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Revista Geográfica de América Central
Revista Activa *
ISSN: 1011-484X ISSN electrónico: 2215-2563
Semestral
Ciencias de la Tierra
Universidad Nacional
Costa Rica

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Lilliam Quirós Arias
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Consuelo Alfaro Chavarría
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es: Frente a un desastre, los gobiernos locales son los primeros que responden en ayuda de su comu- nidad. Sin embargo, no siempre cuentan con los recursos adecuados para desarrollar gestiones orientadas a la prevención y respuesta de eventos desastrosos. Así, se identificaron 25 comunas prioritarias para la Gestión del Riesgo de Desastres, de acuerdo con variables de físicas, sociales y económicas, considerando los eventos más frecuentes que causan impactos en la población. Esta priorización permitirá orientar las gestiones que realizan los servicios públicos en materias de re- ducción de riesgo de desastres, con la finalidad de realizar acciones eficaces, eficientes y oportunas.>>>en: In case of a disaster, local governments are the first to help his community. However, they do not always have adequate resources to develop efforts aimed at preventing and responding to disastrous events. Thus, 25 priority municipalities for Disaster Risk Management, according to physical, social, and economic variables, considering the most common events that cause impacts in the population were identified. This prioritization will guide the efforts made by public services in the areas of disaster risk reduction, in order to execute effective, efficient, and timely actions.>>>
Fabiola Barrenechea Riveros
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pt: O artigo apresenta uma análise histórico-geográfica da evolução do processo de urbanização no território brasileiro, enfocando suas relações com a globalização e as características dos princi - pais processos de exclusão social nele desencadeados. A urbanização é apreendida a partir das influências da economia globalizada, através da ação de empresas transnacionais e do Estado, na aceleração da industrialização e da modernização da agricultura no país, que impulsionaram o êxodo rural e a redistribuição territorial da população. A correlação entre inovações tecnológicas nos setores produtivos e a flexibilização/precarização do mercado de trabalho, a manutenção de velhas estruturas sociais e a fragilidade das políticas públicas de promoção da cidadania, agravou o cenário de desigualdade e exclusão social, com sua concentração em centros urbanos. Destaca-se a importância da ação estatal para a promoção de políticas que possam reduzir ou mesmo reverter o quadro social de exclusão no país.>>>en: This paper presents a historical and geographical analysis of the evolution of the urbanization process in Brazil, focusing on its relations with globalization and the characteristics of the main processes of social exclusion initiated during this process. The urbanization is understood from the influences of the global economy, by the action of transnational corporations and the State, in the acceleration of industrialization and of modernization of agriculture in the country, which fueled the rural exodus and the territorial redistribution of the population. The correlation between techno - logical innovations in productive sectors and the easing/casualization of labor market, maintenance of old social structures and the fragility of public policies to promote citizenship, worsened the sce - nario of inequality and social exclusion, with its concentration in urban centers. It emphasizes the importance of government action to promote policies that can reduce or even reverse the exclusion of membership in the country.>>>
Ederson Nascimento
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es: Esta investigación trata sobre la medición de la amigabilidad de la ciudad de Heredia con los ancia - nos a partir de cuatro variables; la calidad de los barrios, entendidos como el entorno inmediato de los ancianos, la calidad y el acceso a las áreas verdes en la ciudad, a la ciudad utilizando transporte público y a una serie de servicios urbanos básicos en la vida de los ancianos, cada una medida a través de indicadores simples y combinados. Los resultados muestran que la ciudad de Heredia tiene una amigabilidad apenas aceptable, con áreas con baja y mediana amigabilidad, fruto de un pobre acceso a áreas verdes, de altos niveles de ruido, de flujo vehicular y de algunos servicios con poca accesibilidad.>>>en: This research analyzes the measurement of the friendliness level of the city of Heredia regard - ing elders based on four variables: the quality of neighborhoods -understood as the immediate environment of the elderly, quality and access to green areas in the city, access to different parts of the city using public transportation, and access to a some urban services, each measured through simple and combined indicators. The results of the research show that the city of Heredia has a barely acceptable friendliness level -with areas of low and medium-friendliness, due to poor access to green areas, high noise levels, high traffic flows, and some services with poor accessibility.>>>
Marvin Alfaro Sánchez
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es: La práctica metodológica de Cartografía Social, es cada vez más frecuente en los espacios de inves- tigación e intervención tanto universitaria como social. Así, se plantea un ajuste en su instrumen - tación y una sistematización de la implementación con el propósito de colaborar con el estudio y aplicación de esta metodología. Paralelamente, se describe la aplicación de Cartografía Social en el Barrio Dunas de la ciudad de Pelotas, como experiencia de investigación-intervención desprendida del método cartográfico deleuziano. Se analizan los resultados obtenidos en función de esta meto - dología tanto desde las dinámicas territoriales; comunicacionales y grupales.>>>en: The methodological practice of Social Cartography is increasingly common in university and social areas of research and intervention. Therefore, adjusting its instrumentation and systematizing the implementation is suggested in order to contribute to the study and application of this methodology. At the same time, the application of Social Cartography in the neighborhood of Dunes in the city of Pelotas is described as an experience of research and intervention deduced from the Deleuze cartographic method. The results based on this methodology are analyzed from their territorial, communication, and group dynamics, as well as the arrangement of bodies in the productive work. The article emphasizes the productive nature of the collective experience, as a practice for the social transformation and the creation of new and alternative views about the geographic space.>>>
Juan Manuel Diez Tetamanti
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es: A pesar de la existencia de reportes históricos, recopilaciones, bases de datos e informes, no se dispone en el país de un estudio que sintetice y distribuya espacialmente la información sobre afectación históri- ca por amenazas naturales. Por medio de una compilación y georreferenciación de toda la información disponible sobre impactos por amenazas naturales en el cantón de Poás, fue posible construir indicado- res espaciales de afectación para los eventos registrados (caída de ceniza, gases volcánicos, terremotos, inundaciones y deslizamientos). Estos fueron estandarizados en cinco clases (muy baja, baja, moderada, alta y muy alta), con lo que se construyó un indicador de máxima afectación por eventos naturales histó- ricos para dicha unidad política-administrativa a partir de la sobreposición de los registros de desastres. El resultado de este estudio muestra una tendencia al incremento de las afectaciones por amenazas naturales de sur a norte, lo que es consecuente con la distribución de las lluvias, las pendientes, así como la proximidad con fuentes sísmicas y volcánicas. Un patrón distinto mostraron las inundaciones rápidas y los deslizamientos que se relacionan con la presencia de valles fluviales encañonados con fuertes pen - dientes en microcuencas alargadas y pequeñas sobre depósitos volcánicos recientes.>>>en: Despite the existence of historical reports, compilations, databases and reports in Costa Rica that sum- marize zones affected by natural hazards since colonial times, there is not well-located historical infor - mation available in the country. Through a compilation and georeferencing of all the available informa- tion regarding impacts of natural hazards that affected the Poas canton, it was possible to create spatial indicators of the recorded events (ash falling, volcanic gases, earthquakes, floods, and landslides). The different natural hazards were standardized in five classes (very low, low, moderate, high and very high), which allowed creating a maximum impact indicator overlapping the disaster records of Poas canton. The results of this study show a tendency to generate increased impact by natural hazards from south to north, which is consistent with the distribution of rainfall, slopes, and proximity to seismic and volcanic sources. These outcomes also showed a different pattern in flash floods and landslides related to the presence of river valleys with steep slopes in elongated and small basins on recent volcanic deposits.>>>
Gustavo Barrantes Castillo
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Adolfo Quesada Román
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en: The paper presents some new data to confirm the existence and activity of the Guane fault. This is an intraplate active structure of the Western Neotectonic Unit of Cuba with ~100 earthquakes. It has a maximum magnitude value of 6.2 for a time period of occurrence of ~130 years. The tectonic mechanism of intraplate readjustments through faults and block rotations are responsible for the earthquakes on 01-23-1880 (San Cristóbal, Pinar del Río), 12-16-1982 (Torriente - Jagüey Grande, Matanzas), and 03-09-1995 (Pedro Pí - San José de las Lajas, La Habana). These three earthquakes can be explained by the transpression process of the Caribbean and North American plates at Swan and Oriente fault zones, and the stress transmission toward the Cuban mega-block.>>>es: Se presentan nuevos datos que confirman la actividad de la falla Guane. Ésta es una estructura activa de interior de placa en la Unidad Neotectónica Occidental de Cuba con ~100. La magnitud máxima de los terremotos es 6.2 con periodo de recurrencia de ~130 años. El mecanismo tectónico de reajustes en el interior de la placa es a través de fallas y rotación de bloques, que producen te- rremotos como los de: 23.01.1880 (San Cristóbal, Cuba), 16.12.1982 (Torriente - Jagüey Grande, Matanzas) y 09.03.1995 (Pedro Pí - San José de las Lajas, La Habana). Esos 3 terremotos se pueden explicar a partir de procesos transpresivos de las placas Caribe y Norteamérica en las fallas Swan y Oriente, y de la transmisión de esfuerzos hacia el megabloque Cuba.>>>
Mario Octavio Cotilla Rodríguez
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es: El presente trabajo se refiere a la caracterización geomorfológica, morfoestructural y morfométrica de la región inmersa en la hoja 23 III D, localizada al Noreste de Colombia. La utilización de las técnicas de geoprocesamiento para la evaluación geomorfológica y morfoestructural, además de intentar reforzar las hipótesis levantadas en estudios anteriores, es considerada relevante, pues los productos generados son no - tables para así evidenciar de manera concisa la morfología del relieve, donde la influencia morfoestructural y tectónica en su configuración y disposición es demasiado fuerte. Las técnicas utilizadas en esta investiga - ción consistirán en la elaboración y análisis de las planchas hipsométrica, de inclinación de las pendientes y geomorfológica, perfiles topográficos y cálculos morfométricos. Los resultados obtenidos a partir de los análisis de los productos generados muestran que la configuración del relieve está vinculada a una fuerte influencia morfoestructural y tectónica, incompatibles con una evolución basada única y exclusivamente en los aspectos climáticos, además de una intensa erosión costera de influencia antrópica.>>>en: This study refers to the geomorphological, morphostructural and morphometric characterization of the onshore region of 23 III D chart, located in the Northeast of Colombia. Besides aiming at reinforcing the hypothesis raised by previous studies, the use of GIS techniques for geomorpho - logical and morphostructural evaluation is considered relevant because the products generated are remarkable to concisely highlight the morphology of the relief, where the morphostructural and tectonic influence in its configuration and arrangement is conspicuous. The techniques used in this study consisted of the preparation and analysis of the hypsometric and declivity charts, as well as the analysis of topographic profiles generated in this study. The results obtained from the analysis of the products showed that the configuration of the relief was linked to a strong morphostructural and tectonic influence, incompatible with an evolution based solely on climatic aspects, in addition to an intense coastal erosion of human influence.>>>
German Vargas Cuervo
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es: On 02-23-2015, an earthquake took place in the Iberian Peninsula megablock. This event is of the intraplate-type (Mw= 4,7 / h= 17 km) where there is a deformed morphotectonic zone. The epicen - ter and the normal and strike-slip solution focal mechanism were determined in the Albacete block -which has an uplifting tendency inside of the Albacete and Cuenca mesoblocks.>>>en: En el megabloque Península Ibérica ocurrió un terremoto (23.02.2015). El evento es del tipo de inte- rior de placa (Mw= 4,7 / h= 17 km), donde existe una zona de deformación morfotectónica. El epi- centro y el mecanismo focal del tipo normal y deslizamiento lateral, fueron determinados en el bloque Albacete. Este último con tendencia al levantamiento dentro de los mesobloques Albacete y Cuenca.>>>
Mario Octavio Cotilla Rodríguez
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Diego Córdoba Barba
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es: Se determinó la tasa de generación y caracterización de residuos sólidos ordinarios, en el sector re- sidencial y comercial de 04 municipios ubicados geográficamente dentro del Gran Área Metropoli - tana de Costa Rica. Para ello, en el período 2014-2015, se realizaron muestreos en un número repre- sentativo de viviendas y comercios durante 07 días consecutivos. La tasa de generación promedio ponderada de residuos para el área de estudio resultó ser de 0,59 kg/hab-día. Los residuos sólidos generados presentan como componentes mayoritarios: orgánicos 55,9%.>>>en: Generation rates and the characterization of ordinary solid waste were determined in the residential and commercial sectors of four municipalities in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. For this, a sampling was performed on a representative number of homes and businesses in the 2014-2015 period during seven days. The waste generation weighted average rate in the work area turned out to be 0.59 kg / inhabitants.-day. Solid waste generated presented as major components: organic 55.9%, followed by materials with high potential to be recycled or used as fuel (10.2% plastic, paper and cardboard 10.4%). The average moisture content in the waste was 58.7 mass% (mini - mum 54% in Alajuela and maximum 63% in Barva), of which up to 67% may be attributable to biodegradable organic waste. The average waste volumetric weight was 155 kg / m 3 (minimum of 141 in Belen and maximum of 163 in San Jose). Significant differences appear in the composition of commercial and residential waste, mainly regarding organic waste, paper, cardboard, and plastic.>>>
Jorge Herrera-Murillo
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José Félix Rojas-Marín
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Deivis Anchía-Leitón
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pt: O presente estudo teve como objetivo, realizar a detecção dos riscos de erosão e movimentos de massa no município de João Pessoa (PB), a partir de técnicas de geoprocessamento. Para isso, foram confeccionados mapas temáticos contendo informações referentes à cobertura do solo, de - clividade, exposição de vertentes e solos, gerados a partir de imagens do satélite OLI/Landsat e de cartas topográficas. A partir dessas informações foi possível observar que os riscos analisados são basicamente representados por erosões lineares e por desmonte nas encostas e terraços fluviais. Os resultados obtidos mostram uma série de riscos no cotidiano da população residente nessas áreas, merecendo ações que visem a mitigação ou extinção desses riscos. Entende-se assim, que esta temática carece da realização de estudos mais detalhados que ajudem na caracterização, previsão, monitoramento, recuperação e extinção desses problemas socioambientais.>>>en: This study aims at identifying the risks of erosion and mass movement in the city of João Pessoa (PB) by using geoprocessing techniques. To do this, thematic maps comprising information about soil covering, declivity, exposure of slopes and soils were generated from OLI/Landsat images and topographic charts. Based on this information, it was possible to observe that the analyzed risks are basically represented by linear erosion and by the dismantle on the slopes and river terraces. The results obtained show a series of risks in the day to day of the population living in these areas, thus requiring actions that may mitigate or extinct theses risks. Therefore, it is understood that this issue needs more detailed studies that may help in the characterization, prediction, monitoring, recover - ing, and extinction of theses socio-environmental problems.>>>
Saulo Roberto de Oliveira Vital
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Bruno Ferreira
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Osvaldo Girão
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Caio Lima dos Santos
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Fábio Carvalho Nunes
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Thyago de Almeida Silveira
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pt: O principal objetivo dessa pesquisa foi analisar a realidade socioeconômica da Comunidade Rural Fazenda do Povo de Ipiaú, Bahia, no contexto da sua sustentabilidade ambiental em relação à socioeconomia municipal e regional. Analisaram-se, para isso, indicadores socioeconômicos da região, do município de Ipiaú, e da comunidade. Os resultados apontaram situação positiva da comunidade no que se refere ao nível de escolaridade, comparando-se à realidade de outros as- sentamentos de reforma agrária; à questão da renda e da renda per capta; à baixa dependência de benefícios sociais do Governo; e à ocupação do trabalho. E apontaram como negativo a grande frequência de agroquímicos utilizados no manejo da produção.>>>en: The main objective of this research was to analyze the socioeconomic reality of the Rural Commu- nity Fazenda do Povo of Ipiaú, Bahia, in regards to municipal and regional socio-economy. There - fore, socioeconomic indicators in the region, the city of Ipiaú, and the community were analyzed. The results showed a positive situation of the community regarding schooling, compared to the reality of other settlements of agrarian reform; the issue of income and per capita income; the low dependence on government social benefits; and job covering. Besides, they showed how negative the high frequency of agrochemicals used in the management of production is.>>>
Nelma Lima Bruno
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Paulo César Bahia de Aguiar
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Christiana Cabicieri Profice
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Marcelo Inácio Ferreira Ferraz
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Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México
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Versión 3.0 | 2017
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