three groups. 12 slides with emotional content and 12 neutral were presented in a computer, selected from the International Affective Picture System (Lang, Brad - ley, & Cuthbert, 1995). The older adults watched the emotional and neutral images, and evaluated the arousal /emotionality degree of the images as they filled in a table of five choices, from not exciting to very exciting. According to the assignment group, they were exposed to different musical stimuli: activating or relaxing music for the experimental groups or white noise in the control group. The auditive stimulies were selected according to the previous literature. For the activating musical stimuli, Symphony No. 70 in D major of Joseph Haydn was chosen (Kreutz, Ott, Teichmann, Osawa, & Vaitl, 2008); for the relaxing musical stimuli, Pachebel’s canon in D major was chosen (Knight & Rickard, 2001); for the control stimuli, white noise was chosen (Rickard et al., 2012). Then free recall and recognition test were performed, immediately and deferred (one week later). In free recall, each subject briefly listed the images he remembered, mentioning them with a word or a short sentence. For the recognition test, the 24 images were mixed up with 24 new images, and the participants had to indicate if they had seen each image or not, as they filled in a table. Regarding to the evaluation of the arousal / emotionality degree of the images, the results indicate that older adults, no matter the group, punctuated the emotional images as more activating tan neutral images, consolidating, as other studies, the validity and reliability of IAPS. The participants exposed to relaxing music had a worse performance in free recall and recognition, compared with the other two groups. On the other hand, it was expected that participants exposed to activating music have a better performance in free recall and recognition test. In free recall, both immediate and deferred, there is a tendency for the activating group to perform better than the control group, but no significant statistical data was found. Regarding to the recognition test, both immediate and deferred, no significant differences were found between the activating and the control groups. This may be because the sample was formed by a reduced number of participants, but if the sample is extended, the results may change. These results allow to conclude that music modulate the consolidation of visual emotional memory in older adults, being music a useful tool in memory stimulation and a possible therapeutic resource for patients with memory dysfunctions.>>>
NADIA JUSTEL
JAIME O’CONOR
WANDA RUBINSTEIN
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
es: El análisis de las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Intolerancia a la Incertidumbre (EII) en población de Buenos Aires. La EII evalúa la intolerancia a la incertidumbre (II) que es uno de los componentes principales del trastorno de ansiedad generalizada (TAG) según el modelo teórico de Dugas. La intolerancia a la incertidumbre se define como una disposición ca racterística que re sulta de un conjunto de pensamientos negativos sobre la incertidumbre. La Escala de Intolerancia a la Incertidumbre (EII) está compuesta por 27 ítemes que se responden con un formato tipo Likert de cinco opciones de respuesta. Se analizaron los datos obtenidos de una muestra de 320 participantes, residentes de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y el Gran Buenos Aires (República Argentina). Se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas con medidas criterio de preocupación (r = .44; p = .000) y ansiedad como estado (r = .36; p = .000) y como rasgo (r = .58; p = .000). Se estudió la estructura de la escala con el análisis de componentes principales y se obtuvieron dos factores que explican el 41.07% de la variancia total. Con respecto a la fiabilidad, los resultados indican una excelente consistencia interna de los ítemes igual a .93 y una estabilidad test-retest luego de cinco semanas, igual a .47. No se registraron diferencias significativas en las puntuaciones de la escala según la edad y el sexo. En su conjunto, los resultados obtenidos en la investigación realizada son concordantes con los hallazgos de investigaciones anteriores. Dado que la II constituye un factor de vulnerabilidad para el TAG, es de utilidad contar con un cuestionario adaptado a la población local.>>>en: The purpose of this paper is to report as regards the linguistic and cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS, for its acronyms in English) in the adult population of Buenos Aires (Republica Argentina). The IUS assesses the intolerance of uncertainty (IU), which is one of the principal components of the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) according to the theoretical model of Dugas. IU has been defined as a dispositional characteristic that results from a set of negative beliefs about uncertainty and it has been proposed as a cognitive vulnerability factor for worry and GAD. Furthermore it may be defined more specifically as the excessive tendency of an individual to consider it unacceptable that a negative event may occur, however small the probability of its occurrence. In general, in tolerance of uncertainty may be conceptualized as the way an individual perceives information in uncertain situations and responds to said information with a set of emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses. The IUS is composed of 27 items related to the idea that uncertainty is unacceptable, leads to frustration and the inability to take action and it reflected badly on a person. Participants rate items on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1: not at all characteristic of me to 5: entirely characteristic of me. Higher scores on the IUS indicate greater intolerance of uncertainty. The original French version of the IUS was developed in 1994 to assess emotional, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to ambiguous situations, implications of being uncertain, and attempts to control the future. In 2002, the IUS was translated from French to English. Similar to the original French measure, the English translation had shown excellent internal consistency and temporal stability. It has demonstrated convergent, criterial, and discriminant validity. On this study, the IUS translated into Spanish by three independent translators. The content validity was assessed through the use of three independent judges who had broad knowledge of anxiety disorder. The preliminary version was tested with a sample of 90 participants. The research was a descriptive and correlational study, with a transversal design The participants completed the following questionnaires: the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Data obtained from a sample of 320 participants (168 females and 152 males) of the Ciudad and Provincia de Buenos Aires has been analyzed. Data analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) - Version 22 software. In relation to the evidence of validity, significant correlations were obtained with worry (r = .44; p = .000) and anxiety as a state (r = .36; p = .000) and trait (r = .58; p = .000). The exploratory data analysis regarding the factor structure of the scale and dimensions of the construct indicated two factors that explain 41.07 % of the total variance. On the one hand, concerning the consistency of this scale, the results show an excellent internal consistency (.93) and a fairly strong test-retest reliability over a five-week period of .47. On the other hand, significant differences were not registered in the punctuations of the scale according to age and sex, and these findings are consistent with previous research. As a whole, the results obtained from the present investigation are consistent with the findings of previous investigations. Given that the IU constitutes a factor of vulnerability for the TAG, it is useful to rely on a questionnaire adapted to the local population. To conclude, the present study has demonstrated the sound psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the IUS.>>>
MARISA RODRÍGUEZ DE BEHRENDS
MARÍA ELENA BRENLLA
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
es: En este artículo se describen desde una perspectiva comparativa los fenómenos de bloqueo, ensombrecimiento e inhibición latente, enfatizando su presencia en tareas de aprendizaje espacial. Estos fenómenos de aprendizaje, ampliamente observados en otras clases de vertebrados e invertebrados, han sido recientemente descriptos por primera vez en anfibios, un grupo de vertebrados con un cerebro filogenéticamente antiguo. Tomando como modelo al sapo terrestre Rhinella arenarum, se revisarán los tres fenómenos de aprendizaje asociativo mencionados en una situación de aprendizaje espacial: (1) bloqueo entre claves visuales asociadas a una meta, (2) ensombrecimiento de una clave visual lejana por la presencia de una clave cercana y (3) inhibición latente debida a la pre-exposición a una cla ve visual. Todos los entrenamientos se llevaron a cabo en una arena circular de color blanco, utilizando agua como recompensa. Dentro de la arena, se distribuyeron cuatro piletas de acrílico en forma de cruz contra las paredes laterales (sólo una tenía acceso a la recompensa). En las paredes interiores de la arena circular se colocaron varias señales visuales para guiar a los animales. Los resultados obtenidos en sapos indican que estos fenómenos, observados previamente en aves y mamíferos, también se encuentran en este grupo (uti lizando un paradigma de aprendizaje espacial con claves visuales cercanas y lejanas). Este primer registro en anfibios sugiere que los mecanismos biológicos de estos fenómenos de aprendizaje han surgido muy tempranamente en el curso de la evolución de los vertebrados totalmente terrestres y que los mismos han sido fuertemente conservados. El análisis comparado de estos hallazgos contribuirá a mejorar el entendimiento de los mecanismos biológicos que subyacen al aprendizaje espacial, en busca de patrones funcionales comunes con otras clases de vertebrados y potencialmente presentes en un ancestro común.>>>en: This article describes blocking, overshadowing and latent inhibition phenomena from a comparative perspective, emphasizing their presence in spatial learning tasks. These learning phenomena, previously observed in other vertebrates and invertebrates classes, have been recently reported for the first time in amphibians, a vertebrate group with a phylogenetically ancient brain. We use the terrestrial toad Rhinella arenarum as animal model to analyze the three mentioned associative phenom ena in a spatial learning situation: (1) blocking between visual cues associated to a goal, (2) over shadowing of a distant visual cue by the presence of a nearby cue, and (3) latent inhibition generated by the pre-exposure to a visual cue. All trainings were conducted in a white circular arena, using water as reward. Inside the arena, four green acrylic container were distributed in a cross shape against the side walls (only one with access to reward). On the inner walls of the circular arena they were placed several visual cues for guiding animals. In all studies described in this article toads were partially dehydrated to motivate them to search for water. In the blocking situation, experimental ani mals had the rewarded container signaled by a visual cue on the wall above the container. In the second phase of training other visual cue was added. The results revealed that in these animals the prior training with only one of the visual cues blocked the association of the reward with the other cue, when both cues were then presented simultaneously to indicate the position of reward. In the overshadowing situation, experimental animals had from the beginning the rewarded container signaled by two visual cues on the wall, one to 10 cm right (named near cue), and the other placed approximately 70 cm to the left (between the adjacent pool and the opposite, named far cue). The results indicated that the location of a visual cue located away from reward was overshadowed by the presence of a nearby cue. Finally, in the situation of latent inhibition, animals of pre-exposed group had five previous training sessions, where a visual cue was presented without reward. Then, when in the subsequent training this visual cue signaled the reward, animals pre-exposed needed more sessions to reach the asymptote of learning compared to other non-pre-exposed animals. Therefore, the preex posure to the visual cue (i.e., unreinforced ex po sure to the stimulus) significantly retarded the acquisition, delaying the association of this cue with the reward...>>>
MARÍA FLORENCIA DANERI
RUBÉN NÉSTOR MUZIO
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
es: La utilización de estímulos pictóricos en la investigación básica y clínica puso de manifiesto la necesidad de disponer de material con normas pictóricas, lingüísticas y semánticas adecuadas a cada población. El objetivo del estudio que se informa es presentar los tiempos de latencia obtenidos a partir de una tarea de denominación con tiem pos de reacción utilizando el Programa DM DX para el set de estímulos desarrollados por Cycowicz y colaboradores (1997). Dentro de este corpus se incluyen los 260 dibujos desarrollados por Snodgrass y Vanderwart (1980). Asimismo se obtuvieron nuevas normas léxico-semánticas a fin de ampliar los datos previamente recolectados de la población argentina, por Manoiloff y colaboradores (2010). Se recabaron datos de las variables de frecuencia léxica subjetiva, imaginabilidad, concretud, familiaridad conceptual, familiaridad visual, familiaridad funcional, tipi calidad, idea asociada y categoría semántica. Estos datos se adquirieron mediante una escala de diferencial semántico. Asimismo se obtuvo información de acuerdo en el nombre y porcentaje del nombre más frecuente. Además, los tiempos de latencia de la población estudiada se contrastaron con los de España (Cuetos, Ellis & Alvarez, 1999). Por último, y teniendo en cuenta que frecuentemente los sets pictóricos que se han desarrollado se utilizan también en la evaluación y tratamiento de pacientes con lesiones cerebrales adquiridas, se compararon los estímulos pertenecientes a los dominios de seres vivos y objetos inanimados a fin de identificar posibles diferencias entre dominios en las principales variables léxico-semánticas. Se espera que estos datos sean útiles para la selección de estímulos tanto para la práctica clínica como para futuras investigaciones.>>>en: Many parameters such as visual recognition, access to the concept or recovery the phonological format of a word influence different stages of the oral naming. Basic and clinical research showed the requirement of using the same pictorial stimuli for each culture. Nevertheless, pictorial stimuli may vary in visual complexity, image agreement, etc., semantic (conceptual familiarity, age of acqui sition, image ability, concreteness, etc.) and linguistic norms (naming agreement, lexical frequency) in each different culture. Adaptation and standardization of pictorial stimuli are a critical issue since they are useful in research with healthy subjects (Psycholinguistic and Cognitive Psychology) as well as in studies of patients with acquired brain injuries (Neuropsychology and Neuro lin - guistic). In recent years, many researchers developed and adapted their own set to their socio-linguistic environment. However, the variability in the stimuli used makes difficult the comparison of the results reached (Alario & Ferrand, 1999). Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) developed the first corpus of pictorial stimuli. This corpus is com pos ed by 260 drawings in black and white and they are standardized according to four variables: name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiar ity and visual complexity. have obtained certain variables for the pictorial stimuli developed by Manoiloff, Artstein, Canavoso, Fernández, & Seguí (2010) Cycowicz, Friedamn, Tothstein, & Snodgrass (1997) for our population. The material includes Snodgrass and Vanderwart’s pictorial set (1980). They recollected data from seven variables: name agreement, image agreement, visual complexity, conceptual familiarity, image variability, age of acquisition and associated word. In this study we have three aims. The first one is to expand the normative data obtained by Manoiloff and colaborators (2010) by adding other lexicalsemantic variables of importance in cognitive processing variables. In this study we included the subjective lexical frequency, image ability, con cret eness, conceptual, visual and functional familiarity, typicality and semantic category. Second, we aim to obtain naming agreement (H and %NA) with a reaction time paradigm in order to compare our results with those obtained by Manoiloff and colaborators (2010). To administrate the task DM DX Program (Forster, K.I. & Forster, J.C., 2003) was used and all the responses were checked and classified using Check Vocal (Proto papas, 2007). The naming agreement of our population (H and %NA) was compared with the dates obtained by Manoiloff and colaborators (2010). Latency times were compared with the latency time for Spain (Cue tos, Ellis, & Alvarez, 1999). Spanish participants require less time to activate pictures names. This difference may be product of the design of the task, the stimuli used or because possible differences in the samples evaluated. Finally, taking in account that Bunn, Tyler, and Moss (1998) have reported that in the Snodgrass and Vanderwart´s pictures set (1980) the living things have less familiarity that inanimate objects, we compare the main semantic domains (living things and inanimate objects) in the most important lexical and semantic variables: visual complexity, conceptual familiarity, subjective lexical frequency, image ability, etc. In the data we obtained from the name agreement variable: H and %NA indexes (H and %NA). Both variables differ from Manoiloff´s data. When participants have a restricted time in oral naming, as in this study, they answered with less precision, thus obtaining higher values in H. The same result was observed when comparing the %NA...>>>
MACARENA MARTÍNEZ-CUITIÑO
JUAN PABLO BARREYRO
MAXIMILIANO WILSON
VIRGINIA JAICHENCO
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
es: Se presenta la construcción y validación de un Inventario para medir las Competencias Socioemocionales en adultos (ICSE). De acuerdo a Bisquerra Alzina (2003), tales competencias se definen como un conjunto de conocimientos, capacidades, habilidades y actitudes necesarias para comprender, expresar y regular apropiadamente los fenómenos emocionales. Dado que no existe consenso acerca de las variables que conforman las competencias socioemocionales, se efectuó un análisis de las dimensiones que los principales autores en el tema han investigado, a fin de integrar aquellas que resultaron comunes en los diferentes planteos teóricos. En función de este criterio se definió operacionalmente el concepto como un constructo multidimensional conformado por las siguientes dimensiones: asertividad, autoeficacia, autonomía, conciencia emocional, comunicación expresiva, empatía, optimismo, prosocialidad y regulación emocional. El proceso de construcción del ICSE siguió los lineamientos de la International Test Commission y comprendió: (a) definición conceptual y operacional del constructo, (b) elaboración de los ítemes, (c) análisis de la validez de contenido, (d) prueba piloto, (e) análisis y selección de reactivos y (f) estudio de las propiedades psicométricas de la versión depurada. Se obtuvieron evidencias favorables acerca de la discriminación de los ítemes, validez factorial, validez concurrente y consistencia interna del instrumento. Este inventario puede cubrir un vacío importante ya que no existen instrumentos diseñados y validados para medir este constructo, aportando así una herramienta valiosa, tanto pa ra ser utilizada en actividades de investigación como en programas de intervención y prevención.>>>en: This study focuses on the design and validation of a psychometric instrument to assess Socioemotional Competences (SECI) in adults. According to Bisquerra Alzina (2003) such competences are defined as knowledge, abilities and attitudes necessary to understand, express and properly regulate emotions. Previous studies show positive association between socio-emotional competences and better academic and professional performance, higher levels of psychological and physical well-being and more satisfying interpersonal relationships (Bisquerra Alzina & Pérez Escoda, 2007; Pérez Escoda, Bisquerra, Filella, & Soldevila, 2010). Levy-Leboyer (1997) states that competences integrate aptitudes, knowledge and personality traits expressing behavior repertoires shown in people’s efficacy coping with specific situations. Therefore, assessment and training of such competences represent an important psychological topic. Though there is no agreement on which are the socio-emotional competences to be included, it is possible to analyze those considered by the main authors and researchers in the international literature in the area. After analyzing different theoretical frameworks, nine competences were found to be in common to most of them: assertiveness, self-efficacy, autonomy, emotional awareness, expressive communication, empathy, optimism, pro-social behavior and emotional regulation. This construct, defined as a multidimensional concept, lacks of an instrument to operationalize and assess the whole set of socio-emotional competences in our local context. The Socio-emotional Competences Inventory (SECI) was designed and built according to the International Test Commission Guidelines and included the following steps: (a) Conceptual and operational definition of the construct, as described above, (b) Elaboration of items, following recommendations on clarity, simplicity and comprehension, (c) Analysis of content valid ity, (d) Pilot test, (e) Depuration of items of low discrimination, and (f) Analysis of psychometric properties of the final version. Content validity (Step C) was obtained through agreement among judges method: 18 judges with expertise in psychometrics grouped items consider ing the nine competences definitions. They were also required to judge clearness of each item, syntactic correctness and adequacy to target population. Percentage of agreement was calculated to depurate the first set of items. For the pilot test (Step D) a preliminary version of SECI was administered to 446 participants from Buenos Aires, ages between 18 and 55 (M = 26, SD = 7); same proportion of men and women. Items of low discrimination (under .30) were eliminated (Step E)...>>>
ISABEL MARÍA MIKULIC
MELINA CRESPI
PABLO RADUSKY
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
es: La investigación sobre las prácticas de enseñanza de los educadores ha puesto de relieve la importancia de las cogniciones que subyacen a las prácticas pedagógicas. El conocimiento práctico de los educadores define el conocimiento que generan los educadores mismos, como resultado de la integración y mutua influencia de fuentes teóricas y prácticas y que orienta su quehacer en el aula. Esta noción ha sido aplicada para abordar el conocimiento de los educadores sobre las diversas dimensiones que integran su trabajo profesional. El objetivo del estudio que se presenta fue examinar las dimensiones del conocimiento práctico para la enseñanza del lenguaje oral y escrito evidenciadas por estudiantes de educación inicial en práctica final, a través de la elaboración y explicación de mapas conceptuales. Participaron 26 estudiantes de ocho programas universitarios de formación profesional de Santiago (Chile). Los resultados de este estudio cualitativo descriptivo mostraron una mayor representación de tres de las seis dimensiones examinadas: conocimiento de la materia (lenguaje oral y alfabetización inicial), conocimiento de estrategias pedagógicas para su enseñanza y conocimiento de los niños a su cargo. El conocimiento del desarrollo y el aprendizaje en la infancia, de los propósitos de la enseñanza de esta materia y del currículum fueron representados en menos de la mitad de los mapas conceptuales. Se analizan estos resultados desde la perspectiva de la investigación reciente acerca de la enseñanza del lenguaje oral y la alfabetización durante los primeros años y la formación profesional de los educadores a cargo del nivel inicial.>>>en: Teachers’ practical knowledge has become an increasingly relevant issue for educational research during the last decades. The concept of practical knowledge refers to the cognitions that underlie to teachers’ actions, including teachers’ knowledge and beliefs and attempts to grasp the knowledge and skills that are “unique to the teaching profession.” Insights into the categories that constitute teachers’ practical knowledge have suggested that it is a multi-dimensional concept that entails several dimensions: knowledge of student learning and development, subject matter, purposes and goals for teaching the subject, curriculum, instructional strategies (Beijaard & Verloop, 1996; Meijer, Verloop, & Beijaard, 2002). As part of their professional development, teachers need to know about language and its relevance to support general cognitive development and specific subject matter competencies. A great deal is known about how young children learn language and literacy and how their learning can be supported in the educational context. Literacy is a secondary system that depends on oral language as the primary system, so effective early childhood teachers need to know a good deal about language and literacy in order to organize learning opportunities for children during the first years of life. Early childhood teachers who have better training show better educational practices, more appropriate to children’s development, are more sensitive to their needs and show more informed understanding of appropriate educational practices (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). This study aimed to examine the practical knowledge evidenced by prospective early childhood teachers in their last year of preparation to teach language and early literacy to children from 0 to 6 years. 26 prospective early childhood teachers in their final professional practice, from 8 university teacher education programs located in the city of Santiago - Chile (2-4 students from each program). Data were collected through the elicitation and verbal explanation of concept maps (Novak, 2008; Cañas, et al., 1997; Rovira, 2003) a procedure used in previous studies in which teachers identify and relate concepts considered important for teaching, organizing them into a schema (Meijer, Verloop, & Beijaard, 2002). A descriptive descriptive qualitative design based on the Grounded Theory (Strauss & Corbin, 2002) was conducted. Results evidenced the majority of conceptual maps included three of the six dimensions examined: knowledge of subject matter (oral language and initial literacy), knowledge of pedagogical strategies to teach this subject matter and knowledge of children. Phonology and phonological awareness were identified as the most relevant learning goals in the early years and activities like phonological segmentation as appropriate practices to reach them.>>>
CARMEN DÍAZ
MALVA VILLALÓN
CYNTHIA ADLERSTEIN
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
es: Cada año nacen a nivel mundial alrededor de 15 millones de niños anticipadamente y dicha tasa de nacimientos prematuros sigue en aumento. De estos infantes, un millón muere a causa de secuelas relacionadas con su temprana llegada al mundo. A partir de la experiencia en Psicología Perinatal en tres hospitales de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y el Gran Buenos Aires, se observaron ciertos cuestionamientos de los padres de niños que se encuentran internados debido a su prematuridad en servicios de Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN). Por este motivo el objetivo del trabajo realizado fue elaborar una Guía para padres de bebés nacidos prematuros que permita una correcta y rápida comprensión del ámbito de internación además de las situaciones por las que podría atravesar un niño nacido prematuro. Se utilizaron pa ra este fin textos y cuadros. A su vez se trabajó acerca de los equipos empleados, el personal de salud que lo atenderá, el contacto con el niño, la lactancia, las experiencias de otros padres, páginas y redes sociales relacionadas con la temática y los derechos del niño prematuro según UNICEF. Se incluyen también, algunas sugerencias y fuentes bibliográficas. Esta guía pretende colaborar en el empoderamiento de los padres con niños internados en UCIN. En futuros estudios se podría evaluar el impacto de la misma en los padres y en los servicios de salud.>>>en: Each year are born prematurely 15 million babies worldwide and premature birth rates continue to rise. One million children die from complications from his prematurity and many survivors face a life with sequels. Prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal death and the second cause of deaths in children under five. In a report by March of Dimes is a need to address urgent measures to deal with the millions of children born premature each year and ensure that all professionals can have an important role to make these measures. So working in the written information provided to relatives of patients admitted in NICU can be one of many possible ways to work on this goal. It is understood by premature baby, every infant born before 37 weeks gestational age. There are classifications of children born prematurely, Unicef puts based on gestational age: Between 36 and 31 weeks referred to Moderate Prematurity, between 30 and 28 weeks, Prematurity Extreme and when the birth occurs before 28 weeks, It is considered very extreme. Through experience in Perinatal Psychology in different institutions with hos pi talization in Neo natal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Ciudad Autón oma de Buenos Aires and Gran Bue nos Aires, we have noted certain issues and char acteristics particular to the parents of children hospitalized in NICU due to their premature birth. The aim of this work was to create a guide for parents experiencing the hospital ization of their children in NICU that permits rapid and comprehensive consultation for those un familiar with psychological-medical termino logy. Compre hension is enriched by the addition of images and tables allowing cross-reference...>>>
MARÍA CELESTE GÓMEZ
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
es: Debido al interés actual en la relación entre emoción y cognición, ha surgido la necesidad de contar con técnicas confiables de inducción emocional. Uno de los procedimientos más utilizados para el estudio experimental de la experiencia emo cional es la inducción de emociones mediante fragmentos de películas. El objetivo del estudio que se informa fue conocer las características subjetivas y objetivas de la respuesta emo cional ante estímulos audiovisuales inductores de emociones positivas y negativas, en una muestra de jóvenes argentinos. Se seleccionaron 20 fragmentos de películas (10 de valencia positiva y 10 de valencia negativa). La muestra estuvo integrada por 81 participantes (44 mujeres) de 18 a 25 años (M = 21.20 ±2.57). La respuesta emocional subjetiva se evaluó con el Self-Assessment Manikin (Bradley & Lang, 1994) y la objetiva, registrando la fre cuencia cardíaca. La valencia, la activación y el control correlaciona ron en la mayoría de los fragmentos. Además, hom bres y mujeres presentan una reactividad diferenciada a la valencia de los estímulos, dado que las mujeres fueron más sensibles a los estímulos negativos (mutilaciones y animales amenazantes) y los hombres, a los estímulos positivos (contenido erótico y cómico). Por último, la inducción emocional se mantuvo aproximadamente 30 minutos después de finalizada la pre sentación de los estímulos para los videos de valencia negativa y 15 minutos para los de valencia positiva. Se concluye que la investigación realizada constituye un aporte al estudio de las medidas subjetivas de la emoción y las características de la experiencia emocional en función del tiempo y del sexo de quienes la experimentan.>>>en: Developments since the mid-twentieth century in the research of emotion and the growing interest in its interaction with cognition have generated the need for reliable emotional induction techniques. The efforts made in recent years to carry out the standardization of film clips capable of inducing emotion stand are remarkable. With this, these methodological resources are widely chosen by researchers to study emotional processes. The aims of the research were: (1) to assess valence, arousal, dominance (subjective measures) and cardiac frequency (objective measure) in relation with positive and negative emotions induced by film clips, (2) to determine how long the emotional induction remained active after the presentation of audio visual stimuli, and (3) to evaluate whether there are sex differences in emotional experience, subjectively and objectively, induced by film clips. 81 college students (44 women) from 18 to 25-years-old of Córdoba (Argentina) were evaluated. The average age was 21.20 (SD: ± 2.57). The sample was finally composed by 81 participants for not meeting certain requirements to conform. The evaluation was performed individually in a room equipped for that purpose. Each participant watched 10 film clips of positive or negative valence. Participants evaluated valence, arousal and dominance at 15, 30, 45 y 60 minutes post-induction. Each exper iment lasted approximately 90 minutes. The ins truments administrated were note of informed con sent, 20 Battery of film fragments with ability to induce emotions, Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), sociodemographic data form, question naire of pattern of alcohol and other substances consumption, stress test equipment 12-lead Car dioVex...>>>
YANINA MICHELINI
IGNACIO ACUÑA
JUAN CARLOS GODOY
Descargas por mesDescargas por añoDescargas por país
uaem-pie
Sistema de Información Científica Redalyc
Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México
Versión 3.0 beta | 2016
redalyc@redalyc.org
Pie piepag
Versión normal |Versión básica