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en: The aim of this study was to evaluate twelve genotypes of common bean for intermittent drought stress and for root growth angle. The water deficit experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in a randomized block experimental design with split plots and three replications. Two treatments were applied: an irrigated treatment and a water deficit treatment, in which irrigation was suspended in pre-flowering and remained suspended up to the time at which the matrix potential of the soil was measured to be near –199 kPa. At the maximum point of water deficit, physiological and morphological traits were evaluated, and at physiological maturity, the yield compounds and grain yield. To evaluate root growth angle in 2016, a growth pouch system was used in a randomized block design, with five replications. Water deficit reduced genotype performance for all the traits except leaf temperature and first pod height. In relation to grain yield, the genotypes SEA 5 and Carioca Precoce performed better under water restriction conditions in both evaluations. The genotype Gen TS 4-7 performed better in the 2015 evaluation, and Gen TS 3-1 and Gen TS 3-3 in 2016. SEA 5, Gen TS 3-1, and Carioca Precoce had the highest harvest indexes in 2015; and Gen TS 3-1, Gen TS 3-2, Gen TS 3-3, Gen P5-4-3-1, IAPAR 81, Carioca Precoce, and SEA 5 in 2016. SEA 5 and Carioca Precoce had the best root growth angle and were considered sources of tolerance to water deficit.>>>
Tamires Ribeiro
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Daiana Alves da Silva
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José Antônio de Fátima Esteves
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Cleber Vinicius Giaretta Azevedo
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João Guilherme Ribeiro Gonçalves
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Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell
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Alisson Fernando Chiorato
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en: Potato cultivation is widespread around the world, being exposed to several abiotic stresses, including soils with high aluminum (Al) availability. Silicon (Si) is recognized for alleviating the stress caused by Al in various plant species. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of Si to mitigate the oxidative stress caused by Al in potato genotypes, exhibiting differential sensitivity toward this element. Plants of the Al-sensitive genotype (SMIJ319-7) and Al-tolerant genotype (SMIF212-3) were grown for two weeks in a hydroponic system with the nutrient solution containing combinations of Al (0 and 1.85 mM) and Si (0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). At the end of the experiment, photosynthetic parameters, pigment content, root and shoot growth, superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. In both potato genotypes Al inhibited root and shoot growth and decreased all photosynthetic parameters and superoxide dismutase activity. Silicon was able to partially alleviate the damage caused by Al in parameters of root growth in the Al-tolerant genotype while increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and mitigating the Al-induced damage to membrane lipids in roots and shoot in both genotypes. The Al-tolerant genotype showed greater water use efficiency and transpiration rate in control conditions as compared to the Al-sensitive genotype. These data indicate that Si application can improve the defense ability of the tested potato genotypes against Al toxicity and that the Al-tolerant genotype is more responsive to Si.>>>
Athos Odin Severo Dorneles
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Aline Soares Pereira
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Victória Martini Sasso
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Gessieli Possebom
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Camila Peligrinotti Tarouco
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Márcio Renan Weber Schorr
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Paulo Ademar Avela Ferreira
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Luciane Almeri Tabaldi
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en: The inoculation of sweet corn seeds with Azospirillum brasilense in association to nitrogen fertilizer may be an agronomic alternative for increasing the crop yield and net income of plant growers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the different doses of inoculant (Azospirillum brasilense) associated to the nitrogen fertilization management on the phenotypic traits of one sweet corn hybrid in summer growing periods, under supplemental irrigation, in the Northwestern Paraná state, Brazil. The experiment followed the complete randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were: i) five inoculant doses (0.0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mL∙ha–1) containing Azospirillum brasilense; ii) two N doses (0.0 and 30.0 kg∙ha–1) applied at sowing time; and iii) two topdressing doses of N (0.0 and 110.0 kg∙ha–1) applied at the V4 stage. The sweet corn hybrid RB 6324 was evaluated in 2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. The traits plant height (ranged from 2.11 to 2.26 m), leaf area index (3.33 to 4.32), crop yield (7.21 to 10.43 Mg.ha–1), and the sugar kernel contents (38.46 to 43.31%) and protein (12 to 12.81%) were positively influenced by the seed inoculation with A. brasilense, and the nitrogen fertilizer increased all the traits except the kernel total sugars. The dose of inoculant that provided the best agronomic result was 100 mL∙ha–1 in conjunction with the application of N either at sowing or topdressing.>>>
Alberto Yuji Numoto
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Pedro Soares Vidigal
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Carlos Alberto Scapim
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Antônio Augusto Nogueira Franco
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Alex Henrique Tiene Ortiz
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Odair José Marques
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Murilo Fuentes Pelloso
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en: Studies in the Amazon indicate a wide diversity of rhizobia with the ability for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which could expand the number of strains approved for cowpea. Thus, the aim of this field study was to evaluate the agronomic performance in cowpea of the several strains isolated from the soils of the Brazilian states Acre and Rondônia, and to compare them with strains approved by the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) and with non-inoculated controls (without and with mineral nitrogen fertilizer). The inoculants performed well. Though less effective than the other strains, the UFLA 03-36 strain also was prominent with respect to grain yield. Because of the positive response of the UFLA 03-129 strain, which led to yield increases greater than the obtained from the control without inoculation plus mineral-N, it can be recommended as an inoculum for cowpea. Further investigations should be carried out to obtain MAPA’s approval for their use. Other experiments involving this strain and several cultivars are being carried out on other types of soil and environmental conditions of the state of Minas Gerais.>>>
Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira
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João Paulo Andrade Rezende Pereira
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Dâmiany Pádua Oliveira
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Helson Mário Martins do Vale
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Ederson da Conceição Jesus
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André Luís de Lima Soares
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Cláudia de Oliveira Gonçalves Nogueira
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Messias José Bastos de Andrade
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Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira
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en: The aims of this study were to characterize black oat populations by estimating between- and within-populations variance components and genetic parameters, as well as to distinguish the populations using multivariable statistics. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks design with three repetitions, with 14 black oat populations collected in several municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state. Agronomic important traits were assessed at physiological maturation stage. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated considering within-block information. In addition, Mahalanobis distance, relative contribution of traits, and canonical variables were used to distinguish the populations. Selection based on panicle length, number of grains per panicle, panicle weight and panicle grain weight may result in higher selection gains. Panicle grain weight presents a greater contribution to genetic divergence between studied populations. The formation of distinct groups indicated the presence of genetic variability among black oat populations in the northwestern of the Rio Grande do Sul state. Directed crosses between individual plants of populations from (i) Alto Alegre and Salvador das Missões, Chapada, or Santa Rosa or (ii) between plants of populations from Salvador das Missões and Campos Borges or Santa Rosa can generate segregating populations with great genetic variability. The predominance of between-phenotypic variance and a within-genetic variance indicate prospects for success in selection gain and possible selection of a new cultivar with fewer efforts compared to a cross-based method. This is supported by the high values of within-population heritability.>>>
Maicon Nardino
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Luís Antônio Klein
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Ederson Duranti Moro
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Fabrício Fassini
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Volmir Sergio Marchioro
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Velci Queiróz de Souza
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en: Selection of hybrid coffee plants coming from crosses between divergent populations is particularly relevant for the success of breeding programs. This study aimed to outline the best selection strategy in a hybrid population of Coffea canephora var. kouilou and robusta by estimating intrapopulation genetic parameters. Twenty full-sib progenies obtained by North Caroline II were installed in a randomized complete blocks design, with one plant per elementary plot. The following traits were evaluated: vegetative vigor, reaction to rust, plant height, diameter of canopy projection, maturity time, and bean yield. Significant individual genotypic variance and heritability estimates lead to an effective selection. The multi-trait selection index carried out between progenies and at individual level provided 5% and 40% gain, respectively. Thus, intrapopulation selection in a hybrid population is a viable strategy for the selection of superior individuals to compose new crosses and clones for cultivars in the breeding program of C. canephora, even with unbalanced data.>>>
Humberto Fanelli Carvalho
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Felipe Lopes da Silva
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Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende
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Leonardo Lopes Bhering
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en: Water deficit is responsible for a negative impact on agricultural systems. Several physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes are initiated as a response to water-deficit stress. Quantifying the differential expression of the genes involved in the response to water-deficit stress plays a key role in the development of molecular strategies for engineering water-stress tolerance in plants. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the expression of key genes involved in the water-deficit response process in peach trees cv. Chimarrita grafted onto two different rootstocks. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments that correspond to the evaluation periods: day zero (control), the fourth, seventh, and ninth days of water-deficit stress. Leaf samples of each Chimarrita/rootstock combination were analyzed separately. The expression of the genes related to ethylene biosynthesis, osmotic adjustment, and carbohydrate metabolism, namely ACC oxidase, GTL, SDH, SIP1, SOT1, S6PDH, and P5CS was quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A differential response was observed in the expression of the SDH, GTL, P5CS, and SIP1 genes between Chimarrita/rootstock (Aldrighi 1 and Tsukuba 2) combinations. In both combinations of grafting, the S6PDH gene presented the highest level of expression at the fourth day of stress. These results show that genes related to carbohydrate and proline metabolism are important molecular markers to identify variability to water-deficit tolerance in Prunus persica.>>>
Leticia Neutzling Rickes
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Elsa Kuhn Klumb
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Letícia Carvalho Benitez
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Eugenia Jacira Bolacel Braga
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Valmor João Bianchi
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en: Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the most limiting factor to maize crop productivity in acid soils. Therefore, the understanding of inheritance of Al tolerance in maize is important for the development of more adequate procedures for Al tolerant genotypes selection. In this sense, the objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance, and the general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for Al tolerance in tropical maize. First, we evaluated diallel crosses of maize from landrace and hybrid germplasms for Al tolerance through the minimal solution methodology. The DIF data (root growth difference) were analyzed by Griffing diallel model. Later the additive-dominant genetic model proposed by Mather and Jinks (1971) was used to estimate the genetic effects. The results of the diallel analysis showed greater variability associated with the estimates of the SCA for both germplasm. The diallel crosses involving the V 06 (Dente de Ouro 2) landrace stood out by high SCA and GCA for Al tolerance. The generation mean analysis indicated quantitative inheritance of Al tolerance in this germplasm, with most of the variance explained by the additive effects. The heritability in the narrow sense varied from 47% to 71%, indicating the possibility of genetic gain with the selection of tolerant genotypes in F2 generation. Additive gene action associated with intermediate heritability and quantitative inheritance demonstrates the possibility of genetic gains with artificial selection for Al tolerance in this maize germplasm.>>>
Caroline de Jesus Coelho
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Renato Gustavo Hoffmann Bombardelli
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Guilherme Stalchmidt Schulze
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Eduard Fávero Caires
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Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello
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en: Cereal-legumes intercropping is among the most economical and effective agronomic strategies to boost forage biomass production, nutritional quality and monetary returns. This review synthesizes the research findings on how intercropping affects productivity, quality, competitiveness and economic viability of sorghum-legumes mixed, row and strip intercropping systems under varied pedo-climatic conditions. Though component crops show yield reductions in row (additive and row-replacement series), mixed (seed blended crops) and strip intercropping systems, in general overall productivity per unit land area increases to a great extent. The significantly higher resource capturing with better utilization efficacy by intercrops in temporal and spatial dimensions helps explain their greater productivity. In addition, forage intercrops result in improved nutritional quality as legumes contain protein in double quantity than cereals. Cereal-legumes intercropping systems yield higher quantities of lush green forage with improved quality traits, which ultimately increase monetary benefits. Furthermore, legumes inclusion as an intercrop with cereals has the potential to serve as a nitrogen-saving strategy due to the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) process. Moreover, cereal-legume intercropping systems are effective in reducing weed infestations and soil erosion by providing extended soil cover, as well as in increasing water use efficiency and improving soil fertility. However, despite a significant increase in overall productivity, component crops suffer yield losses in intercropping systems owing to competition for the finite divisible pool of growth resources. Thus, there is a dire need to optimize spatial and temporal arrangements in sorghum-legumes intercropping systems to achieve maximum productivity and economic returns.>>>
Muhammad Aamir Iqbal
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Muzammil Hussain Siddiqui
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Imtiaz Hussain
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en: In Brazil, the thrips (Enneothrips flavens Moulton) and rednecked peanutworm (Stegasta bosquella Chambers) are considered key pests for the peanut crop. Wild species show resistance to both of these pests, and can be used in breeding programs. The production of the sterile interspecific hybrids is necessary, which could be colchicine treated to get a synthetic amphidiploid with the same or similar genomic configuration of cultivated peanut. In this context, this study proposed the hybridization of wild pest-resistant species in 18 distinct combinations, obtaining the interspecific hybrids of Arachis and completing their characterization by (i) the reproductive characterization through pollen stainability with 2% acetocarmine (AC) solution with glycerin and 0.25% tetrazolium solution (TZ), (ii) the molecular certification of hybridization using microsatellite markers, and (iii) the morphological characterization using 61 morphological traits with Principal Component Analysis. Using reproductive, morphological and molecular characterizations, we identified six hybrid plants of the following crosses: three from A. magna V 13751 × A. kuhlmannii V 9243, two from A. magna V 13751 × A. kempff-mercadoi V 13250, and one from A. magna K 30097 × A. kuhlmannii V 7639. Amphidiploids can be reached based on these diploid plants and they can be used in breeding programs aiming pest resistance introgression.>>>
Ailton Ferreira de Paula
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Naiana Barbosa Dinato
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Bianca Baccili Zanotto Vigna
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Alessandra Pereira Fávero
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en: The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and medium-term effect of biochar on soil microbial properties, organic carbon and nitrogen in an Oxisol from Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design consisting of five levels of biochar (0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Mg∙ha–1) with and without of synthetic fertilizer: 0 and 200 kg.ha–1 of synthetic fertilizer N-P-K (00-20-20). The following soil properties were determined: microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial respiration (MR), metabolic quotient (qCO2) and microbial quotient (qMIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (TN). The MBC, qCO2 and carbon management index (CMI) were not altered by doses of fertilizer and biochar. The presence of biochar reduced the MBN by 11% and 5% with the application of 16 Mg∙ha–1 compared to control in the third and sixth year, respectively. The qMIC was reduced exponentially with the application of biochar, but was within normal limits as a proportion of total organic carbon. There was an increase in TOC and TN with the application of biochar. The use of biochar did not cause significant negative changes in soil microbial properties or contribute to carbon sequestration in the soil.>>>
Fabiano André Petter
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Luiz Fernando Carvalho Leite
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Diogo Milhomem de Machado
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Ben Hur de Marimon Júnior
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Larissa Borges de Lima
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Onã da Silva Freddi
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Ademir Sérgio Ferreira Araújo
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en: Description and prediction of water flow through unsaturated soils is necessary to understand their hydraulic properties, including soil water retention curve (SWRC). Many models have been developed for estimation of SWRC and many researchers compared water retention curve derived from these models with the measured values. In this paper, in addition to comparing measured and derived SWRC, a functional evaluation of SWRC for modeling of soil water movement was carried out using van Genuchten, Brooks-Corey, Campbell and Hutson-Cass models in three sites including Loamy sand, Loam and Clay loam soils. Therefore, the functional behavior of SWRC was quantitatively compared by applying mentioned SWRC to numerical code (HydroGeoSphere) to simulate soil profile drainage under steady-state and transient conditions. The agreement between simulated and measured free drainages values was evaluated using statistical criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), modified index of agreement (d’), modified coefficient efficiency (E’), and t-test. The results demonstrated that the van Genuchten model was slightly better than the other models for estimation of SWRC (MAE 0.014 – 0.016, E’ 0.80 – 0.87 and d’ 0.90 – 0.93) while according to t-test, it was found that the measured and estimated SWRC using various models did not differ significantly. Therefore, it is expected that the simulated free drainage using mentioned SWRC models did not differ significantly with observed values. But the results demonstrated that the simulated free drainage using Brooks-Corey model for Loamy sand soil and van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey models for Loam soil differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with measured values.>>>
Fatemeh Zakizadeh Abkenar
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Ali Rasoulzadeh
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en: The application of sewage sludge (SS) in agriculture is a practice used worldwide, and it is commonly applied in sugarcane to supply nutrients, with beneficial effects on crop productivity and soil; but SS can increase sorption and decrease desorption of herbicides. However, in tropical soils such as in Brazil, there are no studies regarding the behavior of pre-emergent herbicides, mainly aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione, in SS-amended soil. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of municipal SS applied in agriculture on the sorption–desorption of aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione in clay soil. Aminocyclopyrachlor (pyrimidine-2-14C-aminocyclopyrachlor) and mesotrione (cyclohexane-2-14C-mesotrione) sorption–desorption was evaluated using a batch equilibrium method. Soil was amended at 0% (control – unamended), 0.1%, 1%, and 10% (w∙w–1) of air-dried SS corresponding to 1.2, 12, and 120 t∙ha–1. The Freundlich Kf sorption values of aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione were similar for all treatments, ranging from 1.07 to 1.45 and 3.48 to 4.25 µmol (1–1/n) L1/n∙kg–1, respectively. Overall, the lowest Kd sorption value of these herbicides was reported for SS-amended soil (1%), while in the SS-amended soil (10%) it was higher than unamended soil. The H value for aminocyclopyrachlor was ~1 (no hysteresis) and for mesotrione was on average 0.4 (hysteresis occurring). In conclusion, the present study indicates that SS applied in any crop to supply nutrients can slightly affect the sorption–desorption of aminocyclopyrachlor and mesotrione, but this small difference does not affect the bioavailability of these herbicides for weed control.>>>
Kassio Ferreira Mendes
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Felipe Gimenes Alonso
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Tatiane Beatriz Mertens
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Marcelo Gomes de Oliveira
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Valdemar Luiz Tornisielo
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en: The objective of this research was to evaluate the changes of phenolics and antioxidant capacity of a ready-to-drink green tea beverage during short storage at commercial conditions. The total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu), total catechins (4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde) and total non-catechins (difference between total phenols and total catechins) were evaluated as part of phenolic analysis, while antioxidant capacity was evaluated by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical. At the beginning of the experiment, the levels of total phenols, total catechins and total non-catechins were 1220.69 ± 29.73, 636.94 ± 14.60 and 584.75 ± 15.12 milligrams of catechin per liter of sample, respectively; these values decreased to 674.38 ± 26.52, 424.54 ± 11.29 and 251.83 ± 37.81 milligrams of catechin per liter of sample, respectively, after nine days of storage. The losses of phenolics at the final day of the experiment were 44.67% in total phenols, 33.40% in total catechins and 56.93% in total non-catechins. The initial values of the DPPH antioxidant capacity were 3116.43 ± 90.91 micromoles of trolox equivalents per liter of sample and 66.09 ± 1.82 percentage of radical scavenging. These values decreased to 1288.86 ± 70.71 micromoles of trolox equivalents per liter of sample and 31.90 ± 2.44 percentage of radical scavenging after nine days of storage, which means a loss of 58.62% and 53.24%, respectively. The data obtained in this work give information to the ready-to-drink green tea consumers, manufacturers and food researchers about loss of compounds with beneficial health effects during short storage of green tea at commercial conditions.>>>
Vania Urías-Orona
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Guillermo Niño-Medina
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en: Regional climate models (e.g. Eta) nested to global climate models (e.g. HadGEM2-ES and MIROC5) have been used to assess potential impacts of climate change at regional scales. This study used the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) to evaluate the ability of two nested models (Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5) to assess the probability of daily extremes of air temperature and precipitation in the location of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Within a control run (1961-2005), correction factors based on the GEV parameters have been proposed to approach the distributions generated from the models to those built from the weather station of Campinas. Both models were also used to estimate the probability of daily extremes of air temperature (maximum and minimum) and precipitation for the 2041-2070 period. Two concentration paths of greenhouse gases (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) have been considered. Although both models project changes to warmer conditions, the responses of Eta-Hadgem2-ES to both RCPs are significantly larger than that of Eta-Miroc5. While Eta-Hadgem2-ES suggests the location of Campinas will be free from agronomic frost events, Eta-Miroc5 indicates that air temperature values equal to or lower than 5 and 2 °C are expected to present a cumulative probability of ~0.20 and ~0.05, respectively (RCP 8.5). Moreover, while the EtaMiroc5 projected a reduction in the extreme-precipitation amounts, the Eta-Hadgem2-ES projected implausible large daily precipitation amounts. The Eta-Miroc5 performed better than the Eta-Hadgem2-ES for assessing the probability of air temperature and precipitation in Campinas. This latter statement holds particularly true for dailyextreme precipitation data.>>>
Mariana Fontolan
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Ana Carolina Freitas Xavier
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Heloisa Ramos Pereira
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Gabriel Constantino Blain
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Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México
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