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REHMLAC. Revista de Estudios Históricos de la Masonería Latinoamericana y Caribeña
Revista Activa *
ISSN electrónico: 1659-4223
Semestral
Estudios Culturales
Universidad de Costa Rica
Costa Rica

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fr: Les loges que les obédiences française, italienne et espagnole fondent en Méditerranée orientale, Turquie, Moyen-Orient, et dans les pays du Maghreb, sont à l’origine d’écoles qualifiées de “maçonniques”, “laïques» ou “libres laïques”. Ces obédiences se heurtent, dans cette entreprise, aux congrégations chrétiennes ainsi qu’aux musulmans et, dans certains cas, à la synagogue. La présente étude s’intéresse plus particulièrement aux cas de quelques écoles constituées par les obédiences italienne et française dans l’Empire ottoman, au milieu du XIXe et au début du XXe siècle, en les confrontant à celles fondées au Moyen-Orient et au Maghreb par ces mêmes obédiences auxquelles s’ajoute le Grande Oriente Español. Il importe surtout de s’interroger sur les qualificatifs donnés par les maçons à ces écoles. S’il est commun de les présenter, à partir de la fin du XIXe siècle, comme des “écoles laïques”, en revanche le titre d’”école maçonnique”, qui est généralement leur premier titre, révèle que le projet éducatif de ces écoles devrait intégrer des éléments de la morale et de l’idéal maçonnique.>>>en: Lodges founded by French, Italian and Spanish obediences in Eastern Mediterranean countries: Turkey, the Middle East and Magreb countries, started schools that were qualified as “masonic” “secular” o “Free secular”. These obediences were in conflict, in this regard, with Christian congregations, with moslem ones, and, in some cases, with the synagogues. This paper deals more specifically with some schools built by the French and Italian obediences in the Ottoman Empire, at the turn of the 19th century confronting them with the schools in the Middle East and the Magreb belonging to these same obediences as well as by the Grande Oriente Español. It is important for us to question the terms the freemasons used to refer to those schools. Whether it was common usage to present them, at the end of the 19th century, as “secular schools”, instead of calling them “masonic schools”, which was generally their first title/name, thus revealing that the educational Project should have elements of masonic morality and of masonic ideals.>>>
Thierry Zarcone
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es: Este texto pretende exponer una primera aproximación al proyecto pedagógico de una asociación masónica argentina poco conocida, surgida en un momento del siglo XIX de gran influencia del positivismo científico. La Gran Logia Bonaerense, uno de los productos de una ciudad planificada para ser una “ciudad modelo”, que desde su creación buscó posicionarse como una alta casa de estudios, instruyendo a la clase obrera y a la media burguesía. Asimismo, se demuestra cómo, a través de las redes masónicas atlánticas, sus doctrinas lograron influir en España y cambiar parte de la estructura de la Gran Logia Simbólica Española y ser una de las fuentes del rito del Gran Oriente Ibérico.>>>en: The main purpose of this text is an initial approach to the educational project of a little-known argentine masonic society, which arose in the 19th century, and was highly influenced by the Scientific Positivism. The Grand Lodge of Buenos Aires, one of the results of a city planned to be a “Model City”, which sought to be considered since its beginnings an Institute of Higher Learning, educating the working class and the lower middle class. Furthermore, we show, through the Atlantic Masonic Networks, how its doctrines succeeded in influencing Spain and changing part of the structure of the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Spain and therefore, is considered to be one of the sources of the Iberian Grand Orient Rite.>>>
Gabriel Darrigran Algaba
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it: L’articolo analizza l’impegno della massoneria italiana in ambito educativo. Tra il 1868 e il 1925 le logge all’obbedienza del Grande Oriente d’Italia promossero e sostennero numerosi enti. A titolo di esempio, vengono prese in considerazione tre grandi città: Torino, Milano e Roma. Si tratta di centri urbani diversi tra loro ma caratterizzati da un numero elevato di iniziative messe in campo e dalla volontà di sperimentare nuovi modelli educativi di matrice laica (educatori, istituti, ricreatori, scuole serali e università popolari).>>>en: The present paper focuses on the Italian Freemasonry’s engagement in the educational field. From 1868 to 1925, the lodges under the Grand Orient of Italy fostered and helped many educational establishments. The article considers the following three cities: Turin, Milan and Rome. These important urban centres were different but shared a large number of initiatives and were willing to experiment with new secular learning models (Boarding schools, institutes, leisure courses, evening classes and Popular Universities).>>>
Demetrio Xoccato
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es: Este artículo examina la historia de los Boy Scouts de Arica, organización infantil coordinada por la masonería chilena. Sugiere comprender las prácticas nacionalistas del escultismo ariqueño como derivaciones naturales de un proyecto de transformación social mayor: la chilenización. Basado en fuentes históricas hemerográficas y secundarias, este estudio detecta la ambivalencia producida por los scouts en el mundo laico y católico; detalla su vinculación con el Instituto Comercial y establece las formas en que el discurso hegemónico apoyaba la “civilización” de la ciudad, condicionante de las manifestaciones públicas simbólicas de los brigadistas. Las conclusiones reflexionan sobre: a) la visión masónica hacia la infancia, b) las estrategias de control social e ideologización hacia ella y c) la importancia de la trascendencia del nacionalismo chileno en un grupo infantil elitista llamado a ocupar un sitio privilegiado en la sociedad fronteriza del futuro.>>>en: In this article, we examine the early history of the boy scouts of Arica, children’s organization coordinated by Chilean Freemasonry. It is suggested that the ultranationalist practices of Arican scouting are a natural derivation of a mayor project of social transformation: the chileanization. Based on newspapers and secondary sources, this paper detects an ambivalence produced by these Boy Scouts in the lay and Catholic world; it details its ties with the “Instituto Comercial” and shows how the hegemonic discourse supported by the “process of civilization” of the city, was a conditioning factor of the public symbolic manifestations of the Brigades. The conclusions reflect about a) Freemasonry’s vision of childhood b) its strategies of social control and “ideologization” c) the importance of Chilean nationalism in the elite’s children group assigned to hold a future privileged position within the society of the border area of Chile.>>>
José Julián Soto Correo
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Pablo Sebastián Chávez Zúñiga
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Janna Mareike Dallmann
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es: En este trabajo vamos a centrarnos casi en exclusiva en las iniciativas planteadas por diversas entidades masónicas, ya sean potencias, logias regionales o talleres, más que en personas exponiendo solamente algunas de las experiencias más relevantes y que ejemplifican mejor las intervenciones y actuaciones de la masonería española en relación con los enfoques descritos. La visibilidad que han alcanzado otras parcelas e interpretaciones del comportamiento, de los masones en particular y de las iniciativas de la masonería como institución, no nos deben ocultar la faceta desarrollada en torno a la educación. ¿Qué importancia tuvo el proceso formativo llevado a cabo en los talleres masónicos a sus integrantes? ¿Qué lugar ocupó la masonería en el desarrollo educativo español?>>>en: In this paper, we mainly focus mainly on initiatives that were proposed by several Masonic bodies, which are obediences, regional lodges or workshops, rather than only on people sharing their most relevant experiences, and thus present us with a wide range of interventions and deeds of Spain’s Freemasonry. We must not allow the visibility Freemasonry has obtained in other areas and behaviors of freemasons as individuals hide the brethren’s developments in education. How important was the learning process within the Masonic lodges? What role did Freemasonry play within Spain’s educational development?>>>
José Ignacio Cruz Orozco
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es: En el último tercio del siglo XIX, la educación en Costa Rica experimentó un lento proceso de crecimiento en el número de centros educativos, aumentó los índices de alfabetismo e intentó expandirse sin discriminación sexual y socioeconómica al obtener un carácter gratuito y obligatorio. El proyecto educativo estatal buscó la secularización y la formación de ciudadanos en un proceso de apropiación de ideales de la modernidad. Lo anterior, paralelo al desarrollo de centros de estudio, sociedades científico-literarias y patrióticas, el teatro y las campañas de higienización. Esta visión estatal fue coincidente con la visión masónica. A partir de un análisis prosopográfico se propone la siguiente hipótesis: La participación de educadores en la masonería costarricense partidarios de la institución libre de enseñanza, el krausismo, el positivismo y el racionalismo, se debió a que estos encontraron en la logia el principio de libertad de expresión con el que estaban identificados durante una época en que el liberalismo fue la vanguardia de la expansión de la esfera pública en el país. Muchos de estos educadores masones fueron españoles.>>>en: From 1870 to 1900, education in Costa Rica experienced a slow growth in the number of schools, increased literacy rates and tried to expand without gender and socioeconomic discrimination since school attendance was compulsory and free of charge. The state of Costa Rica’s education project sought secularization and the education of its citizens within in a process of appropriation of the ideals of Modernity. This happened at the same time as the development of research centres, scientific, literary and patriotic societies, theatres and sanitation campaigns. This State’s vision coincided with a Masonic vision. From a prosopographical analysis we propose the following hypothesis: The participation of educators in Costa Rica’s Freemasonry also belonged to the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, a secular educational institution based on Krausism, Positivism and Rationalism. Their belonging to both institutions was due to the lodge’s principle of freedom of speech at a time when liberalism was at the forefront of the country’s expansion of the public sphere. Many of these educators were Spanish freemasons.>>>
Yván Pozuelo Andrés
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Ricardo Martínez Esquivel
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fr: L’importance historique des théosophes dans le domaine éducatif vient du fait qu’ils apparaissent, par leurs réflexions et leurs réalisations pédagogiques, comme une des racines de la nébuleuse du mouvement dit de “l’éducation nouvelle”. Leur présence lors des débuts de l’organisation de l’éducation nouvelle a été explorée par plusieurs travaux pionniers mais reste encore un point aveugle de la recherche. En effet l’influence des théosophes a été pressentie mais très rarement analysée comme la “matrice” de l’organisation internationale de cette nébuleuse de l’éducation nouvelle. Si l’influence des théosophes est reconnue, il nous semble que leur rôle, leur travail opiniâtre qui mène à l’essor de l’éducation nouvelle en particulier par la constitution de la Ligue internationale de l’éducation nouvelle mais aussi par la constitution de pédagogies directement issues de pédagogues théosophes comme Maria Montessori et Rudolf Steiner n’en font pas seulement une des racines mais la composante principale de cette éducation nouvelle.>>>en: The historic importance of Theosophy within the realm of education is due to their presence in their reflexions and educational endeavours are at the origins of that nebulous movement called the New Education (éducation nouvelle). Their presence at the beginning of the organization of the New Education has been explored by several pioneering papers, but remains the blind spot in this area. In fact Theosophy’s influence has been felt but rarely analysed as the matrix of the nebulous international organization of new education. If the Theosophists’ influence were to be recognised, we think that their role, their persistent work that brought on not only the rise of new education, more specifically, the constitution of the International League of New Education but was also the making of educators of Theosophy teachings such as María Montessori and Rudolf Steiner who were not only the roots of the new education but also its main components.>>>
pt: Esse trabalho tem como objetivo discutir a Antroposofia, que não se autoclassifica como uma forma de religião, mas que parece se adequar a algumas definições de religião e espiritualidade vigentes no campo da Ciência das Religiões. Por meio da metodologia de análise de Benthall, buscou-se verificar o quanto não seria a Antroposofia um objeto que nega sua dimensão religiosa, mas socialmente se comporta como algo religioso, o que a caracterizaria como uma religião implícita. Das dezenove categorias de análise, quinze foram encontradas, distribuídas nos livros pesquisados. Esse caso é um ilustrativo do recuo da influência da religião nas esferas culturais, podendo ser visto como uma possível busca por legitimação social frente a uma sociedade secular, que trata com desconfiança saberes oriundos do campo religioso.>>>en: This paper aims to discuss anthroposophy, which does not consider itself as a form of religion, but seems to suit some definitions of religion and spirituality prevailing within the academic studies of religion. Using Benthall’s methodology of analysis, it seeks to verify how far anthroposophy would deny its religious dimension, but nevertheless acts socially as a religion, which would characterize it as an implicit religion. Of the nineteen categories of analysis, fifteen were found distributed in the books we surveyed. This case is an example of the decline of the influence of religion in cultural spheres and can be seen as a possible pursuit for social legitimacy in response to a secular society, which treats knowledge derived from religious fields with suspicion.>>>
Fábio Leandro Stern
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Bianca de Fiori Milani
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Ricardo Martínez Esquivel
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Yván Pozuelo Andrés
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Ricardo Martínez Esquivel
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Yván Pozuelo Andrés
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José-Leonardo Ruiz Sánchez
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Michel Goulart da Silva
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Yván Pozuelo Andrés
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es: Este trabajo analiza la actividad de la logia América en una localidad de la Andalucía rural tendente a la extensión de la educación a aquellos que no tenían acceso a la cultura, a través de diversas instituciones patrocinadas por la propia masonería, como medio o instrumento para combatir los males que aquejaban a la población formando a ciudadanos que asegurasen su desarrollo.>>>en: The present paper analyzes the activity of the America lodge in a locality of rural Andalusia. It provided further education to those who were unable to have access to culture through diverse institutions sponsored by Freemasonry as a means or instrument to fight the misfortunes, which afflicted the population by training and educating citizens to ensure their development.>>>
Antonio Morales Benítez
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Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México
Sistema de Información Científica Redalyc ®
Versión 3.0 | 2017
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