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Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental
Revista Activa *
ISSN: 0188-4999
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Ciencias de la Tierra
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México



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La versión estable de Redalyc 3.0 se libera en febrero de 2017. En la actualidad, se muestran los resultados de la marcación de artículos científicos mediante la herramienta gratuita Marcalyc, liberada en su primera versión el 1ro de septiembre de 2016 y que está pensada como un elemento central en la construcción y consolidación de un modelo de AA sustentable para Iberoamérica.
en: The forestry industry and gold mining contribute to more than 80 % of the economy of the temperate ecoregion of Chihuahua, Mexico. The aim of this work was to assess the concentrations of some trace elements in water samples from the rivers and the springs in the surrounding environment of the gold-silver runner mining in the Ocampo district. It is located in the center-west of Chihuahua, Mexico. Water sampling was performed on rivers and springs, which are the main water supply sources for human consumption. Temperature, total dissolved solids, turbidity and pH parameters were measured , org.siir.client.entities.Italic@565aa0c5, . Some mayor (Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Li, Ni, Sb, Se, Cu, and Zn) were quantified by inductively coupled plasma of optical emission. The average of Ca concentration in water was higher in rivers than in springs, whereas Mg contents were only detected in river water. Trace elements measured in waters of river and spring were in decrease trend Ni ˃ Cu ˃ Zn ˃ Li > Se > Sb. The highest trace element concentrations were found in an area highly impacted by activities related to the mining. Most of trace elements concentrations assessed in this work were lower than limits for drinking water marked by Unites States Environmental Protection Agency and Mexican regulations. However, concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Zn obtained in water from rivers are higher than Canadian guidelines for protection of the aquatic life. Although, elemental concentrations determined here are below of the allowed limits, these studies are important because the water in this region have different uses such as human consumption, water supply to agricultural lands, and to industry.>>>
Karla Ozuky Chacón Chumacero
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Carmelo Pinedo Álvarez
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Marusia Rentería Villalobos
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en: In this study the concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in bottom sediment samples of the Puyango River and its tributaries with the goal to know the enrichment factors of these elements in the sediments. Bulk sediment samples were digested using the EPA method 3050B and then analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples for Hg determinations were digested with a mixture of HNO, org.siir.client.entities.Sub@3c81b50f, , HCl y KMNO, org.siir.client.entities.Sub@673154, and then analyzed by the cold-vapor generation technique. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in sediments were found in the sector located after the Calera-Amarillo rivers confluence. The high levels of heavy metals and the low concentrations of Al in the bottom sediments of this sector indicate that these riverine sediments are mainly composed by polymetallic mineral, which has been discharged from the ore processing plants after the gold extraction process. Sediments from the middle and lower Puyango River showed a severe contamination for Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn, and a moderate contamination for Co and Fe. The high concentrations of Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn and Fe in the sediments of these rivers can have adverse effects on aquatic biota, according to international guidelines.>>>
Diana Jumbo-Flores
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Max González-Merizalde
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Santos Amable Bermeo-Flores
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en: Herbicides are potential sources of pollution; water being one of the most vulnerable components of the environment. Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is the most widely used herbicide worldwide. Currently, the information on its effect on water is insufficient, mainly because of the high costs of lab tests. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of the ELISA technique as a quick tool for monitoring water quality and to quantify the concentration of glyphosate through the technique of UHPLC-MS/MS. When ELISA positive values determined glyphosate, quantificationby UHPLC-MS/MS technique is required to determine the exact concentration of glyphosate in the samples. The results suggest that the ELISA technique is feasible to be implemented in water monitoring programs, providing a screening method that allows detecting qualitatively the presence or absence of glyphosate.>>>
Enrique V. Paravani
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María C. SASAL
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Silvana M. SIONE
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Emmanuel A. GABIOUD
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José D. OSZUST
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Marcelo G. WILSON
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Luisina DEMONTE
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María R. REPETTI
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es: El presente estudio evaluó la capacidad de absorción y adsorción de cadmio y plomo (Cd y Pb) de Psudomonas aeruginosa y Enterobacter cloacae, identificadas mediante técnicas moleculares. Estas dos cepas fueron aisladas de efluentes residuales domésticos y adaptadas hasta concentraciones de 2.83 mg/L de cadmio y 17.4 mg/L de plomo. Para determinar la capacidad de remoción de Cd y Pb en estas especies, se realizaron cultivos de 24 h y se cuantificó la cantidad de metal adsorbido y absorbido en la biomasa celular mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Los resultados muestran que en ambas cepas el porcentaje de adsorción y absorción de Cd se encontró entre el 14.4 y 16.5 % de la concentración inicial, sin diferencias entre cepas. En el caso del Pb ambas cepas son eficientes, ya que los porcentajes retenidos por los dos procesos tanto en P. aeruginosa como en E. cloacae suman el 82.47 y 72.16 % de la concentración inicial, respectivamente. La absorción en la biomasa bacteriana resultó significativamente mayor en los cultivos de P. aeruginosa.>>>
Carolina Bojórquez
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Martín Gabriel Frías Espericueta
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Domenico Voltolina
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en: The weathered hydrocarbons are mainly constituted of highly persistent heavy petroleum fractions. Thus, the soil chemical complexity delays the hydrocarbon biodegradation. The objective of this study was to increase the bioavailability of highly persistent compounds by obtaining the greatest nutritional conditions for indigenous microorganisms. A consortium was previously adapted in order to achieve the full potential of degradation through the biostimulation process which was carried out by the Plackett-Burman analytic method experiments. These experiments conducted to a specific combination of nutrients, which provided the minimum requirements for the hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria to efficiently improve their metabolic processes. The biodegradation of hydrocarbons were estimated based on the heavy oil/kg dry soil, CO, org.siir.client.entities.Sub@6bffd1f2, production/kg dry soil, as well as the alteration of certain physicochemical characteristics, such as pH, EC (µS/cm), moisture and organic matter percentage. In conclusion, these analyses provide a contribution to the study of bioavailability of weathered hydrocarbons by controlling conditions in a nutrient biostimulation process and through the design of experiments. Likewise, a microbial consortium adapted to a 1 % concentration of Mayan crude, resulted in an up to 97 % increase in hydrocarbon degradation in the coastal weathered soil, which were expressed as a heavy fraction of hydrocarbons in a period of 28 days of degradation.>>>
Verónica Jiménez Hernández
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Ricardo Guerra Sánchez
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es: Las malezas acuáticas como Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (lirio acuático), pueden ser útiles en la elaboración de vermicompost. El vermicompost es el producto de la descomposición de desechos orgánicos por medio de los microorganismos del tracto digestivo de las lombrices. El objetivo de este trabajo fue utilizar el lirio acuático para obtener un vermicompost estable y maduro. Se realizaron tres tratamientos: uno con el 100 % de lirio acuático, el dos con 100 % de estiércol y el tres con 50 % lirio acuático y 50 % de estiércol, la lombriz utilizada fue Eisenia fetida Savigny. Los vermicompost se caracterizaron física, química y microbiológicamente, además se midieron índices de madurez y estabilidad, así como la concentración de metales. El índice de germinación se realizó con cuatro semillas diferentes: rábano (Raphanus sativus L.), lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.), pepino (Cucumis spp.) y calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L.). Los tres tratamientos resultaron ser estables y maduros después de 110 días de vermicompostaje con un índice de supervivencia de E. Fetida de 90 %, los vermicompost con lirio acuático y lirio acuático más estiércol tuvieron un pH y una conductividad eléctrica altos. El rábano mostró un buen desempeño en el índice de germinación, los tres vermicompost resultaron ricos en metales. Se concluye que el vermicompostaje es adecuado para el manejo del lirio acuático, debido a que se obtiene un vermicompost estable, maduro y rico en nutrientes, que puede utilizarse como fertilizante orgánico o mejorador de suelos.>>>
Dioselina Álvarez Bernal
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Marcos Alfonso Lastiri Hernández
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Héctor René Buelna Osben
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Silvia Maribel Contreras Ramos
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en: Air pollutants, especially particulate matter (PM) have been investigated as potential agents responsible for lung cancer. Several components of the PM such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can contribute to adverse health effects. Air pollution, along with the intake of contaminated foods, are the primary route of human exposure to PAHs. PAHs are generally suspected of being carcinogenic at some degree. Although the level is very low, the main health risk associated with PHAs, is its ability to induce cancer in exposed organisms. The vehicular transport is the largest and most important source of atmospheric emissions that contribute over 60 % of PAH emissions. The aim of this study was to determine the mutagenicity of PM2.5 samples, from the air in Villa del Rosario, Norte de Santander, Colombia and identify PAH. Identification was carried out by gas chromatography with FID detector. The mutagenic assays were performed by the Ames Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100.>>>
Iván Meléndez Gélvez
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Mónica Juliana Quijano Vargas
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Alfonso Quijano Parra
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en: In modern agriculture the emerging paradigm is to reduce or eliminate the use of synthetic agrochemicals that adversely impact the environment. Therefore, the use of natural products such as biological fertilization is now privileged. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chicken manure and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus intraradices, compared with inorganic fertilizer 120-90-00, on characteristics of squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) and its productivity, under greenhouse and field conditions. In greenhouse, the chicken manure and the AMF were applied at the rate of 3 and 5 g/pot, in field they were 0.5 kg/3.3 kg of seed and 3 t/ha, respectively. Chlorophyll index (SPAD), plant height, foliar and radical biomass, and mycorrhizal colonization were measured in the greenhouse. In field, 2012 and 2013, the variables evaluated were chlorophyll, plant height, diameter and weight of fruit, as well as yields. In addition, in 2013 foliar contents of P, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ca and Mg were determined. In greenhouse, in general, inorganic fertilizer, chicken manure and AMF, exceeded the absolute control group in all of variables evaluated. Treatments with AMF had an average of 59 % of mycorrhizal colonization. In field, the greatest chlorophyll values (37.8 SPAD), plant height (68.3 cm), weight of fruit (220 g) and yield (31.3 t/ha), were recorded in 2012, and they were associated with greater rainfall. Results of 2012 and 2013 indicated that larger plant height was recorded with inorganic fertilizer, although there were no significant differences between chicken manure, AMF and inorganic fertilizer for chlorophyll, diameter and weight of fruit, and total yield. Also, foliar contents of P, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ca and Mg, were similar in the same treatments. The results seem to indicate that chicken manure and AMF inoculation recorded in squash plant characteristics, fruit and yields, are comparable with that of mineral fertilization.>>>
Arturo Díaz Franco
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Manuel Alvarado Carrillo
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Florencia Alejandro Allende
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Flor Elena Ortiz Cháirez
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en: This work studied the use of waste from the breeding of broiler on different types of bedding material (straw or sawdust) and its mixture with two commercial peat substrates (black peat and Sphagnum peat). The aim of this study was to achieve the formulation of substrates for the production of ornamental plants, which would reduce the use of peat as the major substrate. Physical and hydrophysical characterization were carried out on two types of materials: manure from the breeding of broiler on straw and broiler on sawdust.Each material was mixed with black peat and Sphagnum peat at 0 and 10 % (v/v). In relation to the physical and hydrophysical properties of the substrates studied, results showed a low bulk density, a high porosity and excessive water retention. From the curve humidity to low suctions, it was found that the mixtures had a good aeration capacity. This aeration capacity of all of the mixtures was greater than 20, except for the substrate obtained by mixing 90 black peat and 10 broiler sawdust. Moreover the water easily usable and the water buffering capacity is poor in water and hardly usable water is very high. Finally, the R parameter (cm of water column height to which the parameter volumes of water and air are equal), show that these substrates have sufficient water easily usable.>>>
María del Mar DELGADO ARROYO
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Rosario MIRALLES DE IMPERIAL HORNEDO
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Alberto MASAGUER RODRÍGUEZ
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José Valero MARTÍN SÁNCHEZ
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es: El incremento en la demanda de agua para irrigación de cultivos requiere nuevas fuentes del recurso hídrico en el corto plazo. Una alternativa pueden ser las aguas subterráneas no convencionales, tal es el caso de las aguas producidas que son bombeadas a la superficie mezcladas con hidrocarburos en el proceso de perforación para la extracción de gas o petróleo. Por lo común, las aguas producidas generadas de esta manera se confinan en pozos no productivos o se utilizan para mantener la presión en los yacimientos de petróleo. Sin embargo, diversos estudios indican la posibilidad de utilizar dichas aguas en el sector industrial así como en los sectores agropecuario y forestal. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue recopilar información acerca del origen, composición, usos actuales y potenciales de las aguas producidas generadas por la industria extractora de petróleo, de utilidad en futuras investigaciones acerca de este recurso natural.>>>
José Fernando Martel-Valles
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Rahim Foroughbakchk-Pournavab
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Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza
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